Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : BCCPP
Exam Name : Blue Coat Certified Proxy Professional
Vendor Name : BlueCoat
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Exam: BCCPP Blue Coat Certified Proxy Professional

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The test consists of approximately 70 multiple-choice and scenario-based questions.
- Time: Candidates are given 90 minutes to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The BCCPP Blue Coat Certified Proxy Professional course is designed to validate professionals' knowledge and skills in advanced configuration and troubleshooting of Blue Coat ProxySG appliances. The course covers the following topics:

1. ProxySG Architecture and Deployment
- Overview of ProxySG architecture and components
- ProxySG deployment scenarios and best practices
- ProxySG management interfaces and access methods
- ProxySG security features and policies

2. ProxySG Configuration and Administration
- Advanced configuration of ProxySG services and interfaces
- Configuring access control policies and authentication realms
- Implementing SSL interception and decryption
- Configuring transparent proxy and reverse proxy

3. Content Filtering and Web Security
- Advanced URL filtering and web categorization
- Web application control and bandwidth management
- Configuring anti-malware and antivirus features
- Enforcing data loss prevention (DLP) policies

4. ProxySG Performance Optimization
- Advanced caching and content delivery optimization
- Bandwidth management and QoS configuration
- HTTP compression and object caching techniques
- Performance monitoring and troubleshooting

5. ProxySG High Availability and Management
- Configuring ProxySG for high availability and failover
- Load balancing and link redundancy
- ProxySG reporting and logging
- ProxySG management using the Management Center

Exam Objectives:
The test aims to assess candidates' understanding and proficiency in the following areas:

1. In-depth knowledge of ProxySG architecture and deployment scenarios
2. Proficiency in advanced configuration and administration of ProxySG
3. Expertise in content filtering, web security, and data loss prevention on ProxySG
4. Ability to optimize ProxySG performance and troubleshoot issues
5. Competence in ProxySG high availability and management

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus covers the following topics:

- ProxySG Architecture and Deployment
- ProxySG architecture and components
- ProxySG deployment scenarios and best practices
- ProxySG management interfaces and access methods
- ProxySG security features and policies

- ProxySG Configuration and Administration
- Advanced configuration of services and interfaces
- Access control policies and authentication realms
- SSL interception and decryption
- Transparent proxy and reverse proxy

- Content Filtering and Web Security
- Advanced URL filtering and web categorization
- Web application control and bandwidth management
- Anti-malware and antivirus configuration
- Data loss prevention (DLP) policies

- ProxySG Performance Optimization
- Advanced caching and content delivery optimization
- Bandwidth management and QoS configuration
- HTTP compression and object caching
- Performance monitoring and troubleshooting

- ProxySG High Availability and Management
- High availability and failover configuration
- Load balancing and link redundancy
- Reporting and logging
- ProxySG management using the Management Center

Candidates are expected to have a comprehensive understanding of these courses to successfully pass the test and demonstrate their proficiency as a Blue Coat Certified Proxy Professional according to the BCCPP certification standards.



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BlueCoat Coat Practice Test

 

Calculus Readiness Test Practice Test

The questions that follow are designed to make prospective students aware of the mathematics background required for those intending to take one of the SFU Calculus courses: MATH 150, 151, 154 or 157. The real test will cover the same concepts as this practice test does, but the questions will be different. For more information about the expectations, read Calculus Readiness Test Assessment Topics.

If you do not achieve a passing score on the real test, they recommend that you enroll in Math 100 course, Precalculus.

Treat the Practice Calculus Readiness Test as a learning experience: if your answer to a question is incorrect, make sure that you understand the concept the question is related to before attempting the real test.

You should be aware of the following conditions when you attempt this practice test:

  • To be admitted to MATH 151, you must answer at least 24 questions out of the 30 questions correctly (on the real test, not the practice test). For the other Calculus courses, the passing score is 20. The practice test does not keep track of your success rate - you will have to keep track of it yourself.
  • You may take as much time as you like to complete the practice test. However, the real test will be timed: you will have 1.5 hour for completion of the test.
  • On the practice test, you will be allowed multiple attempts at each question. On the real test, you will be allowed to attempt each question only once.
  • You may take the practice test as many times as you wish. However, you will be allowed to take the real test only once.
  • You will have to write the real test in person at the SFU Burnaby campus, and you will have to book a specific time to take it. You will not be permitted to bring any electronic devices to the test, but the software you will be using will allow you to use a basic four-function calculator if you wish to do so.

  • Duchess Sophie is glowing in eye-catching coat and suede boots

    Duchess Sophie ensured all eyes were on her when she slipped into Westminster Abbey to attend the Princess of Wales' 'Together at Christmas' carol concert on Friday.

    Putting on a fashionable display in a bright cornflower blue coat by go-to designer Suzannah London, Prince Edward's wife got into the festive spirit in style. The 58-year-old royal mum-of-two looked beautiful in her statement outwear, layered over a high-neck midi dress crafted out of soft wool.

    WATCH: Princess Kate leads the arrivals at Together at Christmas Carol concert

    She added some extra height to her frame thanks to a pair of brown, chunky-heeled boots in a stylish suede material from Gianvito Rossi. The Duchess of Edinburgh wore her blonde hair pinned back from her face, a style departure for the mother of Lady Louise Windsor and James, Earl of Wessex.

    Her makeup was given a festive upgrade thanks to a dewy foundation, a glossy lip and a liberal dusting of rose blusher.

    The Duchess of Edinburgh flashed a beaming smile and a big wave as she arrived at Westminster Abbey in style

    Sophie's look was remarkably similar to last year's outing, which saw her rocking a cream knitted dress and a matching coat in a soft shade of beige.

    The standout from her look was a pair of brown leather boots with a killer heel, injecting a pop of festive glamour to her winter wonderland chic attire.

    Duchess Sophie completed her look with a pair of brown suede boots and a matching leather bag

    Of course, Princess Kate was the belle of the ball, opting for a symbolic all-white look for her moment in the spotlight alongside husband Prince William and her children Prince George, Princess Charlotte and Prince Louis.

    A Kensington Palace spokesperson told HELLO! ahead of the concert:  "The Princess has been working hard behind the scenes to make sure this year’s Carol Service will be a moment to thank all those who work so hard to support babies, young children and families in their communities across the UK.

    The royal looked amazing in a bright blue coat to attend the Together At Christmas event

    "Since launching her Shaping Us campaign in February she’s been shining a light on just how important the first five years are in a baby’s life.

    "This year’s carol service will be a celebration of the golden opportunity that the birth of a new baby brings, and she can’t wait to welcome guests to the Abbey."

    Princess Kate led the arrivals in a symbolic, head-to-toe white look

    The Westminster Abbey choir will perform popular carols, alongside musical performances by the likes of Jacob Collier, Freya Ridings and James Bay, and a special duet by Beverley Knight and Adam Lambert.

    PHOTOS: Royals in epic Christmas jumpers: From Princess Kate to Duchess Sophie 

    Readings will be given by speakers including the Prince of Wales, Micheal Ward, Emma Willis, Roman Kemp, and Jim Broadbent, while a specially commissioned poem written by Joseph Coelho, the Children’s Laureate, will be read by Leonie Elliott.

    LISTEN: A Right Royal Podcast: Saying goodbye to The Crown


    Kate Middleton Paired Princess Diana’s Earrings With a Stunning Blue Coat for Christmas Service

    Kate Middleton leaned into blue monochrome with this year’s outfit for Christmas day service in Sandringham.

    The Princess of Wales appeared with her family, wearing a navy Alexander McQueen coat, a Juliette millinery hat, and matching Gianvito Rossi heeled boots. She carried an Emmy London clutch. But the most striking part of her outfit was her sapphire and diamond earrings, which were the late Princess Diana’s. Kate wore her hair half-up, half-down, so the earrings were shown prominently.

    Kate held hands with her daughter Princess Charlotte in some photos. Charlotte complemented her in an olive green coat.

    the british royal family attend the christmas morning service

    Samir Hussein //Getty Images

    the british royal family attend the christmas morning service

    Stephen Pond//Getty Images

    the british royal family attend the christmas morning service

    Mark Cuthbert//Getty Images

    princess diana in the earrings

    Princess Diana in the earrings

    Tim Graham//Getty Images

    Kate and her husband Prince William shared a photo of their children on Instagram today and passed along a personal message. “Wishing everyone a very Merry Christmas, from their family to yours! W & C,” they wrote.

    Earlier this month, royal reporter and Endgame author Omid Scobie spoke to ELLE.com about how Kate has been changing her image. “I think Kate’s in a really interesting position because in many ways, she’s the last main attraction in terms of the guaranteed crowd-puller, the guaranteed front page, the attraction within the royal family when it comes to all the glamour and mystique and mystery that comes with the Firm,” he started. “She does a good job of maintaining that, too. They still know very little about her, they don’t really know her thoughts or feelings on much beyond the early years, but I think that they have seen an evolution in Kate.”

    He added that shift is visible in both her style and attitude at events. “With Kate, we’ve seen these small changes in her character and her approach to work but also just in her demeanor, her confidence, even her appearance,” he said. “I’m no style expert particularly with royal style, but they have seen a change even in her working wardrobe.

    “We have seen an evolution in her on all fronts, but I also feel that there’s a huge amount of pressure on her moving forward ... being kind of the last shiny thing in the royal family. That’s a huge amount of pressure for someone who has, so far, carried out much less engagements than any other member of the royal family. Who, although they don’t ever say it, is technically a part-time working royal.

    “She’s only human, so are the expectations too high for her? It’s going to be very interesting to see how that plays out over the years ahead as the children get older and William and Kate take footsteps closer towards their time as king and queen,” he finished.

    Headshot of Alyssa Bailey

    Alyssa Bailey is the senior news and strategy editor at ELLE.com, where she oversees coverage of celebrities and royals (particularly Meghan Markle and Kate Middleton). She previously held positions at InStyle and Cosmopolitan. When she's not working, she loves running around Central Park, making people take #ootd pics of her, and exploring New York City.


     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug