Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

Wo erhalte ich vollständige Informationen über CCSA?

Nachfolgend finden Sie alle Details zu Übungstests, Dumps und aktuellen Fragen der CCSA: Certification in Control Self-Assessment (IIA-CCSA) Prüfung.

2023 Updated Actual CCSA questions as experienced in Test Center

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IIA CCSA : Certification in Control Self-Assessment (IIA-CCSA) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CCSA
Exam Name : Certification in Control Self-Assessment (IIA-CCSA)
Vendor Name : IIA
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Question Bank : Check Questions

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CCSA exam Format | CCSA Course Contents | CCSA Course Outline | CCSA exam Syllabus | CCSA exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The Certification in Control Self-Assessment (CCSA) exam, offered by the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of professionals in the field of control self-assessment. This certification demonstrates an individual's ability to effectively assess and manage risks, controls, and governance processes within an organization.

Course Outline:
The course for the CCSA certification covers a wide range of syllabus related to control self-assessment and internal auditing. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered:

1. Control Self-Assessment Fundamentals:
- Understanding the principles and concepts of control self-assessment (CSA).
- Roles and responsibilities of CSA practitioners.
- Benefits and limitations of CSA.

2. Risk Management and Internal Control:
- Understanding risk management frameworks and methodologies.
- Assessing internal controls and identifying control gaps.
- Control monitoring and evaluation.

3. CSA Methodology and Process:
- Overview of the CSA process and steps involved.
- Developing CSA objectives, scope, and criteria.
- Planning and executing CSA activities.

4. Facilitation and Interviewing Techniques:
- Effective facilitation techniques for CSA workshops and meetings.
- Interviewing skills for gathering information and conducting exams.
- Active listening and communication skills.

5. Data Analysis and Reporting:
- Analyzing CSA data and identifying trends and patterns.
- Reporting CSA findings and recommendations.
- Communicating results to stakeholders.

6. Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC):
- Understanding the relationship between governance, risk, and control.
- Compliance frameworks and requirements.
- Integrating CSA with GRC processes.

Exam Objectives:
The CCSA exam assesses the candidate's proficiency in the following domains:

1. Control Self-Assessment Principles and Concepts
2. Risk Management and Internal Control
3. CSA Methodology and Process
4. Facilitation and Interviewing Techniques
5. Data Analysis and Reporting
6. Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC)

Each domain covers specific knowledge areas, skills, and tasks that candidates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in.

Exam Syllabus:
The CCSA exam syllabus provides a detailed breakdown of the syllabus covered in each domain. It may include sub-topics, techniques, and best practices that candidates should be familiar with. The syllabus may cover the following areas:

- Control self-assessment principles and frameworks
- Risk management methodologies and techniques
- Internal control exam and evaluation
- CSA process steps and activities
- Facilitation techniques for CSA workshops
- Interviewing skills for conducting exams
- Data analysis and interpretation
- Reporting and communication of CSA findings
- Governance, risk, and compliance frameworks and concepts

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IIA in exam Questions


Exam question about crickets is so tricky even adults are struggling to solve it

The confusing exam question is so baffling that people even made memes about it afterward, with some sharing that they still couldn't work it out - and parents were miffed too

Students were left stumped by the question (Stock Image) (

Image: Getty Images/iStockphoto)

Sometimes, exam questions are so difficult that they leave even adults scratching their heads, wondering where to even start with answering them. And students sitting a Higher School Certificate exam in Australia were left seriously baffled after a question about crickets, finding it super challenging, and wondering whether they even studied for it.

According to news.com.au the syllabus was recently altered by the NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA), which sets the exam papers, and one of these changes saw some of the same questions feature in both the standard and advanced maths tests.

And the crickets question from October 2020 left students so stunned that it became a meme after the examination, but can you answer it?

The exam question is seriously tricky Students said that they weren't prepared for this question

The baffling exam question featured a box plot of temperature data and those taking the test were asked to "calculate the number of chirps expected in a 15-second interval when the temperature is 19° Celsius."

Answers had to be given "correct to the nearest whole number."

Pupils were left not knowing what to write in the answer section, and some parents were even left thinking that it was too tricky.

One person tweeted a hilarious meme showing the difference between what they had studied for the exam, compared to the content they actually found in it.

Someone responded to the tweet saying: "I still have absolutely no idea how to do it", but someone else said: "Wow you're all idiots I am a grade eight student and it took me less than five min to solve."

A student wrote: "The HSC Maths exam papers are another NESA stuff-up. The way they are justifying it is ridiculous. At the very least, NESA should have told everyone what they might expect instead of dropping it in the exams."

Speaking to news.com.au, a spokeswoman for NESA said it had received feedback from a number of students and parents about the maths exam "being difficult".

She added: "NESA confirms that all questions asked within the Maths Standard 2 exam were within the scope of the syllabus.

"All HSC exam papers are designed to differentiate student achievement. NESA will monitor the marking of the Maths Standard 2 paper very closely. Mathematics education is a priority for the NSW Government."

Do you have a similar story to share? Email: danielle.wroe@mirror.co.uk

Prepare for the CAP Exam

ISA offers a variety of resources to help you prepare for the Certified Automation Professional (CAP®) exam.

Primary Textbook

A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge is the primary text resource for the CAP exam and provides a complete overview of all technical topics. Order the Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge.

Study Guide

The CAP Study Guide is a comprehensive self-study resource that contains a list of the CAP domains and tasks, 75 review Questions Answers complete with justifications. References that were used for each study guide question are also provided with the question. The Study Guide also includes a recommended list of publications that you can use to do further study on specific domains. Order the CAP Study Guide.

Review Courses

A CAP review course is available in several formats as preparation for taking the certification exam. This course is offered by ISA and can also be offered at your location.

ISA also has a variety of training courses that would be helpful in preparing for CAP. Visit the Automation Professional Training page for a complete list.

Additional Resources Exam Topics
  • Basic Continuous Control: Process Instrumentation, Analytical Instrumentation, Continuous Control, Control Valves, Analog Communications, Control System Documentation, Control Equipment
  • Basic Discrete, Sequencing, and Manufacturing Control: Discrete Input & Output Devices and General Manufacturing Measurements, Discrete and Sequencing Control, Motor and Drive Control, Motion Control
  • Advanced Control Topics: Process Modeling, Advanced Process Control, Control of Batch Processes, Environmental, Environmental Monitoring, Building Automation
  • Reliability, Safety, and Electrical: Alarm Management, Reliability, Process Safety and Safety Instrumented Systems, Electrical Installations, Safe Use and Application of Electrical Apparatus
  • Integration and Software: Digital Communications, Industrial Networks, Manufacturing Execution Systems and Business Integration, System and Network Security, Operator Interface, Data Management, Software, Custom Software
  • Deployment and Maintenance: Operator Training, Checkout, System Testing, and Startup, Troubleshooting, Maintenance, Long-Term Support and System Management
  • Work Structure: Automation Benefits and Project Justifications, Project Management and Execution, Interpersonal Skills
  • CAP trial Questions

    Questions on the exam were derived from the actual practice of automation professionals as outlined in the CAP Role Delineation Study and job task analysis. Using interviews, surveys, observation, and group discussions, ISA worked with automation professionals to delineate critical job components to develop exam specifications to determine the number of questions related to each domain and task tested. This rigorous program development and ongoing maintenance process ensures that CAP certification accurately reflects the skills and knowledge needed to excel as an automation professional.

    The following six questions were taken from the CAP exam question item bank and serve as examples of the question type and question content found on the CAP exam.

  • The method by which the tasks and hazards associated with a machine or process are analyzed is known as:
  • A. Risk exam.
  • B. Machine exam.
  • C. Risk reduction.
  • D. Risk abatement.
  • To test controller tuning or prototype new control strategies offline, the model should be a(an):
  • A. Tie-back (loopback) simulation.
  • B. Artificial neural network.
  • C. Dynamic process simulation.
  • D. Steady state process simulation.
  • The temperature measurement with the BEST repeatability and resolution is the:
  • A. Thermocouple.
  • B. Resistance temperature detector (RTD).
  • C. Dial thermometer.
  • D. Capillary system.
  • Which of the following is NOT a variable speed drive setup parameter?
  • A. Acceleration rate.
  • B. Motor winding type.
  • C. Output frequency.
  • D. Maximum speed.
  • A complete test plan for system integration testing MUST include:
  • A. Comments for the application programmer.
  • B. Multiple test cases for each mode of operation.
  • C. At least five test cases for each test.
  • D. Expected results for each test case.
  • Frequency of maintenance should be determined by:
  • A. Failure rates of components.
  • B. Availability of personnel and parts.
  • C. Management targets for efficiency and productivity.
  • D. Effectiveness of maintenance personnel.
  • Sample Questions Answer Key Question Number Correct Answer Exam Content Outline 1 A Domain 1, Task 4 2 C Domain 2, Task 2 3 B Domain 3, Task 3 4 B Domain 4, Task 7 5 C Domain 5, Task 5 6 A Domain 6, Task 2

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug