Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Vendor Name : Arcitura
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Arcitura Computing techniques

 

Quantum computing decrypted

A single yellow (state 0) cube.

A quantum computer, on the other hand, uses something called quantum bits, or qubits. Unlike the dichotomous bit, qubits operate at the level of subatomic or elementary particles. A single qubit will always be measured to be either 0 or 1, much like a regular bit. For example, this qubit is in state 0.

A yellow (state 0) and a blue (state 1) cubes moving randomly on the screen behind a frosted glass that makes them look blurry.

Things get interesting when “superposition,” a phenomenon unique to quantum particles, enters the equation. While a bit can only be in one state at any given time (0 or 1), a qubit can be in a superposition, which is essentially a combination of the likelihood that it’s either a 0 or a 1. Upon measurement, superposition “collapses” and they get a 0 or a 1, just like a classical bit.

The yellow (state 0) cube and the blue (state 1) cube stop moving and line up next to each other.

At the beginning of a computation with qubits, each qubit is normally put in an equal superposition, where the probability of the qubit being observed to be in state 0 or state 1 is equal.

Reverting back to having just a single yellow (state 0) cube.

In order to get an answer, the qubits must be reverted to classical bits with definitive states through measurement. Without doing anything to influence the answer, you will just get 0 or 1 essentially at random — not particularly useful!

Four yellow (state 0) cubes lined up vertically in a straight line.

Here is a very simplistic look at how scientists can manipulate the qubits to get an answer that is probably correct. They will start with four qubits, all in state 0 initially…

Next to each of the yellow (state 0) cubes appears one blue (state 1) cube.

… and put each qubit in an equal superposition of 0 and 1.

A 4 by 4 grid with a total of 16 cubes appears. Each of the cubes corresponds to one of the possible combinations, starting from 0000, though combinations such as 1100 and 0101, to 1111.

As each qubit can be either 0 or 1 until it’s measured, they have 16 (42) possible combinations. They can imagine these as the following grid of possibilities.

The grid of cubes is put behind a ‘frosted glass’ so that all the cubes appear blurry. The cubes are moving around up and down in random motion.

This grid is, however, only a simplified visual cue of what the quantum system might look like, as qubits in superposition look like

The frosted glass is removed and the cubes move back to their original grid positions. Then all the cubes but for the one corresponding to 1111 fade away.

Assume one of these combinations can lead us to the correct answer to a computational question such as finding the prime factors of a large number. Quantum algorithms can manipulate of which answer is correct to help their quantum computer choose the right one.

The 1111 cube moves up and an axis saying ‘positive’ appears to indicate that the cube has moved in the positive direction (up).

We can think of “the probability” for each combination being the correct answer as the vertical position of the corresponding cube.

The cube for 0000 appears on the grid again and moves down. An axis saying ‘negative’ appears to indicate that the cube has moved in the negative direction (down).

And here’s where some of quantum’s magic comes in: In the classical world, probabilities are always positive numbers and they always all add up to 100%. In the quantum world, “probabilities” work very differently than they are used to and are known as amplitudes. These are that don’t have to add up to 100%.

The cube for 1111 stays up and the cube for 0000 stays down. Nothing else changes.

Amplitudes can add to something larger (constructive interference) or smaller (destructive interference)

The cube for 0000 fades away. Only the cube for 1111 remains. Then another cube appears and moves an equal distance downwards to the existing 1111 cube. Then both cubes shrink away, indicating that they cancel each other out.

Interference is important because it can take some answers off the table. For example, let’s say one of the potential answers to their hypothetical computation is 1111, but it turns out there are a couple of ways to get there, each with an amplitude that is its opposite. This would, in effect, eliminate 1111 so that we’d never see it come up as the final answer.

All the cubes fade back in and the original grid of 16 cubes is back. Then the cubes all move up or down different amounts. Additional cubes are added and these also move up and down.

The key behind fast and reliable quantum computations is to set up a superposition of qubits that considers all possible answers while being cleverly arranged so that all of the “wrong” answers destructively interfere with each other, including by introducing additional ways of obtaining the answers (adding extra cubes) and manipulating the amplitudes.

All the cubes of the same type pointing in opposite direction with the same amount of vertical displacement start to disappear together in pairs, indicating that they are cancelling out. In the end, only 3 cubes remain.

Here, just three of the initial possibilities remain after interference.

Two out of the three remaining cubes disappear and they are left with just a single cube.

The final step of this process, a quantum measurement, is not guaranteed to return the right answer the first time. But since the number of potential answers has now been reduced significantly, scientists need only repeat this step a handful of times and check (on a classical computer) to see if the answer solves the problem.


Will Quantum Computing Take Off in 2024? Here's 1 Magnificent Stock to Buy If It Does.

With artificial intelligence (AI) becoming such a big push in the business world, many companies are attempting to find ways to speed up the model creation process and make it more accurate. One way to do that is with quantum computing, and there's one pure-play investment available to capitalize on that: IonQ (IONQ -2.28%).

Quantum computing is still in its infancy, but could this be the year it takes off?

Quantum computing can supercharge AI workloads

Quantum computing is a fancy buzzword, and many people may be using it without knowing what it is and why it's better than standard computing, which uses a "bit" representing 0 or 1. This only allows for straightforward processing. Quantum computing uses "qubits," which allows for parallel processing.

Essentially, instead of a 0 or a 1, imagine a sphere with a radius of 1. The solution could be anywhere along that sphere, allowing the computer to make a nearly infinite number of outcomes for just one input.

Image of IonQ enclosure.

Image source: IonQ.

Quantum computing won't replace regular computers -- it's too expensive due to the specialized equipment needed. But for arduous tasks like AI, drug discovery, or other engineering simulations, it could be a game changer. IonQ is a leader in this space and is just getting started.

In Q3, the company's revenue rose 122% to $6.1 million. But what's a bigger deal is that it reported bookings of $26.3 million, bringing its total to $58.4 million. That means demand is starting to pile up for these machines, which is crucial for IonQ to become a powerhouse in this space.

Most of this rise came from the U.S. Air Force purchasing a $25.5 million computer for its Air Force Research Lab. This will be a contract to watch, as it could lead to more business if IonQ delivers a quality product to government customers.

But the question is, can IonQ survive long enough to make it to a point where it sees its product widely deployed?

The clock to profitability is ticking

IonQ is such an early-stage company that it's far from breaking even. Unsurprisingly, its research and development costs are high and drove a massive operating loss of $42.2 million. Fortunately, the company has around $384 million in cash and short-term investments, so it should be able to survive for about two more years before needing to raise more money.

It's unlikely that IonQ would even get to that point. The company's market cap is only around $3 billion, so it's feasible that a company like Alphabet or Microsoft could come along and scoop it up if it was looking to sell. But does that mean you should buy it?

Valuing a company like IonQ is practically impossible, as it trades for over 150x sales because it's an early-stage business with a lot of future business ahead.

IONQ PS Ratio Chart

IONQ PS Ratio data by YCharts.

As a result, giving a buy or sell recommendation doesn't apply. It all boils down to whether or not you believe that quantum computing can make a difference.

If you do, then devoting no more than 1% of your portfolio to it is smart because if it takes off, it'll grow to become a massive part of your portfolio. But if it crashes and burns, it won't hurt your overall returns.

IonQ could make a huge difference in AI. For my money, however, I'll likely invest in some other surefire AI investments.

Keithen Drury has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.


 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug