Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CBEST
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CBEST exam Format | CBEST Course Contents | CBEST Course Outline | CBEST exam Syllabus | CBEST exam Objectives

Section Number of Questions

Reading 50 (Multiple Choice)

Mathematics 50 (Multiple Choice)

Writing 2

35% of questions Computation and problem solving

30% of questions Estimation, measurement, and statistical principles

35% of questions Numerical and graphic relationships



Skill Area Performance: Your performance on the multiple-choice test questions
for each skill area is indicated next to the skill area title. The information will help
you assess your areas of strength and weakness and/or will help you prepare to
retake any section(s) of the test. For each skill area, you will see one of the
designations that appear below.

Each section score is based on a scale ranging from 20 to 80. For the
Reading and Mathematics sections, your score is derived from the total
number of questions you answered correctly.

Personal Experience - the “Experience” essay
Topics include reminiscences about people or past events,
situations at home, school, or in the community, current
events and issues, observations about the media, hobbies,
personal successes and accomplishments, changes the
writer would like to see made, career choices, and the like.
Explanatory/Analytic - the “Issue” essay
Calls on the writer to explain current issues and ideas,
controversies, difficulties, or opinions.

Rhetorical Force – the clarity with which the central idea or
point of view is stated and maintained; the coherence of
the discussion and the quality of the writers ideas.
Organization – the clarity of the writing and the logical
sequence of the writers ideas.

Support and Development – the relevance, depth, and
specificity of the supporting information

Each of the three sections receives a score ranging from 20 to 80. The passing score for each section is 41. The total passing score for the CBEST is 123. If you score below the passing mark on one section (or even on two sections) but your total score is 123 or higher, you can still pass the exam but only if your score in each section is 37 or above. This test is paper based or computer administered.

Let their outstanding teachers provide you the edge to pass this very important California state teachers exam! Their credentialed instructors provide you with expert in-class instruction, successful test-taking strategies, computer-assisted information, and practice testing by syllabu area. Two class meetings consist of a mathematics review (problem solving, estimation, measurement, and numerical/graphic relationships). One class meeting consists of multiple approaches to help you Strengthen your memorizing comprehension and essay writing skills. The book included in the course fee is CliffsTestPrep CBEST® preparation guide, revised by authors of BTPS Testing.

The CBEST measures proficiencies in three general areas: memorizing comprehension, mathematics and essay writing. This test was developed to meet requirements related to credentialing and employment. It is based upon the theory that teachers should be able to use the same skills taught to students – skills essential to students both in the classroom and outside school. All questions (except the essay in the Writing Section) are multiple choice with five answer choices for each question.

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Admission-Tests Skills guide


Law School Admissions Test Prep Course

Adam Johnson is the lead instructor for test preparation workshops at UTSA. Adam has over 20 years of experience teaching standardized test preparation classes.

After teaching for several years for a leading test-preparation company, Adam taught English and test-preparation in Valencia, Spain. He has consistently scored in the 99th percentile on standardized tests including perfect scores on the GRE and LSAT.

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Undergraduate Admissions Assessment

The School appoints examiners to prepare and mark the Undergraduate Admissions Assessment (UGAA), designed to test use of evidence, written communication skills and numeracy. The UGAA is conducted as an online examination.

The purpose of the Undergraduate Admissions Assessment

The Undergraduate Admissions Assessment is used to fairly assess applicants from non-traditional educational backgrounds or those applying with qualifications they do not recognise for direct entry. It provides an opportunity to see a trial of the applicant’s original work, produced under examination conditions, and seeks to assess applicants in a fair and equitable manner.

There are several reasons why applicants need to be tested in this way:

  • the applicant has no latest or relevant record of study and examination i.e. within three years of the proposed programme start date 

  • the applicant’s qualifications are acceptable but only in conjunction with the UGAA

  • Key dates

    The Undergraduate Admissions Assessment usually takes place at the end of March. 

    Applicants who are required to sit the Undergraduate Admissions Assessment will be notified in March, as soon as details have been finalised.

    The exam is three hours long with is two sections: an essay question; and mathematical problems. It is not an exam of general knowledge.

    There are two different Mathematics papers. Depending on the programme you are applying for, you will take either :  Mathematics for non quantitative programmes without a Maths requirement OR Mathematics for quantitative programmes with a Maths requirement.

    Applicants applying for LLB Laws (M100) will not be asked to sit the UGAA. 

    LSE requires students studying certain qualifications to complete the UGAA before a final decision can be made on their application. The UGAA is a compulsory requirement for all students who are invited; students who decline the UGAA invite will be automatically rejected.  There are a number of reasons why further exam is needed for students from these educational backgrounds, some of which include:

  • the qualification contains few formal examinations – as the majority of exam at LSE is exam based, they need to see how you perform under examination conditions

  • the qualification is not standardised – grades can vary from school to school so they would like an independent exam of your skills
  • we are uncertain whether your curriculum offers full coverage of required subject material, especially mathematics
  • the qualification is relatively new or recently reformed, or they have not had many applicants with that qualification before. The UGAA gives us an independent measure of how well the qualification prepares students for study at LSE

  • you have taken a break from study or followed a non-standard educational pathway

  • Only the most competitive students with these qualifications are invited to sit the exam. Applicants cannot request to sit the exam.

    Applicants applying for LLB Laws (M100) will not be asked to sit the UGAA. Instead, the essay section of the LNAT will be assessed. 

    UK Qualifications
  • Access to Higher Education Diploma
  • BTEC National Extended Diploma (13 units) if taken without accompanying A levels
  • Cambridge Technical Extended Diploma Level 3 if taken without accompanying A levels
  • Certificate of Higher Education (Cert HE)
  • Foundation programme, including the University of London International Foundation Programme (IFP)
  • Foundation Year
  • Foundation Degree
  • Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP)
  • International Qualifications Countries Qualifications Austria Reife-und-Diplomprufung Bosnia-Herzegovina Matura/Diploma o završenoj srednjoj školi/Diploma o položenom maturskom ispitu Brunei BDTVEC Higher National Diploma Bulgaria Diploma za Zavarsheno Sredno Obrazovanie Croatia Maturatna Svjedodzba Czech Republic Maturita Estonia Gumnaasiumi Ioputunnistus with the Riigieksamitunnistus Iceland Stúdentspróf Israel Bagrut Kosovo Diplomë për kryerjen e shkollës së mesme të lartë Lithuania Brandos Atestatas North Macedonia (FYR) Matura Malaysia Unified exam Certificate (UEC)/ Malaysian Matriculation Programme/Matrikulasi Montenegro Maturski ispit/Diploma o završenoj srednjoj školi Morocco Diplôme du Baccalauréat/Baccalauréat de l’Enseignement Secondaire Serbia Matura Slovenia Splošna Matura Sweden Gymnasieexamen Turkey Anatolian High School Diploma/French Diploma for Foreign Schools in Turkey Uganda Uganda Advanced Certificate in Education (UACE)

    The UGAA is usually held at the end of March each year. 

    The UGAA is conducted as an online examination, accessed via a standard web browser.

    Due to the strict time constraints which govern their admissions procedures, they do not host multiple exam days, nor can they move the date or time of the exam under any circumstances.

    Students are expected to make every effort to participate in their exam. Specific concerns and requests for special accommodations should be sent to Undergraduate Admissions after you have received your invitation. 

    Invitations to sit the UGAA are usually sent in early March. Applicants who are required to sit the UGAA will be contacted by the Undergraduate Admissions team as soon as the details have been finalised.

    Replies must be made promptly to ensure arrangements can be made to access the exam. The final response deadline will be stipulated on your invitation. If they have not received a response by the stated deadline, you will no longer be eligible to sit the exam. Please note the UGAA is a compulsory requirement for all students who are invited. They are unable to further consider students who decide not to sit the exam, as their application will be considered incomplete. 

    The criteria below provide a rough guide of what the Admissions Selector is looking for from candidates. These elements will be taken into consideration alongside your overall mark and UCAS application form.

    We are looking for an essay that:

  • answers the essay question clearly and thoughtfully
  • shows an ability to present alternative views and assess them
  • contains a well-developed and reasoned argument supported by evidence
  • incorporates information from the source texts critically, analytically and selectively
  • summarises and paraphrases the source texts accurately and appropriately  
  • has a logical structure including an effective introduction, conclusion and paragraphs
  • makes appropriate use of English including language style, clarity and accuracy
  • is at least 500 words long
  • broadly assessed on A level syllabus
  • knowledge of the key techniques of differential and integral calculus of a single variable
  • an understanding of the meanings of the key concepts in calculus (in particular, the derivative and integral)
  • an ability to apply these to solve problems requiring an element of mathematical modelling proficiency in algebra and algebraic manipulation
  • competence in using algebra and calculus to solve unfamiliar problems (rather than routine problems)
  • Results are reviewed in comparison to other similar applicants for your programme; therefore passing the UGAA does not guarantee an offer will be made. The UGAA has a notional pass mark of 60 per cent, including at least 50 per cent in each section. Students applying to programmes with higher entry requirements will usually be expected to achieve more competitive grades

    The Admissions Selector’s final decision is based on your overall application, not only on your test performance. This exam includes a full range of information on the UCAS application form i.e. predicted/achieved grades, contextual information, personal statement, and UCAS reference.

    The UGAA does not require any specific preparation; it is designed to test general skills that should be covered in your current or most latest programme of study. They make past papers available so that students can see the level of English and Mathematics that is expected (see below). Note that past papers should be used as a guide for the level of the test, not the exact format of the forthcoming exam. If you are concerned about a particular part of the UGAA and would like to undertake some preparation, their Admissions Selectors have made some suggestions.

    Below you can find previous papers to help you understand what was expected of students in previous years. However, the exam is reviewed on a yearly basis and therefore these should only be used as a guide to the level of testing not the specific format. 

    2022 past papers

    UGAA English Paper

    UGAA Maths (Non Quantitative) 

    UGAA Maths (Quantitative)

    2021 past papers

    UGAA English Paper

    UGAA Maths (Non Quantitative)

    UGAA Maths (Quantitative)

    2020 past papers

    UGAA exam Test 1 2020 (for Quantitative programmes)

    UGAA exam Test 2 2020 (for non Quantitative programmes)

    Self-Reported Test Score Frequently Asked Questions

    UMass Lowell accepts self-reported SAT and ACT scores. Here's what you need to know:

    The UMass Lowell Office of Undergraduate Admissions remains committed to a fair application review process. Please feel free to contact us by email at admissions@uml.edu if you have any additional questions or concerns.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug