Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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PMI CCE-CCC : Certified Cost Consultant / Cost Engineer (AACE International) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CCE-CCC
Exam Name : Certified Cost Consultant / Cost Engineer (AACE International)
Vendor Name : PMI
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CCE-CCC exam Format | CCE-CCC Course Contents | CCE-CCC Course Outline | CCE-CCC exam Syllabus | CCE-CCC exam Objectives


Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The Certified Cost Consultant / Cost Engineer (CCE/CCC) exam administered by AACE International typically consists of approximately 150 multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary.

- Time: Candidates are given a time limit of 5 hours to complete the exam. It is important to manage time effectively to ensure all questions are answered within the allocated time.

Course Outline:
The CCE/CCC certification program focuses on the knowledge and skills required for professionals in the field of cost engineering and cost management. The course material and exam cover a wide range of syllabus related to cost estimating, cost control, planning, scheduling, and other essential areas. The course outline may include the following key areas:

1. Cost Engineering Principles:
- Introduction to cost engineering concepts and principles
- Cost engineering terminology and definitions
- Cost engineering standards and practices

2. Cost Estimating:
- Methods and techniques for cost estimating
- Cost estimating models and databases
- Factors affecting cost estimates
- Risk analysis and contingency estimation

3. Cost Control and Monitoring:
- Cost control processes and techniques
- Earned value management (EVM)
- Variance analysis and reporting
- Change management and impact on costs

4. Planning and Scheduling:
- Project planning and scheduling techniques
- Critical path method (CPM)
- Resource allocation and leveling
- Schedule risk analysis

5. Cost Management Systems:
- Cost management software and tools
- Integrated cost and schedule management
- Cost accounting principles and practices
- Cost reporting and performance measurement

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the CCE/CCC exam typically include:
- Evaluating the candidate's understanding of cost engineering principles and concepts.
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge and proficiency in cost estimating techniques and methods.
- Testing the candidate's ability to implement effective cost control and monitoring practices.
- Evaluating the candidate's proficiency in project planning, scheduling, and resource management.
- Assessing the candidate's understanding of cost management systems and their application in real-world scenarios.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific exam syllabus for the CCE/CCC certification may vary, but it generally includes the following topics:

1. Cost Engineering Principles:
- Introduction to cost engineering
- Cost engineering terminology
- Cost engineering standards

2. Cost Estimating:
- Estimating methods and techniques
- Cost estimating models and databases
- Risk analysis in cost estimates

3. Cost Control and Monitoring:
- Cost control processes and techniques
- Earned value management (EVM)
- Variance analysis and reporting

4. Planning and Scheduling:
- Project planning and scheduling techniques
- Critical path method (CPM)
- Resource allocation and leveling

5. Cost Management Systems:
- Cost management software and tools
- Integrated cost and schedule management
- Cost accounting principles and practices



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PMI Cost test

 

India's services PMI ends 2023 at three-month high of 59.0

Services sector activity continued to expand in December 2023, with the HSBC India services Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) hitting a three-month high of 59.0, data released on January 5 showed.

At 59.0, the gauge of services sector activity was up from November's one-year low of 56.9 and above the key level of 50 that separates expansion in activity from contraction for the 29th month in a row.

Story continues below Advertisement

Like the services index, the composite PMI also rose to a three-month high of 58.5 in December even though the manufacturing PMI fell to an 18-month low of 54.9 in the last month of 2023.

"India's services sector ended the year on a high note, with an uptick in business activity, led by a three-month high new orders index," noted Pranjul Bhandari, chief India economist at HSBC.

Within new orders, those from abroad continued to grow, with Indian service providers seeing higher demand in December from clients based in Australia, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, and South America. However, the rate of increase in these overseas orders was the lowest in six months.

"Services firms in India expect the strong demand momentum to carry forward to 2024 which, coupled with advertising and better customer relationships, underpinned upbeat forecasts for output. The overall degree of business optimism was strong and better than that seen in November," S&P Global, which compiles the index, said.

As new orders increased, there was continued "mild pressure" on service firms' capacities in December. Employment in the sector rose slightly, at a faster rate than in November.

On the prices front, input cost inflation for service providers fell to the lowest in 40 months in December. However, in a sign of improving corporate margins, prices charged to customers rose at a faster pace than the increase in input prices.

Story continues below Advertisement

"The rate of increase in prices charged for the provision of services in India was solid, above its long-run average and faster than that seen for input costs. The upturn was reportedly induced by rising instances of firms passing on cost burdens to their customers," S&P Global noted.

Economists widely expect headline retail inflation to have risen further in December from 5.55 percent in November and test the upper-bound of the Reserve Bank of India's 2-6 percent tolerance range.

"We are forecasting India's December CPI inflation at 6.03 percent," said Kaushik Das, Deutsche Bank's chief economist for India and South Asia.

"The reason for the uptick is primarily an unfavourable base… If the December CPI print comes at 6.0 percent, as per their forecast, this will lead to an average of 5.5 percent in October-December 2023, 10 basis points lower than RBI's forecast of 5.6 percent. With the base effect becoming more favourable from January and as vegetable prices continue to fall during the winter months aided by the arrival of new crops, CPI inflation will likely moderate to 5.0 percent average in January-March 2024," Das added.

Inflation data for December 2023 will be released on January 12.


Meaningful Selloff, Down Goes Tech, PMI, Market Breadth, Defense Stocks

No result found, try new keyword!If Tuesday's child is full of grace, readers should probably buckle their chin-straps as Wednesday's child is supposedly full of woe.

Japan service activity expands in Dec, led by strong new business - PMI

No result found, try new keyword!Japan's December service activity expanded at a faster pace from the previous month thanks to strong demand and a lift in confidence even though the overall growth rate was modest, a business survey ...
 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug