Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ISC2 CCSP : Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CCSP
Exam Name : Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP)
Vendor Name : ISC2
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CCSP exam Format | CCSP Course Contents | CCSP Course Outline | CCSP exam Syllabus | CCSP exam Objectives


CCSP exam Information

Exam Duration : 3 hours

Number of questions : 125

Format : Multiple Choice

Passing scores : 700 out of 1000 points

Exam availability : English

Testing center : Pearson VUE Testing Center



About CCSP

(ISC) and the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) developed the Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP)
credential to ensure that cloud security professionals have the required knowledge, skills, and abilities in
cloud security design, implementation, architecture, operations, controls, and compliance with regulatory
frameworks. A CCSP applies information security expertise to a cloud computing environment and
demonstrates competence in cloud security architecture, design, operations, and service orchestration. This
professional competence is measured against a globally recognized body of knowledge. The CCSP is a standalone credential that complements and builds upon existing credentials and educational programs, including
(ISC)s Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and CSAs Certificate of Cloud Security
Knowledge (CCSK).



The syllabus included in the CCSP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) ensure its relevancy across all disciplines
in the field of cloud security. Successful candidates are competent in the following 6 domains:

• Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design

• Cloud Data Security

• Cloud Platform & Infrastructure Security

• Cloud Application Security

• Cloud Security Operations

• Legal, Risk and Compliance



Domains Weight

1. Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design 17%

2. Cloud Data Security 19%

3. Cloud Platform & Infrastructure Security 17%

4. Cloud Application Security 17%

5. Cloud Security Operations 17%

6. Legal, Risk and Compliance 13%

Total: 100%



Domain 1:

Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design

1.1 Understand Cloud Computing Concepts

» Cloud Computing Definitions

» Cloud Computing Roles (e.g., cloud service customer, cloud service provider, cloud service partner, cloud service broker)

» Key Cloud Computing Characteristics (e.g., on-demand self-service, broad network access, multi-tenancy,
rapid elasticity and scalability, resource pooling, measured service)

» Building Block Technologies (e.g., virtualization, storage, networking, databases, orchestration)

1.2 Describe Cloud Reference Architecture

1.3 Understand Security Concepts Relevant to Cloud Computing

1.4 Understand Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing

» Cloud Secure Data Lifecycle

» Cloud based Disaster Recovery (DR) and Business Continuity (BC) planning

» Cost Benefit Analysis

» Functional Security Requirements (e.g., portability, interoperability, vendor lock-in)

» Security Considerations for Different Cloud Categories (e.g., Software as a Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a
Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS))

1.5 Evaluate Cloud Service Providers

» Verification Against Criteria (e.g., International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27017, Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS))

» System/subsystem Product Certifications (e.g., Common Criteria (CC), Federal Information Processing
Standard (FIPS) 140-2)

» Cloud Computing Activities

» Cloud Service Capabilities (e.g., application
capability types, platform capability types,
infrastructure capability types)

» Cloud Service Categories (e.g., Software as a
Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS),
Platform as a Service (PaaS))

» Cloud Deployment Models (e.g., public, private,
hybrid, community)

» Cloud Shared Considerations (e.g.,
interoperability, portability, reversibility,
availability, security, privacy, resiliency,
performance, governance, maintenance and
versioning, service levels and Service Level
Agreements (SLA), auditability, regulatory)

» Impact of Related Technologies (e.g., machine
learning, artificial intelligence, blockchain,
Internet of Things (IoT), containers, quantum
computing)

» Cryptography and Key Management

» Access Control

» Data and Media Sanitization (e.g., overwriting,
cryptographic erase)

» Network Security (e.g., network security groups)

» Virtualization Security (e.g., hypervisor security,
container security)

» Common Threats



2.1 Describe Cloud Data Concepts

» Cloud Data Life Cycle Phases

» Data Dispersion

2.2 Design and Implement Cloud Data Storage Architectures

» Storage Types (e.g. long term, ephemeral, raw-disk)

» Threats to Storage Types

2.3 Design and Apply Data Security Technologies and Strategies

2.4 Implement Data Discovery

» Structured Data

» Unstructured Data

2.5 Implement Data Classification

» Mapping

» Labeling

» Sensitive data (e.g., Protected Health Information (PHI), Personally Identifiable Information (PII),
card holder data)

2.6 Design and Implement Information Rights Management (IRM)

» Objectives (e.g., data rights, provisioning, access models)

» Appropriate Tools (e.g., issuing and revocation of certificates)

Domain 2:

Cloud Data Security

» Encryption and Key Management

» Hashing

» Masking

» Tokenization

» Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

» Data Obfuscation

» Data De-identification (e.g., anonymization)

2.7 Plan and Implement Data Retention, Deletion and Archiving Policies

» Data Retention Policies

» Data Deletion Procedures and Mechanisms

» Data Archiving Procedures and Mechanisms

» Legal Hold

2.8 Design and Implement Auditability, Traceability and Accountability of Data Events

» Definition of Event Sources and Requirement of Identity Attribution

» Logging, Storage and Analysis of Data Events

» Chain of Custody and Non-repudiation

Comprehend Cloud Infrastructure Components

3.2 Design a Secure Data Center

» Logical Design (e.g., tenant partitioning, access control)

» Physical Design (e.g. location, buy or build)

» Environmental Design (e.g., Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), multi-vendor pathway
connectivity)

3.3 Analyze Risks Associated with Cloud Infrastructure

3.4 Design and Plan Security Controls

3.5 Plan Disaster Recovery (DR) and Business Continuity (BC)

Domain 3:

Cloud Platform and Infrastructure

Security

» Physical Environment

» Network and Communications

» Compute

» Virtualization

» Storage

» Management Plane

» Risk Assessment and Analysis

» Cloud Vulnerabilities, Threats and
Attacks

» Virtualization Risks

» Counter-measure Strategies

» Physical and Environmental Protection (e.g.,
on-premise)

» System and Communication Protection

» Virtualization Systems Protection

» Identification, Authentication and Authorization
in Cloud Infrastructure

» Audit Mechanisms (e.g., log collection, packet
capture)

» Risks Related to the Cloud Environment

» Business Requirements (e.g., Recovery

Time Objective (RTO), Recovery Point

Objective (RPO), Recovery Service Level
(RSL))

» Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery
Strategy

» Creation, Implementation and Testing
of Plan

4.1 Advocate Training and Awareness for Application Security

» Cloud Development Basics

» Common Pitfalls

» Common Cloud Vulnerabilities

4.2 Describe the Secure Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Process

» Business Requirements

» Phases and Methodologies

4.3 Apply the Secure Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

4.4 Apply Cloud Software Assurance and Validation

» Functional Testing

» Security Testing Methodologies

4.5 Use Tested Secure Software

» Approved Application Programming Interfaces (API)

» Supply-chain Management

» Third Party Software Management

» Validated Open Source Software

» Avoid Common Vulnerabilities During

Development

» Cloud-specific Risks

» Quality Assurance

» Threat Modeling

» Software Configuration Management and
Versioning

4.6 Comprehend the Specifics of Cloud Application Architecture

» Supplemental Security components (e.g., Web Application Firewall (WAF), Database Activity Monitoring
(DAM), Extensible Markup Language (XML) firewalls, Application Programming Interface (API) gateway)

» Cryptography

» Sandboxing

» Application Virtualization and Orchestration

4.7 Design Appropriate Identity and Access Management (IAM) Solutions

» Federated Identity

» Identity Providers

» Single Sign-On (SSO)

» Multi-factor Authentication

» Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB)

5.1 Implement and Build Physical and Logical Infrastructure for Cloud Environment

» Hardware Specific Security Configuration Requirements (e.g., Basic Input Output System (BIOS), settings for
virtualization and Trusted Platform Module (TPM), storage controllers, network controllers)

» Installation and Configuration of Virtualization Management Tools

» Virtual Hardware Specific Security Configuration Requirements (e.g., network, storage, memory, Central
Processing Unit (CPU))

» Installation of Guest Operating System (OS) Virtualization Toolsets

5.2 Operate Physical and Logical Infrastructure for Cloud Environment

5.3 Manage Physical and Logical Infrastructure for Cloud Environment

Domain 5:

Cloud Security Operations

» Access Controls for Remote Access (e.g., Remote

Desktop Protocol (RDP), Secure Terminal Access,
Secure Shell (SSH))

» Operating System (OS) Baseline Compliance
Monitoring and Remediation

» Patch Management

» Performance and Capacity Monitoring (e.g.,
network, compute, storage, response time)

» Hardware Monitoring (e.g., Disk, Central
Processing Unit (CPU), fan speed, temperature)

» Configuration of Host and Guest Operating
System (OS) Backup and Restore Functions

» Network Security Controls (e.g., firewalls,
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion
Prevention Systems (IPS), honeypots,
vulnerability exams, network security
groups)

» Management Plane (e.g., scheduling,
orchestration, maintenance)

» Configure Access Control for Local and Remote

Access (e.g., Secure Keyboard Video Mouse
(KVM), console-based access mechanisms,
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP))

» Secure Network Configuration (e.g., Virtual Local
Area Networks (VLAN), Transport Layer Security
(TLS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP), Domain Name System (DNS), Virtual

Private Network (VPN))

» Operating System (OS) Hardening Through the
Application of Baselines (e.g., Windows, Linux,
VMware)

» Availability of Stand-Alone Hosts

» Availability of Clustered Hosts (e.g., Distributed
Resource Scheduling (DRS), Dynamic
Optimization (DO), storage clusters, maintenance
mode, High Availability)

» Availability of Guest Operating System (OS)

5.4 Implement Operational Controls and Standards (e.g., Information Technology
Infrastructure Library (ITIL), International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 20000-1)

Change Management

» Continuity Management

» Information Security Management

» Continual Service Improvement Management

» Incident Management

» Problem Management

» Release Management

» Deployment Management

» Configuration Management

» Service level Management

» Availability Management

» Capacity Management

Support Digital Forensics

» Forensic Data Collection Methodologies

» Evidence Management

» Collect, Acquire and Preserve Digital Evidence

Manage Communication with Relevant Parties

Vendors

» Customers

» Partners

» Regulators

» Other Stakeholders

5.4 Implement Operational Controls and Standards (e.g., Information Technology

Infrastructure Library (ITIL), International Organization for Standardization/International

Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 20000-1)

5.5 Support Digital Forensics

» Forensic Data Collection Methodologies

» Evidence Management

» Collect, Acquire and Preserve Digital Evidence

5.6 Manage Communication with Relevant Parties

5.7 Manage Security Operations

» Security Operations Center (SOC)

» Monitoring of Security Controls (e.g.,
firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS),
Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS), honeypots,
vulnerability exams, network security
groups)

» Log Capture and Analysis (e.g., Security
Information and Event Management (SIEM), log
management)

» Incident Management

Articulate Legal Requirements and Unique Risks within the Cloud Environment

6.2 Understand Privacy Issues

» Difference Between Contractual and Regulated Private Data (e.g., Protected Health Information (PHI),
Personally Identifiable Information (PII))

» Country-Specific Legislation Related to Private Data (e.g., Protected Health Information (PHI), Personally
Identifiable Information (PII))

» Jurisdictional Differences in Data Privacy

» Standard Privacy Requirements (e.g., International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27018, Generally Accepted Privacy Principles (GAPP), General Data
Protection Regulation (GDPR))

6.3 Understand Audit Process, Methodologies, and Required Adaptations for a
Cloud Environment

Domain 6:

Legal, Risk and Compliance

» Conflicting International Legislation

» Evaluation of Legal Risks Specific to Cloud
Computing

» Legal Framework and Guidelines

» eDiscovery (e.g., International Organization

for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27050,
Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) Guidance)

» Forensics Requirements

Internal and External Audit Controls

» Impact of Audit Requirements

» Identify Assurance Challenges of Virtualization
and Cloud

» Types of Audit Reports (e.g., Statement
on Standards for Attestation Engagements
(SSAE), Service Organization Control
(SOC), International Standard on Assurance
Engagements (ISAE))

» Restrictions of Audit Scope Statements (e.g.,
Statement on Standards for Attestation
Engagements (SSAE), International Standard on
Assurance Engagements (ISAE))

» Gap Analysis

» Audit Planning

» Internal Information Security Management
System (ISMS)

» Internal Information Security Controls System

» Policies (e.g., organizational, functional, cloud
computing)

» Identification and Involvement of Relevant
Stakeholders

» Specialized Compliance Requirements for
Highly-Regulated Industries (e.g., North
American Electric Reliability Corporation/
Critical Infrastructure Protection (NERC/CIP),
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
Act (HIPAA), Payment Card Industry (PCI))

» Impact of Distributed Information Technology
(IT) Model (e.g., diverse geographical locations
and crossing over legal jurisdictions)

Understand Implications of Cloud to Enterprise Risk Management

6.5 Understand Outsourcing and Cloud Contract Design

» Business Requirements (e.g., Service Level Agreement (SLA), Master Service Agreement (MSA), Statement
of Work (SOW))

» Vendor Management

» Contract Management (e.g., right to audit, metrics, definitions, termination, litigation, assurance,
compliance, access to cloud/data, cyber risk insurance)

» Supply-Chain Management (e.g., International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27036)

» Assess Providers Risk Management Programs
(e.g., controls, methodologies, policies)

» Difference Between Data Owner/Controller vs.
Data Custodian/Processor (e.g., risk profile, risk
appetite, responsibility)

» Regulatory Transparency Requirements (e.g.,
breach notification, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX),
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR))

» Risk Treatment (i.e., avoid, modify, share, retain)

» Different Risk Frameworks

» Metrics for Risk Management

» Assessment of Risk Environment (e.g., service,
vendor, infrastructure)



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    The Best Cloud Storage and File-Sharing Services for 2024

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  • SPECS

    Name Value Emphasis Backup File Size Limit 2GB Free Storage 10GB Online Editing File Versioning Windows App iOS App Android App Google Drive Best for Google Workspace Users Why They Picked It

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  • CONS

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  • Some privacy concerns
  • SPECS

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  • CONS

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  • No Linux app
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  • SPECS

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  • SPECS

    Name Value Emphasis Apple Device Users File Size Limit 15GB Free Storage 5GB Online Editing File Versioning Windows App iOS App Android App Box (Personal) Best Business Integrations Why They Picked It

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    Who It's For

    Ultimately, they find Box is better suited to business use than personal use, based on its features. The two use cases are different enough that they have a separate review of Box for Business. Anyone who likes Box for Business and wants to use it for the personal files as well will likely be happy with this service. It is a great option, however, for anyone who doesn't want to pay for online storage so long as they have less than 10GB's worth of stuff to store.

    PROS

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  • Expensive for the amount of storage offered
  • Low file-size limit
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  • SPECS

    Name Value Emphasis Business Use, Compatibility File Size Limit 5GB Free Storage 10GB Online Editing File Versioning Windows App iOS App Android App Dropbox Best Integration With Third-Party Services Why They Picked It

    Dropbox is an established player in the online storage and syncing space, and it continues to offer a reliable service that includes good, if sometimes tertiary, features (such as e-signatures).

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  • Integrations with thousands of applications
  • Fast upload speeds
  • SPECS

    Name Value Emphasis Simplicity, Ease of Use File Size Limit Unlimited Free Storage 2GB Online Editing File Versioning Windows App iOS App Android App Proton Drive Best Privacy and Security Why They Picked It

    Proton Drive offers the best privacy and security of any of the services included here. Your files are fully encrypted at rest and in transit, and only you have the security key to unlock them. Even Proton employees are unable to access your files. You can even pay the company by sending cash through the mail, rather than using a credit card online, to protect your identity.

    Who's It For?

    The service is clearly for the security-minded user. It's not for those who want speed, as all that encryption exacts a performance hit. Proton Drive also lacks many convenience and productivity features, such as collaborative document editing, and there's no macOS or Linux versions yet.

    PROS

  • All files fully encrypted
  • Simple sharing options
  • Protected by Swiss privacy laws
  • Free tier available
  • CONS

  • No macOS or Linux apps (yet)
  • Slow upload speeds
  • No collaborative editing
  • SPECS

    Name Value Emphasis Privacy File Size Limit Unlimited Free Storage 15GB Online Editing File Versioning Windows App iOS App Android App

    Buying Guide: The Best Cloud Storage and File-Sharing Services for 2024

    What Can Cloud Storage Do for You?

    The very best cloud storage solutions play nicely with other apps and services, making the experience of viewing and editing your files feel natural. Especially in business, you want your other software and apps to be able to retrieve or access your files, so making sure you use a service that easily authenticates with the other tools you use is a big deal. Box and Dropbox are particularly strong in this regard.

    Google Drive web app with previews of image files

    With Google Drive's web app, you can access all your files, including images, from anywhere. (Credit: Google/Jill Duffy)

    The range of capabilities of cloud-based storage services is incredible. Many of them specialize in a specific area. For example, Dropbox focuses on keeping a synced folder accessible everywhere and in sharing folders with colleagues outside your company. Proton Drive emphasizes security. SugarSync is unique in its ability to let you map a folder on one computer to a specific folder on another, but drawbacks keep it from being included in this list of the best. Some cloud storage services, such as Apple iCloud, Google Drive, and Microsoft OneDrive, are generalists, offering not only folder and file syncing, but also media playing, device syncing, and backup. These products even double as collaboration software, offering real-time document co-editing.

    Distinct from but overlapping in some cases with cloud storage are backup services, particularly ones that offer online backups. Some of them, such as Carbonite, specialize in data protection and recovery, while others like IDrive, combine data protection with syncing and sharing capabilities.

    Most cloud services do offer some level of backup, almost as a consequence of their intended function. It follows logically that any files uploaded to a cloud service are also protected from disk failures, since there are copies of them in the cloud. But dedicated backup services sometimes also create a disk image of your machine so you can restore not just your files, but everything, including system settings and programs. Syncing, by contrast, is about backing up and managing selected files only.

    Box.com folder options

    Box's web interface lets you manage your folders and files. (Credit: Box/PCMag)

    What Is the Cloud in Cloud Storage?

    There's a half-joke saying in the tech world, "There is no cloud. It's just someone else's computer." So, to clear up any confusion, the cloud part of cloud-based storage refers to putting your files somewhere other than your computer's hard drive. Usually, it means the service provider's servers.

    Having data in the cloud gives you the ability to access your files through the internet. Your data is usually encrypted before making the journey over the internet to the provider's servers, and it remains encrypted while it lives on those servers.

    Well-designed services don't upload a brand-new copy of your files every time you change one little thing. Instead, the file syncing service looks for changes to your files and uploads only them, saving your connection bandwidth.

    Dropbox in macOS Finder window showing icons with syncing status

    Dropbox, once installed, shows you icons in the Finder or Windows Explorer indicating the sync status of each file you save to the cloud. (Credit: Dropbox/PCMag)

    You can access your cloud files through an app or utility software installed on your computer. Once it's installed, it usually shows a small notification icon and creates your synced folder structure that fits into Windows Explorer or the macOS Finder. You can also get to the files via your web browser. Of course, you need an internet connection for it to work, but if you temporarily are without a connection, that's okay. The service waits until the next time you do have a connection and takes care of business then.

    For a deeper explanation, see our explainer on cloud computing.

    Recommended by Their Editors Free vs. Paid Cloud Storage

    Many cloud storage services have a free account that usually comes with some limitations, such as the amount of storage or a size limit on files you can upload. They prefer providers that offer some level of permanent free service, even if you get only 2GB of storage space rather than a time-based trial. This way you can fully integrate a service into your life for several weeks for real-world testing. During that time, you get a feel for how it works and what might go wrong with your setup.

    OneDrive web app showing files and folders

    OneDrive offers 5GB for free, and you get more storage with a Microsoft 365 account. (Credit: Microsoft/PCMag)

    What could possibly go wrong? Human error accounts for a good deal of cloud storage tragedies, but the dropped internet connection is another common troublemaker. Not to mention that every internet service suffers the occasional outage. Ask around (or just look through their review comments), and you'll hear sad stories of how cloud storage can go wrong. One of the benefits of paying for an account is that it usually comes with additional support from the provider, so if anything does go wrong, someone from the company can help you resolve the issue.

    There are many other reasons to pay for cloud storage, from getting a lot more space (a terabyte really doesn't cost all that much anymore) to being able to upload huge files. That last benefit is relevant to graphic designers, video editors, and other visual artists who often host enormous files. Other perks of paying for your cloud storage often include increased access to file-version history (meaning you can restore an important business proposal to the version you had before your colleague made a bunch of erroneous changes), more security, and more features for collaboration and teamwork.

    Outlook Cloudy

    Here, they list only the best cloud storage services among those we've tested. When PCMag tests these services, they evaluate their feature sets, ease of use, stability, and price. There are other cloud storage services on the market that didn't make the cut for this article, based on these criteria. For more about any one of the services that did make the cut, click the links above to read an in-depth review of each of their favorite cloud storage and file-syncing services.


    ISC Class 12 Physics sample Paper 2024: get PDF and Solve Now!

    NEW DELHI: Gear up Class 12 students! Are you ready to conquer the 2024 ISC 12th Physics exam? The Council for the Indian School Certificate Exams is scheduled to conduct the CISCE ISC Physics exam 2024 on March 4 from 2 PM onwards. Well, look no further! This article provides you with a strong tool for your studies - the ISC Class 12 Physics sample Paper 2024. Download the ISC Physics sample Question Paper 2024 PDF and get a head start on mastering the intricate world of physics. Dive deep into the sample questions, challenge your understanding, and refine your skills with each solved problem. This is your chance to boost your confidence, identify areas for improvement, and conquer exam day with a winning strategy. So, what are you waiting for? Download, solve, and ace your physics exam like a true champion!Sample Question Papers furnish students with a comprehensive grasp of the exam format, marking scheme, and the nature of questions they are likely to be asked in the exam. As students acquaint themselves with the paper's structure and content, they can more effectively allocate their time, prioritise key topics, and customise their study strategies.How to get ISC 2024 Class 12 Specimen Question Papers?Step 1: Go to the official website of CISCE at www.cisce.orgStep 2: Click on the Exams tab from the top section on the homepageStep 3: Select ISC ExamsStep 4: Scroll down and click on the 2024 ISC Specimen PaperStep 5: Click on the desired subject name to get its specimen paper PDFStudents who will appear for the ISC Class 12 Physics exam can get the specimen question papers and general instructions for the CISCE board exams 2024 here;

    General Instructions

  • Maximum Marks: 70
  • Time Allowed: Three Hours (Candidates are allowed an additional 15 minutes for only studying the paper).
  • The paper is divided into four sections – A, B, C, and D.
  • Section A consists of one question having sub-parts of one mark each.
  • Section B consists of seven questions of two marks each.
  • Section C consists of nine questions of three marks each, and
  • Section D consists of three questions of five marks each.
  • Internal choices have been provided in two questions each in Section B, Section C, and Section D.
  • All working, including rough work, should be done on the same sheet as and adjacent to the rest of the answer.

  •  




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug