Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Medical CCN : CNCB Certified Clinical Nutritionist ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CCN
Exam Name : CNCB Certified Clinical Nutritionist
Vendor Name : Medical
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CCN test Format | CCN Course Contents | CCN Course Outline | CCN test Syllabus | CCN test Objectives

The Clinical Nutrition Certification Board (CNCB) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit tax-exempt certification agency which provides professional training, examination and certification for health care practitioners.

The discipline of Human Clinical Nutrition applies principles derived from current biochemical and physiological scientific knowledge for the purpose of promoting optimal health while recognizing biochemical individuality. The Certified Clinical Nutritionist assesses a persons nutritional needs to achieve normal physiological function. Assessment includes the use of appropriate test and observations such as case history, anthropomorphic measurements, physical signs, laboratory tests, and nutrition/lifestyle analysis to determine an educational nutrition program. Assessment also provides the basis for referral to a licensed physician, or other health care professional.

The educational protocol may include, among other information, nutrition / lifestyle modification, nutritive supplementation, understanding of physiological/biochemical pathways, and evoking of regenerative processes.

The Certified Clinical Nutritionist (CCN) test establishes reputable standards of excellence.

Creation of a quality examination, based on a validated scope of practice which appropriately represents the field of clinical nutrition.

Candidate access to the broad scope of clinical nutrition training and a mechanism for recertification every five years, recognizing continued competency in the field.

The CCN test Candidate must:

Satisfy the CORE Requirements

Submit Credential Review Application and College Transcripts

Obtain Credential Review Approval

Complete the Post Graduate Studies in Clinical Nutrition Program (PGSCN)™

Achieve a passing score on the online CCN Exam

The CCN test processes and the examination data bank are reviewed and revised annually, in accordance with the specifications of the Role Delineation Study. The CNCB utilizes a criterion referenced passing point for each section of the certification examination.

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Medical Clinical Real test Questions


Medical College Exam: Four more doctors arrested over question leak

Four more doctors have been arrested in Khulna over the leak of question papers of the centralised medical college admission test, said police's Criminal Investigation Department yesterday.

The arrestees are Lewis Sourav Sarkar, 30, Mustahin Hasan Lamia, 25, Sharmistha Mondal, 26, and Nazia Mehzabin Tisha, 24.

Speaking to this newspaper, CID Additional Superintendent of Police (media) Azad Rahman said the four were arrested from different parts of Khulna on Saturday and Sunday.

They were brought to the capital and produced before a Dhaka court yesterday that sent them to jail, he added.

Earlier in the day, their family members at a press briefing in Khulna said that the four doctors were picked up on August 18 by plainclothes men, who identified themselves as CID officers.

They said they visited the CID headquarters in Dhaka, but the officials didn't provide any information about their whereabouts or why they were detained, reports UNB.

On August 13, CID told a press briefing that it arrested 12 members of a "question paper leaking racket", from Dhaka, Tangail, Kishoreganj, and Barishal.

Of them, seven are physicians, including Yunusuzzaman Khan Tarim, 40, the owner of Three Doctors Coaching Centre in Khulna, who was arrested Friday.

The CID in a press release yesterday said it found transactions of Tk 25 crore in the bank accounts of Dr Tarim and his wife.

Dr Tarim engaged in leaking medical college entrance test question papers and arranged illegal admission of numerous students to government medical colleges, it added.

Dr Lewis is an alumnus of Khulna Medical College and a teacher at Tarim's coaching centre. Currently, he works as a medical officer at an NGO.

Dr Lamia stood 11th on the national merit list for the medical college admission test during the 2015-16 session. She was a student at Tarim's coaching centre.

However, despite her impressive result in the entrance exam, Lamia initially failed in all subjects of the four final professional examinations. She later passed the exams after several attempts.

There were allegations that Lamia's husband, Sheikh Osman Gani, paid Tk 15 lakh to Dr Tarim to secure Lamia's admission, the CID claimed.

Additionally, the admissions of Dr Sharmistha and Dr Nazia to Khulna Medical College raised suspicions, as they allegedly acquired leaked question papers from Dr Tarim, the CID also claimed.

So far, the number of arrests in the case now stands at 28, with 14 of them giving confessional statements before a Dhaka court.

The CID has been investigating the case since July 2020, when they first busted the medical question leaking racket.

The racket leaked question papers at least 10 times between 2001 and 2017, earning crores of taka, CID chief Mohammad Ali Mia said at a press briefing at the CID Headquarters last week.

The people who have been arrested helped hundreds of students to enrol in medical colleges through illegal means, he added.

The question papers of medical and dental college admission tests were leaked repeatedly from the printing press under the Directorate General of Medical Education (DGME), according to the CID.

One Jasim Uddin Bhuiyan Munnu was the mastermind of this racket.

His cousin Abdus Salam, a machine operator at the DGME press, used to leak questions for many years, with help from influential DGME officials, while Jasim used to spread the leaked questions all over the country, using a strong network, said CID officials.

Situational depression or clinical depression

Situational and clinical depression are different. Situational depression often occurs after life-altering events, but clinical depression has a range of causes and is a longer-term condition.

Situational and clinical depression are similar, but they are not the same. Recognizing the differences between these types of depression is the first step toward getting help.

Medically, situational depression is an “adjustment disorder with a depressed mood.” It often resolves with time, and talking about the problem can ease recovery.

Clinical depression, known medically as a “major depressive disorder,” can develop if the individual does not recover. This is a more severe mental health condition.

Situational depression is a short-term form of depression resulting from a traumatic event or change in a person’s life.

An adjustment disorder with a depressed mood is another name for this emotional state.

Triggers can include:

  • a divorce
  • loss of a job
  • the death of a loved one
  • financial hardship
  • caring for an ill relative
  • other major life changes, such as retirement
  • Situational depression stems from a difficulty in coming to terms with dramatic life changes. Recovery is possible once an individual can come to terms with a new situation. This may require support and treatment.

    For instance, following the death of a parent, it may take a while before a person can accept that their parent is no longer alive. Until a person reaches acceptance, they may feel unable to move on with their life. Some people may need to attend a grief support group or speak with a therapist.

    Clinical depression is also known as major depression or a major depressive disorder. It is a more chronic condition that is severe enough to interfere with daily function.

    The Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) classifies clinical depression as a mood disorder.

    While a specific cause for clinical depression is unknown, disturbances in the levels of certain chemicals — known as neurotransmitters — may be to blame.

    However, other factors are likely to play a role, including:

  • genetic factors, which may influence an individual’s response to an experience or event
  • major life events, which can trigger negative emotions, such as anger, disappointment, or frustration
  • alcohol and drug dependence also have links to depression
  • Depression can also alter a person’s thought processes and bodily functions.

    Some key differences between situational and clinical depression will determine the type of treatment a person needs and the severity of their condition.

    No type of depression is more “real” than another. Both can present significant challenges and threats to their well-being.

    However, knowing which type of depression is at the root of their persistent, negative mood can support their recovery.

    Differences in symptoms

    Symptoms of situational depression can include:

  • listlessness
  • feelings of hopelessness and sadness
  • sleeping difficulties
  • frequent episodes of crying
  • unfocused anxiety and worry
  • a loss of concentration
  • withdrawal from normal activities, as well as from family and friends
  • suicidal thoughts
  • On the other hand, clinical depression is usually more severe than situational depression.

    It can cause physical and psychological symptoms, including:

  • a depressed mood
  • a loss of interest in hobbies or activities
  • changes in sleep habits, including sleeping too much or not enough
  • feelings of guilt or worthlessness
  • difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  • fatigue or low energy levels
  • restlessness or slowed movements
  • changes in appetite or body weight
  • thoughts about suicide or death, or a suicide attempt
  • Clinical depression may also be associated with symptoms like pain, headaches, and digestive issues, which often occur without a physical cause and do not improve, even with treatment.

    Some people with clinical depression can also experience delusions, hallucinations, and other psychotic disturbances. These do not generally occur in people with situational depression.

    In most cases, situational depression is only short-term. Mild cases of situational depression often resolve without active treatment. However, some strategies can help a person reduce the effects of situational depression.

    Lifestyle changes

    A few helpful lifestyle changes include:

  • getting regular exercise
  • eating a well-balanced diet
  • keeping regular sleeping habits
  • talking with loved ones
  • joining a support group
  • taking up a hobby or leisure activity
  • Therapy

    People who find it difficult to cope with overwhelming stressors might wish to consult with a psychotherapist. If the issue revolves around family dynamics or difficulties, family therapy is another option.

    Such therapy may not need to last as long as it might in cases of clinical depression. Clinical depression is also likely to require a combination treatment of psychotherapy or psychological counseling and medication.


    A primary care physician can prescribe medication or make a referral to a mental health professional if they feel that the individual requires this level of care.

    People with severe situational depression might receive a temporary prescription for medications, including antidepressants or antianxiety drugs, which a doctor may taper off as soon as the person is feeling better.

    On the other hand, clinical depression can last for a long time. A person with clinical depression will not necessarily need to take medication indefinitely, but they may require taking it longer as part of a long-term, in-depth treatment plan.


    In severe clinical and situational depression cases — especially if a person tries to self-harm — a person may need to stay in the hospital or attend an outpatient treatment program until their symptoms improve.

    A doctor may diagnose a person with situational depression if symptoms occur in response to a specific traumatic event or stressor.

    The symptoms will also usually cause significant impairments in the person’s social life or ability to function normally and do not meet the criteria for another mental disorder.

    Unlike clinical depression, mild, situational depression is usually only short-term and often improves with time, even without treatment.

    In fact, according to the DSM-5 and International Classification of Diseases 11th revision (ICD-11), symptoms of situational depression usually emerge within 1–3 months of the stressor and resolve within 6 months, unless the stressor persists for a longer amount of time.

    On the other hand, to get a formal diagnosis of clinical depression, a person must meet the criteria outlined in the DSM-5.

    A person must show five or more symptoms from a specific list of criteria, over a 2-week period, for most of nearly every day.

    The symptoms should be severe enough that they substantially reduce the person’s ability to perform regular duties and routines. At least one of the symptoms must be a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure.

    Here are a few common questions about situational and clinical depression.

    At what point does feeling sadness or grief about a life event become clinical depression?

    When the depressed mood is beginning to have a serious negative impact on important areas of functioning, such as work, school, or other aspects of day-to-day life, a person has cause for concern.

    Many people experiencing an adjustment disorder may feel sad but generally will notice some improvements a few days after the significant life event. This is generally not the case with people experiencing a major depressive disorder.

    Can situational depression lead to clinical depression?

    In many cases, situational depression improves over time and usually doesn’t last longer than 6 months. If symptoms don’t resolve within 6 months, a doctor may reassess symptoms to determine whether clinical depression or another mental disorder may be present.

    What are other types of depression?

    In addition to situational depression and clinical depression (or major depressive disorder), there are several other types of depression, each of which may differ based on the cause, symptoms, and treatment.

    Some examples include postpartum and perinatal depression, persistent depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and psychotic depression.

    According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), about 21 million adults in the United States had at least one major depressive episode in 2020.

    Situational depression occurs after life-altering events, but clinical or major depression has a range of causes and is a longer-term condition. With a healthful lifestyle and the right treatment plan, both forms of depression can be manageable.

    Support groups and help or depression hotlines, such as The Samaritans, can offer a listening ear and useful advice and information. You can call them at any time at (212) 673-3000.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug