Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Understand cloud concepts (15-20%)
Describe the benefits and considerations of using cloud services
 understand terms such as high availability, scalability, elasticity, agility, fault tolerance, and disaster recovery
 understand the principles of economies of scale
 understand the differences between Capital Expenditure (CapEx) and Operational Expenditure (OpEx)
 understand the consumption-based model

Describe the differences between Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
 describe Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
 describe Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)
 describe Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
 compare and contrast the three different service types

Describe the differences between public, private and hybrid cloud models
 describe public cloud
 describe private cloud
 describe hybrid cloud
 compare and contrast the three different cloud models

Understand core Azure services (30-35%)
Understand the core Azure architectural components
 describe Regions
 describe Availability Zones
 describe Resource Groups
 describe Azure Resource Manager
 describe the benefits and usage of core Azure architectural components

Describe some of the core products available in Azure
 describe products available for Compute such as Virtual Machines, Virtual Machine Scale Sets, App Service Functions, Azure Container Instances (ACI) and Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)
 describe products available for Networking such as Virtual Network, Load Balancer, VPN Gateway, Application Gateway and Content Delivery Network
 describe products available for Storage such as Blob Storage, Disk Storage, File Storage, and Archive Storage
 describe products available for Databases such as Cosmos DB, Azure SQL Database, Azure Database for MySQL, Azure Database for PostgreSQL, Azure Database Migration service
 describe the Azure Marketplace and its usage scenarios Describe some of the solutions available on Azure
 describe Internet of Things (IoT) and products that are available for IoT on Azure such as IoT Hub and IoT Central
 describe Big Data and Analytics and products that are available for Big Data and Analytics such as SQL Data Warehouse, HDInsight, and Azure Databricks
 describe Artificial Intelligence (AI) and products that are available for AI such as Azure Machine Learning Service and Studio
 describe Serverless computing and Azure products that are available for serverless computing such as Azure Functions, Logic Apps, and Event Grid
 describe DevOps solutions available on Azure such as Azure DevOps and Azure DevTest Labs
 describe the benefits and outcomes of using Azure solutions
Understand Azure management tools
 understand Azure tools such as Azure Portal, Azure PowerShell, Azure CLI and Cloud Shell
 understand Azure Advisor

Understand security, privacy, compliance, and trust (25-30%)
Understand securing network connectivity in Azure
 describe Network Security Groups (NSG)
 describe Application Security Groups (ASG)
 describe User Defined Rules (UDR)
 describe Azure Firewall
 describe Azure DDoS Protection
 choose an appropriate Azure security solution
Describe core Azure Identity services
 understand the difference between authentication and authorization
 describe Azure Active Directory
 describe Azure Multi-Factor Authentication
Describe security tools and features of Azure
 describe Azure Security Center
 understand Azure Security Center usage scenarios
 describe Key Vault
 describe Azure Information Protection (AIP)
 describe Azure Advanced Threat Protection (ATP)
Describe Azure governance methodologies
 describe policies and initiatives with Azure Policy
 describe Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
 describe Locks
 describe Azure Advisor security assistance
 describe Azure Blueprints
Understand monitoring and reporting options in Azure
 describe Azure Monitor
 describe Azure Service Health
 understand the use cases and benefits of Azure Monitor and Azure Service Health
Understand privacy, compliance and data protection standards in Azure
 understand industry compliance terms such as GDPR, ISO and NIS
 understand the Microsoft Privacy Statement
 describe the Trust center
 describe the Service Trust Portal
 describe Compliance Manager
 determine if Azure is compliant for a business need
 understand Azure Government cloud services
 describe Azure China cloud services

Understand Azure pricing and support (20-25%)
Understand Azure subscriptions
 describe an Azure subscription
 understand the uses and options with Azure subscriptions such access control and offer types
 understand subscription management using Management groups
Understand planning and management of costs
 understand options for purchasing Azure products and services
 understand options around Azure Free account
 understand the factors affecting costs such as resource types, services, locations, ingress and egress traffic
 understand Zones for billing purposes
 understand the Pricing calculator
 understand the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) calculator
 understand best practices for minimizing Azure costs such as performing cost analysis, creating spending limits and quotas, using tags to identify cost owners, using Azure reservations and using Azure Advisor recommendations
 describe Azure Cost Management
Understand the support options available with Azure
 understand support plans that are available such as Dev, Standard, Professional Direct and Premier
 understand how to open a support ticket
 understand available support channels outside of support plan channels
 describe the Knowledge Center
Describe Azure Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
 describe a Service Level Agreement (SLA)
 understand Composite SLAs
 understand how to determine an appropriate SLA for an application
Understand service lifecycle in Azure
 understand public and private preview features
 understand the term General Availability (GA)
 understand how to monitor feature updates and product changes



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug