Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Certification-Board BCBA : Board Certification in Business Valuation (BCBA) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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BCBA test Format | BCBA Course Contents | BCBA Course Outline | BCBA test Syllabus | BCBA test Objectives

Test Details:
- test Name: Certification-Board BCBA Board Certification in Business Valuation (BCBA)
- test Format: Multiple-choice questions
- test Duration: 4 hours
- Passing Score: Varies (set by the Certification Board)
- Prerequisites: Minimum education and experience requirements set by the Certification Board
- Certification Validity: Valid for a specified period, typically 3-5 years

Course Outline: Certification-Board BCBA Board Certification in Business Valuation (BCBA)

I. Business Valuation Framework
A. Introduction to business valuation
- Purpose and scope of business valuation
- Roles and responsibilities of business valuation professionals
- Standards and guidelines for business valuation

B. Valuation approaches and methods
- Income approach
- Market approach
- Asset approach
- Discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis
- Multiples analysis

C. Valuation standards and guidelines
- International Valuation Standards (IVS)
- American Society of Appraisers (ASA) standards
- Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP)

II. Financial Statement Analysis
A. Understanding financial statements
- Balance sheet
- Income statement
- Cash flow statement
- Statement of shareholders' equity

B. Financial ratios and analysis techniques
- Liquidity ratios
- Solvency ratios
- Profitability ratios
- Efficiency ratios

C. Adjustments and normalization of financial statements
- Non-recurring items
- Extraordinary items
- Non-operating items
- Other adjustments for valuation purposes

III. Valuation of Tangible Assets
A. Valuation of real estate
- Methods for valuing real property
- Considerations for real estate appraisals

B. Valuation of machinery and equipment
- Cost approach
- Income approach
- Market approach

C. Valuation of inventory and other tangible assets
- Methods for valuing inventory
- Treatment of tangible assets in business valuation

IV. Valuation of Intangible Assets
A. Valuation of intellectual property
- Patents, copyrights, and trademarks
- Royalty rate analysis
- Relief from royalty method

B. Valuation of customer relationships
- Customer retention analysis
- Multi-period excess earnings method

C. Valuation of brand and reputation
- Brand valuation methods
- Brand equity analysis

V. Business Valuation Report
A. Writing a comprehensive valuation report
- Report structure and organization
- Key sections and content requirements
- Articulating valuation conclusions and rationale

B. Presenting valuation findings and conclusions
- Effective communication of valuation results
- Presenting complex valuation concepts to stakeholders

C. Ethical considerations in business valuation
- Confidentiality and data security
- Independence and objectivity
- Conflicts of interest

Exam Objectives:
- Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of business valuation concepts, approaches, and methods
- Apply financial statement analysis techniques for valuation purposes
- Evaluate and determine the value of tangible and intangible assets
- Prepare a comprehensive business valuation report in accordance with industry standards
- Adhere to ethical standards and professional conduct in the field of business valuation

The syllabus for the Certification-Board BCBA Board Certification in Business Valuation (BCBA) course covers the following courses in detail:

Module 1: Business Valuation Framework
- Introduction to business valuation
- Valuation approaches and methods
- Valuation standards and guidelines

Module 2: Financial Statement Analysis
- Understanding financial statements

- Financial ratios and analysis techniques
- Adjustments and normalization of financial statements

Module 3: Valuation of Tangible Assets
- Valuation of real estate
- Valuation of machinery and equipment
- Valuation of inventory and other tangible assets

Module 4: Valuation of Intangible Assets
- Valuation of intellectual property
- Valuation of customer relationships
- Valuation of brand and reputation

Module 5: Business Valuation Report
- Writing a comprehensive valuation report
- Presenting valuation findings and conclusions
- Ethical considerations in business valuation

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If an ISA CAP® or CCST® applicant feels he/she was wrongly denied certification, original or renewal, from the CAP or CCST program, then he/she has the right to appeal.

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All appeals shall be in writing.

  • The notice of appeal must be delivered to the Certification Board, addressed to the attention of the ISA Executive Director, by the close of business on the 21st day after the receipt date of the notice of denied certification.
  • The appeal should include the date the notice of denied certification was received and must state the reasons the applicant believes the denied certification was in error.
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  • The party requesting the deposition will pay for the cost connected with taking the deposition.
  • The applicant will be notified of the result of the Review Panel within 30 days of the meeting.

    Final Review
  • If the Review Panel makes a decision adverse to the applicant, the applicant may appeal to the full Certification Board for a final review by the close of business on the 21st day after the notice of decision is issued. Such appeal shall follow the same procedures as the initial appeal to the extent possible with the Chair of the Board serving as the Chair of the Final Review Panel. The Chair will once again select a three-member panel, one of whom shall be himself, to become the Review Panel, and the final vote in the event of a tie during the ruling shall be his.
  • If the applicant does not petition the Board for review or request a hearing before the Board regarding the recommendation of rejection of the application within the time allowed by these rules, the original decision by the Review Panel shall stand.

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    The Certification Program is administered by the Board of Professional Certification, which is responsible for:

  • Establishing a procedure for critical peer evaluation based upon defined minimum education, experience and ethical standards,
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  • Censuring, suspending, and revoking
  • Composition
  • Chair: The Board of Professional Certification shall elect from its membership a Chair, who shall serve a one-year term and may be re-elected for additional consecutive
  • Members: 7 members elected by ESA’s Each nominee for the Board of Professional Certification must be a certified Ecologist. Each Board member shall serve a three-year term and is eligible for re-election to one additional consecutive term.
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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug