Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Medical CDCA-ADEX : Dental Hygiene exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CDCA-ADEX
Exam Name : Dental Hygiene
Vendor Name : Medical
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CDCA-ADEX exam Format | CDCA-ADEX Course Contents | CDCA-ADEX Course Outline | CDCA-ADEX exam Syllabus | CDCA-ADEX exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination is a standardized test designed to evaluate the clinical competence and knowledge of dental hygiene students or graduates. This examination is administered by the Commission on Dental Competency Assessments (CDCA) and is a requirement for dental hygiene licensure in some states. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination consists of two components: a computer-based written exam and a clinical exam. The number of questions and time allocation for each component may vary depending on the specific administration. Typically, the written exam consists of multiple-choice questions, and the time given is around 4-5 hours. The clinical exam involves performing dental hygiene procedures on patients, and the time allocation can range from several hours to a full day.

Course Outline:
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination covers a wide range of subjects related to dental hygiene theory, practice, and clinical skills. While the exact course outline may vary, the following are common areas covered in the examination:

1. Dental Anatomy and Physiology:
- Structure and function of teeth and surrounding oral tissues
- Oral cavity landmarks and anatomical structures
- Physiology of the oral cavity and associated systems

2. Oral Health Assessment:
- Dental and periodontal charting
- Radiographic interpretation and analysis
- Oral health risk exam
- Oral pathology recognition

3. Dental Hygiene Treatment Planning and Implementation:
- Patient exam and diagnosis
- Treatment plan development
- Dental prophylaxis and scaling procedures
- Application of preventive measures (fluoride, sealants, etc.)
- Local anesthesia administration (if allowed by state regulations)

4. Dental Hygiene Clinical Skills:
- Instrumentation techniques (hand and ultrasonic scaling)
- Periodontal instrumentation and root planing
- Soft tissue management (curettage, debridement, etc.)
- Patient education and oral hygiene instruction
- Infection control and sterilization procedures

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination are to assess the candidate's competence in dental hygiene theory, clinical skills, and patient care. The exam aims to evaluate the following:

1. Knowledge of dental anatomy, physiology, and oral health exam techniques.
2. Competence in developing comprehensive dental hygiene treatment plans.
3. Proficiency in performing dental hygiene procedures, including scaling, root planing, and prophylaxis.
4. Ability to apply infection control and sterilization protocols.
5. Capability to communicate effectively with patients and provide oral health education.

Exam Syllabus:
The CDCA-ADEX Dental Hygiene examination syllabus outlines the specific subjects and competencies covered in the exam. The syllabus typically includes the following areas:

- Dental Anatomy and Physiology
- Oral Health Assessment
- Dental Hygiene Treatment Planning and Implementation
- Dental Hygiene Clinical Skills
- Infection Control and Sterilization Procedures
- Patient Education and Communication

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Medical Hygiene questions


Answering the most-asked questions from social media: Hand hygiene

Editor’s note: This is the third in a series of articles in which they will bring in an expert to address some of the misinformation they have read in various social media posts and groups. You can see the previous two installments at the bottom of this article.

Q: I work in a super busy office, and I don’t always remember to do hand hygiene. There just isn’t time. How can I make sure my office is doing the right thing and keeping their patients safe?

A: Practicing hand hygiene often and well is the easiest and most effective way to prevent the spread of disease, both in a healthcare setting and at home. Dental providers, like any other healthcare providers, may need to practice hand hygiene as many as 100 times a day, depending on their patient load. Unfortunately, many studies show that providers practice hand hygiene less than half of the times that they should.

There are a few ways to promote hand hygiene with your co-workers and keep everyone safe.


Hand hygiene is often perceived as too basic and is skipped when it comes to employee education. Employers should provide staff education on the five moments of hand hygiene at least annually. Even though no one likes hand hygiene education, there are ways to make it fun.

One way is to use ultraviolet (UV) reactive gel or powder as a stand-in for germs. Have everyone wash their hands and see how much UV gel or powder is left when they’re finished with a UV light. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also has some great short training videos that can be used for free. 

Supply placement

One of the easiest ways to promote hand hygiene is to make supplies available everywhere in the office. Consistency is also key in hand hygiene supply placement. Placing alcohol-based hand rub in the same spot in each operatory makes it easy for staff to find when they are rushed. If they see it, they’ll use it. 


We’re all human; sometimes they forget things. I’m terrible about remembering things myself. Signage is a great way to remind staff that they need to practice hand hygiene. These signs can be posted in employee areas like the break room, sterilization, the lab, and close to hand hygiene sinks.

Another way to utilize signage is to promote hand hygiene practices to your patients. The CDC also has patient-centered signage and badge stickers that ask patients to hold their providers accountable when it comes to hand hygiene. These posters can be put in patient areas like the reception area and in operatories. The CDC has great free signage that facilities can order copies of and print.


Simple hand hygiene audits are another great way to hold your staff accountable. These audits don’t have to be complex or take up a ton of time, but they can be very effective in helping to recognize trends. Assigning someone in the practice to monitor hand hygiene habits for 10 minutes a day and reporting back to the team is a great place to start. There are tons of auditing programs, apps, and resources out there if you need help getting this program started. 

If auditing is in your facility’s future, it’s important that staff understand that it’s not to get anyone in trouble but to make the team better as a whole and keep patients safe.

Many of the tips I’ve listed are low effort and high impact. It’s easy to get more bottles of hand sanitizer or print and hang signage, but the actions explained above can have a lasting impact and create a culture of safety in your practice. Ask your staff if anyone wants to be your hand hygiene champion today and get started on the journey to clean hands and safer staff and patients. 


Clean Hands Count Campaign. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campaign/index.html. Last reviewed March 15, 2016. Accessed January 2, 2024.

Sarah Stream, MPH, CDA, is a seasoned dental professional, educator, and speaker. She is passionate about being a lifelong learner and sharing knowledge with other dental professionals on a safe dental visit and compliance. She currently specializes in OSHA, HIPAA, and infection control, supporting dental facilities with their education and compliance needs. You can contact her at Stream Education and Consulting LLC or via email at stream.education.and.consulting@gmail.com.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug