Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ISC2 CCSP : Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CCSP
Exam Name : Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP)
Vendor Name : ISC2
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CCSP exam Format | CCSP Course Contents | CCSP Course Outline | CCSP exam Syllabus | CCSP exam Objectives

CCSP exam Information

Exam Duration : 3 hours

Number of questions : 125

Format : Multiple Choice

Passing scores : 700 out of 1000 points

Exam availability : English

Testing center : Pearson VUE Testing Center

About CCSP

(ISC) and the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) developed the Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP)
credential to ensure that cloud security professionals have the required knowledge, skills, and abilities in
cloud security design, implementation, architecture, operations, controls, and compliance with regulatory
frameworks. A CCSP applies information security expertise to a cloud computing environment and
demonstrates competence in cloud security architecture, design, operations, and service orchestration. This
professional competence is measured against a globally recognized body of knowledge. The CCSP is a standalone credential that complements and builds upon existing credentials and educational programs, including
(ISC)s Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and CSAs Certificate of Cloud Security
Knowledge (CCSK).

The subjects included in the CCSP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) ensure its relevancy across all disciplines
in the field of cloud security. Successful candidates are competent in the following 6 domains:

• Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design

• Cloud Data Security

• Cloud Platform & Infrastructure Security

• Cloud Application Security

• Cloud Security Operations

• Legal, Risk and Compliance

Domains Weight

1. Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design 17%

2. Cloud Data Security 19%

3. Cloud Platform & Infrastructure Security 17%

4. Cloud Application Security 17%

5. Cloud Security Operations 17%

6. Legal, Risk and Compliance 13%

Total: 100%

Domain 1:

Cloud Concepts, Architecture and Design

1.1 Understand Cloud Computing Concepts

» Cloud Computing Definitions

» Cloud Computing Roles (e.g., cloud service customer, cloud service provider, cloud service partner, cloud service broker)

» Key Cloud Computing Characteristics (e.g., on-demand self-service, broad network access, multi-tenancy,
rapid elasticity and scalability, resource pooling, measured service)

» Building Block Technologies (e.g., virtualization, storage, networking, databases, orchestration)

1.2 Describe Cloud Reference Architecture

1.3 Understand Security Concepts Relevant to Cloud Computing

1.4 Understand Design Principles of Secure Cloud Computing

» Cloud Secure Data Lifecycle

» Cloud based Disaster Recovery (DR) and Business Continuity (BC) planning

» Cost Benefit Analysis

» Functional Security Requirements (e.g., portability, interoperability, vendor lock-in)

» Security Considerations for Different Cloud Categories (e.g., Software as a Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a
Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS))

1.5 Evaluate Cloud Service Providers

» Verification Against Criteria (e.g., International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27017, Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS))

» System/subsystem Product Certifications (e.g., Common Criteria (CC), Federal Information Processing
Standard (FIPS) 140-2)

» Cloud Computing Activities

» Cloud Service Capabilities (e.g., application
capability types, platform capability types,
infrastructure capability types)

» Cloud Service Categories (e.g., Software as a
Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS),
Platform as a Service (PaaS))

» Cloud Deployment Models (e.g., public, private,
hybrid, community)

» Cloud Shared Considerations (e.g.,
interoperability, portability, reversibility,
availability, security, privacy, resiliency,
performance, governance, maintenance and
versioning, service levels and Service Level
Agreements (SLA), auditability, regulatory)

» Impact of Related Technologies (e.g., machine
learning, artificial intelligence, blockchain,
Internet of Things (IoT), containers, quantum

» Cryptography and Key Management

» Access Control

» Data and Media Sanitization (e.g., overwriting,
cryptographic erase)

» Network Security (e.g., network security groups)

» Virtualization Security (e.g., hypervisor security,
container security)

» Common Threats

2.1 Describe Cloud Data Concepts

» Cloud Data Life Cycle Phases

» Data Dispersion

2.2 Design and Implement Cloud Data Storage Architectures

» Storage Types (e.g. long term, ephemeral, raw-disk)

» Threats to Storage Types

2.3 Design and Apply Data Security Technologies and Strategies

2.4 Implement Data Discovery

» Structured Data

» Unstructured Data

2.5 Implement Data Classification

» Mapping

» Labeling

» Sensitive data (e.g., Protected Health Information (PHI), Personally Identifiable Information (PII),
card holder data)

2.6 Design and Implement Information Rights Management (IRM)

» Objectives (e.g., data rights, provisioning, access models)

» Appropriate Tools (e.g., issuing and revocation of certificates)

Domain 2:

Cloud Data Security

» Encryption and Key Management

» Hashing

» Masking

» Tokenization

» Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

» Data Obfuscation

» Data De-identification (e.g., anonymization)

2.7 Plan and Implement Data Retention, Deletion and Archiving Policies

» Data Retention Policies

» Data Deletion Procedures and Mechanisms

» Data Archiving Procedures and Mechanisms

» Legal Hold

2.8 Design and Implement Auditability, Traceability and Accountability of Data Events

» Definition of Event Sources and Requirement of Identity Attribution

» Logging, Storage and Analysis of Data Events

» Chain of Custody and Non-repudiation

Comprehend Cloud Infrastructure Components

3.2 Design a Secure Data Center

» Logical Design (e.g., tenant partitioning, access control)

» Physical Design (e.g. location, buy or build)

» Environmental Design (e.g., Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), multi-vendor pathway

3.3 Analyze Risks Associated with Cloud Infrastructure

3.4 Design and Plan Security Controls

3.5 Plan Disaster Recovery (DR) and Business Continuity (BC)

Domain 3:

Cloud Platform and Infrastructure


» Physical Environment

» Network and Communications

» Compute

» Virtualization

» Storage

» Management Plane

» Risk Assessment and Analysis

» Cloud Vulnerabilities, Threats and

» Virtualization Risks

» Counter-measure Strategies

» Physical and Environmental Protection (e.g.,

» System and Communication Protection

» Virtualization Systems Protection

» Identification, Authentication and Authorization
in Cloud Infrastructure

» Audit Mechanisms (e.g., log collection, packet

» Risks Related to the Cloud Environment

» Business Requirements (e.g., Recovery

Time Objective (RTO), Recovery Point

Objective (RPO), Recovery Service Level

» Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery

» Creation, Implementation and Testing
of Plan

4.1 Advocate Training and Awareness for Application Security

» Cloud Development Basics

» Common Pitfalls

» Common Cloud Vulnerabilities

4.2 Describe the Secure Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Process

» Business Requirements

» Phases and Methodologies

4.3 Apply the Secure Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

4.4 Apply Cloud Software Assurance and Validation

» Functional Testing

» Security Testing Methodologies

4.5 Use Checked Secure Software

» Approved Application Programming Interfaces (API)

» Supply-chain Management

» Third Party Software Management

» Validated Open Source Software

» Avoid Common Vulnerabilities During


» Cloud-specific Risks

» Quality Assurance

» Threat Modeling

» Software Configuration Management and

4.6 Comprehend the Specifics of Cloud Application Architecture

» Supplemental Security components (e.g., Web Application Firewall (WAF), Database Activity Monitoring
(DAM), Extensible Markup Language (XML) firewalls, Application Programming Interface (API) gateway)

» Cryptography

» Sandboxing

» Application Virtualization and Orchestration

4.7 Design Appropriate Identity and Access Management (IAM) Solutions

» Federated Identity

» Identity Providers

» Single Sign-On (SSO)

» Multi-factor Authentication

» Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB)

5.1 Implement and Build Physical and Logical Infrastructure for Cloud Environment

» Hardware Specific Security Configuration Requirements (e.g., Basic Input Output System (BIOS), settings for
virtualization and Trusted Platform Module (TPM), storage controllers, network controllers)

» Installation and Configuration of Virtualization Management Tools

» Virtual Hardware Specific Security Configuration Requirements (e.g., network, storage, memory, Central
Processing Unit (CPU))

» Installation of Guest Operating System (OS) Virtualization Toolsets

5.2 Operate Physical and Logical Infrastructure for Cloud Environment

5.3 Manage Physical and Logical Infrastructure for Cloud Environment

Domain 5:

Cloud Security Operations

» Access Controls for Remote Access (e.g., Remote

Desktop Protocol (RDP), Secure Terminal Access,
Secure Shell (SSH))

» Operating System (OS) Baseline Compliance
Monitoring and Remediation

» Patch Management

» Performance and Capacity Monitoring (e.g.,
network, compute, storage, response time)

» Hardware Monitoring (e.g., Disk, Central
Processing Unit (CPU), fan speed, temperature)

» Configuration of Host and Guest Operating
System (OS) Backup and Restore Functions

» Network Security Controls (e.g., firewalls,
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion
Prevention Systems (IPS), honeypots,
vulnerability exams, network security

» Management Plane (e.g., scheduling,
orchestration, maintenance)

» Configure Access Control for Local and Remote

Access (e.g., Secure Keyboard Video Mouse
(KVM), console-based access mechanisms,
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP))

» Secure Network Configuration (e.g., Virtual Local
Area Networks (VLAN), Transport Layer Security
(TLS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP), Domain Name System (DNS), Virtual

Private Network (VPN))

» Operating System (OS) Hardening Through the
Application of Baselines (e.g., Windows, Linux,

» Availability of Stand-Alone Hosts

» Availability of Clustered Hosts (e.g., Distributed
Resource Scheduling (DRS), Dynamic
Optimization (DO), storage clusters, maintenance
mode, High Availability)

» Availability of Guest Operating System (OS)

5.4 Implement Operational Controls and Standards (e.g., Information Technology
Infrastructure Library (ITIL), International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 20000-1)

Change Management

» Continuity Management

» Information Security Management

» Continual Service Improvement Management

» Incident Management

» Problem Management

» Release Management

» Deployment Management

» Configuration Management

» Service level Management

» Availability Management

» Capacity Management

Support Digital Forensics

» Forensic Data Collection Methodologies

» Evidence Management

» Collect, Acquire and Preserve Digital Evidence

Manage Communication with Relevant Parties


» Customers

» Partners

» Regulators

» Other Stakeholders

5.4 Implement Operational Controls and Standards (e.g., Information Technology

Infrastructure Library (ITIL), International Organization for Standardization/International

Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 20000-1)

5.5 Support Digital Forensics

» Forensic Data Collection Methodologies

» Evidence Management

» Collect, Acquire and Preserve Digital Evidence

5.6 Manage Communication with Relevant Parties

5.7 Manage Security Operations

» Security Operations Center (SOC)

» Monitoring of Security Controls (e.g.,
firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS),
Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS), honeypots,
vulnerability exams, network security

» Log Capture and Analysis (e.g., Security
Information and Event Management (SIEM), log

» Incident Management

Articulate Legal Requirements and Unique Risks within the Cloud Environment

6.2 Understand Privacy Issues

» Difference Between Contractual and Regulated Private Data (e.g., Protected Health Information (PHI),
Personally Identifiable Information (PII))

» Country-Specific Legislation Related to Private Data (e.g., Protected Health Information (PHI), Personally
Identifiable Information (PII))

» Jurisdictional Differences in Data Privacy

» Standard Privacy Requirements (e.g., International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27018, Generally Accepted Privacy Principles (GAPP), General Data
Protection Regulation (GDPR))

6.3 Understand Audit Process, Methodologies, and Required Adaptations for a
Cloud Environment

Domain 6:

Legal, Risk and Compliance

» Conflicting International Legislation

» Evaluation of Legal Risks Specific to Cloud

» Legal Framework and Guidelines

» eDiscovery (e.g., International Organization

for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27050,
Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) Guidance)

» Forensics Requirements

Internal and External Audit Controls

» Impact of Audit Requirements

» Identify Assurance Challenges of Virtualization
and Cloud

» Types of Audit Reports (e.g., Statement
on Standards for Attestation Engagements
(SSAE), Service Organization Control
(SOC), International Standard on Assurance
Engagements (ISAE))

» Restrictions of Audit Scope Statements (e.g.,
Statement on Standards for Attestation
Engagements (SSAE), International Standard on
Assurance Engagements (ISAE))

» Gap Analysis

» Audit Planning

» Internal Information Security Management
System (ISMS)

» Internal Information Security Controls System

» Policies (e.g., organizational, functional, cloud

» Identification and Involvement of Relevant

» Specialized Compliance Requirements for
Highly-Regulated Industries (e.g., North
American Electric Reliability Corporation/
Critical Infrastructure Protection (NERC/CIP),
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
Act (HIPAA), Payment Card Industry (PCI))

» Impact of Distributed Information Technology
(IT) Model (e.g., diverse geographical locations
and crossing over legal jurisdictions)

Understand Implications of Cloud to Enterprise Risk Management

6.5 Understand Outsourcing and Cloud Contract Design

» Business Requirements (e.g., Service Level Agreement (SLA), Master Service Agreement (MSA), Statement
of Work (SOW))

» Vendor Management

» Contract Management (e.g., right to audit, metrics, definitions, termination, litigation, assurance,
compliance, access to cloud/data, cyber risk insurance)

» Supply-Chain Management (e.g., International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27036)

» Assess Providers Risk Management Programs
(e.g., controls, methodologies, policies)

» Difference Between Data Owner/Controller vs.
Data Custodian/Processor (e.g., risk profile, risk
appetite, responsibility)

» Regulatory Transparency Requirements (e.g.,
breach notification, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX),
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR))

» Risk Treatment (i.e., avoid, modify, share, retain)

» Different Risk Frameworks

» Metrics for Risk Management

» Assessment of Risk Environment (e.g., service,
vendor, infrastructure)

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3 common questions about Social Security, answered

For many retired seniors, Social Security benefits are an essential source of income. With fewer employers offering pensions, these benefits — along with 401(k)s and IRAs — have become important retirement income sources for many Americans. According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, they comprise 90% or more of income for nearly one quarter of retirees.

Since the average Social Security monthly benefit for workers in the U.S. is only $1,666.49 as of April 2022, most people will also need to invest for retirement on their own, likely through an employer-sponsored 401(k) or an IRA. Select ranked Charles Schwab, Fidelity Investments, Vanguard, Betterment and E*TRADE as having the best IRAs.

When it comes to Social Security, understanding how the program works can help you figure out how to maximize your benefits and be better prepared for retirement. Here, Select tackles three commonly asked questions about it.

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What happens to the money I paid into the Social Security system?

A common misconception about Social Security is how the program actually works.

First off, Social Security is funded through payroll tax deductions, which are paid by both employers and employees — they're taken directly out of your paycheck — and put toward social insurance programs such as Social Security, Medicare, Workers' Compensation, Disability Insurance and Unemployment Insurance. 

In 2022, the Social Security payroll tax rate was 6.2% for employers and 6.2% for employees, or 12.4% in total, and applies to up to $147,000 worth of an individual's income.

Current workers are funding the benefits for current retirees, so the money that's being deducted from your paycheck isn't going to a specific Social Security account meant for you. Instead, that money is being used to fund the benefits of those who are currently retired and their families, as well as people with disabilities and their families. 

According to Suzanne Shu, professor of marketing at Cornell University, this misunderstanding about how Social Security works often leads people to collect their benefits earlier than they should.

By thinking about Social Security like it's a 401(k) or an individual retirement account, people tend to have a stronger sense of ownership over their benefits, which leads them to collect early or before full retirement age, explains Shu. Doing so means missing out on a higher monthly benefit, and you should have a clear understanding of how Social Security benefits work before you decide to collect them.

In order to earn retirement benefits, you must work at least 10 years; the monthly benefit you'll receive is calculated by a formula that uses a worker's 35 highest-earning years. While retirees can start collecting at 62, they'll receive reduced benefits unless they wait until their full retirement age.

Full retirement age ranges between 66 and 67, depending on when you were born. For every year beyond your full retirement age that you wait to collect (until the age of 70), your benefits will increase by 8%.

Of course, not everyone benefits from choosing to delay this collection, so it's also a good idea to take other factors into account as well, such as your spouse, health status, other family members or additional sources of retirement income.

Do undocumented immigrants receive Social Security?

Undocumented immigrants are not legally permitted to receive Social Security benefits and few actually do.

Generally, when you apply for a job, you're required to provide your Social Security number so employers and employees can pay the payroll taxes that are used to fund the program. Undocumented immigrants, who don't have an Social Security number, may choose to use an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number, or an ITIN, or may even use a fake Social Security number to pay payroll taxes.

Even though undocumented immigrants are legally required to pay taxes, those who use an ITIN to do so cannot receive Social Security retirement benefits. Sometimes undocumented immigrants do receive retirement benefits by using a Social Security number that belongs to someone else, a fake one or one held over from an overstayed visa. However, even those who use a fake Social Security number may not receive retirement benefits since they don't have tax forms that match up with an existing Social Security number.

A 2013 report by the Social Security Administration found that $1 billion worth of retirement benefits were paid out to undocumented immigrants in 2010. However, undocumented immigrants paid significantly more money into the Social Security system than they receive in benefits, contributing a whopping $13 billion in payroll taxes.

"Thus, they estimate that earnings by unauthorized immigrants result in a net positive effect on Social Security financial status generally, and that this effect contributed roughly $12 billion to the cash flow of the program for 2010," writes Stephen Goss, chief actuary of the Social Security Administration.

In other words, undocumented immigrants are not legally allowed to collect Social Security benefits and rarely do. Undocumented immigrants help fund Social Security because their contributions provide extra cash flow to the system.

Does Social Security cost the government a lot of money to operate?

Surprisingly, the answer is no. It turns out Social Security is a relatively cheap social insurance program for the federal government to administer. This is mostly because it is not a means-tested program, which would exclude individuals and families based on income. Since participation in Social Security is universal, there are lower operating costs.

In 2021, administrative costs accounted for only 0.6% of disability and old age-survivor benefits doled out, while administrative costs for just the old-age survivors trust fund were 0.4%. That means, according to the Social Security Administration, for every one dollar people contribute to Social Security, less than one cent actually goes toward operating expenses.

However, there is a fair amount of "improper payments" made by the Social Security Administration, which includes making accidental payments to the deceased all the way to willful fraud. The Social Security Administration estimates it made $7.9 billion in improper payments in the 2019 fiscal year.

Catch up on CNBC Select's in-depth coverage of credit cards, banking and money, and follow us on TikTok, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter to stay up to date.

Editorial Note: Opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the Select editorial staff’s alone, and have not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any third party.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug