Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : BEC
Exam Name : CPA Business Environment and Concepts
Vendor Name : AICPA
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BEC test Format | BEC Course Contents | BEC Course Outline | BEC test Syllabus | BEC test Objectives


Business Environment and concept section is treated as one of the most challenging exams because of its extensive material and it deals with business and economic concepts. The CPA BEC section will help you to move one step further in business knowledge and help them apply the knowledge in real-world scenarios.

Business Environment and concepts covers:

Business environment in general, and its core concepts.
Foundational grounding in accounting and are exposed to underlying reasons for accounting implications Financial management information technology, and business strategies in addition to accounting concepts.
Economic concepts, financial management, information systems and communications, strategic planning and operations management. Testing to determine different business strategies with their knowledge in strategic planning and market risks.
Making financial decisions, forecasting trends in the market, and understanding internets implication in business.

Topic Percentage
Corporate Governance 16% – 20%
Economic Concepts and Analysis 16% – 20%
Financial Management 19% – 23%
Information Systems and Communications 15% – 19%
Strategic Planning 10% – 14%
Operations Management 12% – 16%

BEC1 Business Environment and Concepts (BEC)
BEC2 Section introduction
BEC6 Summary blueprint
BEC7 Area I — Corporate Governance
BEC9 Area II — Economic Concepts and Analysis
BEC11 Area III — Financial Management
BEC13 Area IV — Information Technology
BEC16 Area V — Operations Management

The Business Environment and Concepts (BEC) section of the Uniform CPA Exam (the Exam) tests knowledge and skills that a newly licensed CPA must demonstrate when performing:
• Audit, attest, accounting and review services
• Financial reporting
• Tax preparation
• Other professional responsibilities in their role as certified public accountants
The content areas tested under the BEC section of the test encompass five diverse subject areas. These content areas are corporate governance, economic concepts and analysis, financial management, information technology and operations management. Reference materials relevant to the BEC section of the Exam are included under References at the conclusion of this introduction.
Content organization and tasks
The BEC section blueprint is organized by content AREA, content GROUP and content TOPIC. Each group or course includes one or more representative TASKS that a newly licensed CPA may be expected to complete when performing audit, attest, accounting and review services, financial reporting, tax preparation or other professional responsibilities.
The tasks in the blueprint are representative. They are not intended to be (nor should they be viewed as) an all-inclusive list of tasks that may be tested in the BEC section of the Exam. Additionally, it should be noted that the number of tasks associated with a particular content group or course is not indicative of the extent such content group, course or related skill level will be assessed on the Exam. Similarly, examples provided within the task statements should not be viewed as all-inclusive.

Area II of the BEC section blueprint covers several courses related to Economic Concepts and Analysis, including the following:
• Knowledge of economic concepts and analysis that would demonstrate an understanding of the impact of business cycles on an entitys industry or business operation
• Determining market influences on the business environment, such as globalization
• Determining the business reasons for, and the underlying economic substance of, transactions and their accounting implications
• Understanding financial risks and the methods for mitigating the impact of these risks
Area III of the BEC section blueprint covers several courses related to Financial Management, including the following: • Assessing the factors influencing a companys capital structure, such as risk, leverage, cost of capital, growth rate, profitability, asset structure and loan covenants
• Calculating metrics associated with the components of working capital, such as current ratio, quick ratio, cash conversion cycle, turnover ratios
• Determining the impact of business decisions on working capital
• Understanding commonly used financial valuation and decision models and applying that knowledge to assess assumptions, calculate the value of assets and compare investment alternatives Area IV of the BEC section blueprint covers several courses related to Information Technology (IT), including the following:
• Understanding the role of IT and systems, including the use of data in supporting business decisions.
• Identifying IT-related risks associated with an entitys information systems and processes, such as processing integrity, protection of information and system availability, including those risks introduced by the relationships with third-parties.
• Identifying application and IT general control activities, whether manual, IT dependent or automated, that are responsive to IT-related risks, such as access and authorization controls, system implementation testing and incident response plans.
Area V of the BEC section blueprint covers several courses related to Operations Management, including the following:
• Understanding business operations and use of quality control initiatives and performance measures to Strengthen operations
• Application of cost accounting concepts and use of variance analysis techniques
• Utilizing budgeting and forecasting techniques to monitor progress and enhance accountability
The test focuses on testing higher order skills. Based on the nature of the task, each representative task in the BEC section blueprint is assigned a skill level.
BEC section considerations related to the skill levels are discussed below.
• Remembering and Understanding is tested in all five areas of the BEC section.
Remembering and understanding tasks focus on the knowledge necessary to demonstrate an understanding of the general business environment and business concepts, such as those involving enterprise risk management.
• Application is also tested in all five areas of the BEC section. Application tasks focus on general courses such as those found in the subjects of economics and information technology, and the day-to-day financial management tasks that newly licensed CPAs perform, such as those involving calculations involving ratios, valuation and budgeting.
• Analysis skills, tested in Areas II, III and V involve tasks that require a higher level of analysis and interpretation. These tasks, such as comparing investment alternatives using calculations of financial metrics, financial modeling, forecasting and projection, frequently require newly licensed CPAs to gather evidence to support inferences.
The representative tasks combine both the applicable content knowledge and the skills required in the context of the work that a newly licensed CPA would reasonably be expected to perform. The BEC section does not test any content at the Evaluation skill level as newly licensed CPAs are not expected to demonstrate that level of skill in regards to the BEC content.
References — Business Environment and Concepts • The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO):
– Internal Control – Integrated Framework
– Enterprise Risk Management – Integrating with Strategy and Performance
– COSO-issued application material, thought papers and guides related to the above frameworks
• Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002:
– Title III, Corporate Responsibility
– Title IV, Enhanced Financial Disclosures
– Title VIII, Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability
– Title IX, White-Collar Crime Penalty Enhancements
– Title XI, Corporate Fraud Accountability
• Current business periodicals
• Current textbooks on:
– Accounting Information Systems
– Budgeting and Measurement
– Corporate Governance
– Economics
– Enterprise Risk Management
– Finance
– Management
– Management Information Systems
– Managerial Accounting
– Production Operations



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug