Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CAU302
Exam Name : CyberArk Defender + Sentry
Vendor Name : CyberArk
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This certification provides the practical knowledge and technical skills to maintain day-to-day operations and support the on-going performance of the CyberArk Privileged Access Security Solution

The CyberArk Defender Certification tests for the practical knowledge and technical skills to maintain day-to-day operations and to support the on-going maintenance of the CyberArk Privileged Account Security Solution. It is intended to certify an examinees competence to fill one of the following roles within a Privileged Account Security Program.

Exam : CAU302
Exam Name : CyberArk Defender + Sentry
Questions : 65
Type : multiple-choice questions
Duration : 90 minutes
Passing score : 70%

A CyberArk Certified Defender is capable of performing the following tasks:
Describing the system architecture and workflows. Successfully managing passwords (Verification, Change, and Reconciliation). Onboarding accounts using Accounts Discovery and the Password Upload Utility. Configuring sessions to be directed through a PSM. Monitoring recorded sessions. Describing how connections through a PSMP can be established. Modifying Master Policy settings. Producing reports on various system and user activities. Monitoring the CyberArk implementation. Describing and configuring the various logs that are available to troubleshoot problems. Utilizing the knowledge base and other available resources to resolve problems. Performing common administrative tasks.

The CyberArk Defender Certification tests examanees ability to form the following tasks in seven knowledge domains. Only functions of the Core PAS Solution are included.
Account Onboarding
• Perform a bulk upload of accounts using Password Upload Utility or REST
• Create an Onboarding Rule
• Onboard an account from the pending accounts list
• Setup a Unix Discovery
• Setup a Windows Discovery
• Manually onboard an account
• Onboard SSH Keys with Account Uploader

Application Management
• Describe tools that could be used to monitor CyberArk Application Health
• Use PrivateArk with Proficiency
• Describe how each component communicates with others or devices on network at a high level
• Maintain an appropriate chain of custody for Encryption Keys

Ongoing Maintenance
• Restore DR to normal operation after a failover
• Backup Vault Data with PAReplicate
• Resync a credential file by running createcredfile manually on the command line
• Identify the log files for each component
• Identify and locate component configuration files
• Assemble necessary log files for submission to a case (X-RAY)
• Ensure each component is operational
• Open a support case with appropriate description and severity
• Create or Upvote an ER
• Restore an object to the vault from a PAReplicate Backup

Password Management Configuration
• Configure a request/approval process
• Configure workflow processes to ensure non-repudiation
• Setup automatic verification, management, and reconciliation of passwords or SSH Keys
• Explain the differences between a logon versus a reconcile account
• Configure a logon account
• Configure a reconcile account
• Properly configure the “SearchForUsages” Platform parameter
• Configure workflow processes to reduce the risk of credential theft
• Configure workflow processes to comply with audit/regulatory policies
• Import a Custom Platform from the Marketplace
• Duplicate a Platform
• Manage the password of a supported usage
• Provision a Safe
• Follow a safe naming convention
• Configure Safe Retention
• Configure Management of Workstation Passwords using Loosely Connected Devices
• Add a User/Group to a safe in accordance with access control policies
• Use an OOB Platform to manage a device

Security and Audit
• Configure a Response to Unmanaged Credentials
• Describe the various PTA detections
• Configure Automatic Session Termination
• Configure a Response to Credential Theft
• Search for a recording
• Utilize safe permissions to limit the scope of reports for specific users
• Understand the purpose of EVD
• Grant appropriate permission to allow users to run reports
• Describe all reports and what information they deliver a user
• Review a recording
• Configure email alerts in PTA

Session Management Configuration
• Configure the Master Policy to enable the PSM
• Grant Access to view recordings
• Configure a recording safe
• Make a PSM for SSH Connection using an SSH Client
• Make a PSM Connection using the Connect Button
• Make a PSM Connection using an RDP Client
• Setup text based or video based recordings on PSM
• Configure the PSM to utilize the HTML5 Gateway
• Configure the Master Policy to enable the connect button
• Configure the Master Policy to create PSM recordings
• Configure a split workflow
• Describe connection components and what they do

User Management Configuration
• Be able to describe the difference between safe and vault level permissions without the GUI (web or PA client)
• Add an LDAP User/Group to a Local Group
• Configure additional LDAP hosts
• Validate Proper Function of Pre-Configured Directory Mappings
• Verify an LDAP Configuration is using SSL
• Add a User to a Vault Group
• Configure Safe Level Permissions on a User or Group
• Configure Vault Level Permissions on a User
• Describe the purpose of each Built-In Vault User
• Login as the Master user
• Provision an internally authenticated user in the vault
• Set/Reset a Vault Users Password



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug