Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CEN exam Format | CEN Course Contents | CEN Course Outline | CEN exam Syllabus | CEN exam Objectives


The CEN exam is for nurses in the emergency department setting who want to demonstrate their expertise, knowledge and versatility in emergency nursing.



Killexams is the only source for emergency nursing professionals and their employers to obtain recognized certification with proven results for greater knowledge and performance. Enhance your knowledge, your career, and patient care with specialty certification in emergency nursing.



One of the more common questions they get from their customers is about the difference between a certification and a certificate. Here is the difference in a nutshell:



A certificate comes from an educational program where a certificate is awarded after the individual successfully completes the offering. Examples of certificates are Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) or Trauma Nursing Core Course (TNCC).



A certification, like the Certified Emergency Nurse (CEN) is an earned credential that demonstrates the individuals specialized knowledge and skills. Certification is awarded by a third-party organization, such as Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing. Individuals receive their certification after meeting strict eligibility requirements and successfully completing the required examination. In addition, certifications have ongoing requirements that must be meant to maintain the credential, ensuring the holder has maintained their level of expertise in the specialty area. Certifications are nationally recognized and are often utilized as part of the earners signature.



Earning professional certifications such as the CEN, CPEN, CFRN, CTRN and TCRN offered by BCEN, and completing certificate programs such as ACLS, PALS, ENCP and TNCC, are critical to the work emergency nurses do, but there are significant differences.


1. Cardiovascular Emergencies 20

A. Acute coronary syndrome

B. Aneurysm/dissection

C. Cardiopulmonary arrest

D. Dysrhythmias

E. Endocarditis

F. Heart failure

G. Hypertension

H. Pericardial tamponade

I. Pericarditis

J. Peripheral vascular disease (e.g., arterial, venous)

K. Thromboembolic disease (e.g., deep vein thrombosis [DVT])

L. Trauma

M. Shock (cardiogenic and obstructive)

2. Respiratory Emergencies 16

A. Aspiration

B. Asthma

C. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

D. Infections

E. Inhalation injuries

F. Obstruction

G. Pleural effusion

H. Pneumothorax

I. Pulmonary edema, noncardiac

J. Pulmonary embolus

K. Respiratory distress syndrome

L. Trauma

3. Neurological Emergencies 16

A. Alzheimer's disease/dementia

B. Chronic neurological disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis)

C. Guillain-Barré syndrome

D. Headache (e.g., temporal arteritis,migraine)

E. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP)

F. Meningitis

G. Seizure disorders

H. Shunt dysfunctions

I. Spinal cord injuries, including neurogenic shock

J. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic)

K. Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

L. Trauma

4. Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary, Gynecology, and Obstetrical Emergencies 21

A. Gastrointestinal

1. Acute abdomen (e.g., peritonitis, appendicitis)

2. Bleeding

3. Cholecystitis

4. Cirrhosis

5. Diverticulitis

6. Esophageal varices

7. Esophagitis

8. Foreign bodies

9. Gastritis

10. Gastroenteritis

11. Hepatitis

12. Hernia

13. Inflammatory bowel disease

14. Intussusception

15. Obstructions

16. Pancreatitis

17. Trauma

18. Ulcers

B. Genitourinary

1. Foreign bodies

2. Infection (e.g., urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, epididymitis, orchiitis, STDs)

3. Priapism

4. Renal calculi

5. Testicular torsion

6. Trauma

7. Urinary retention

C. Gynecology

1. Bleeding/dysfunction (vaginal)

2. Foreign bodies

3. Hemorrhage

4. Infection (e.g., discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease, STDs)

5. Ovarian cyst

6. Sexual assault/battery

7. Trauma

D. Obstetrical

1. Abruptio placenta

2. Ectopic pregnancy

3. Emergent delivery

4. Hemorrhage (e.g., postpartum bleeding)

5. Hyperemesis gravidarum

6. Neonatal resuscitation

7. Placenta previa

8. Postpartum infection

9. Preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome

10. Preterm labor

11. Threatened/spontaneous abortion

12. Trauma

5. Psychosocial and Medical Emergencies 25

A. Psychosocial

1. Abuse and neglect

2. Aggressive/violent behavior

3. Anxiety/panic

4. Bipolar disorder

5. Depression

6. Homicidal ideation

7. Psychosis

8. Situational crisis (e.g., job loss, relationship issues, unexpected death)

9. Suicidal ideation

B. Medical

1. Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis

2. Blood dyscrasias

a. Hemophilia

b. Other coagulopathies (e.g., anticoagulant medications, thrombocytopenia)

c. Leukemia

d. Sickle cell crisis

3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

4. Electrolyte/fluid imbalance

5. Endocrine conditions:

a. Adrenal

b. Glucose related conditions

c. Thyroid

6. Fever

7. Immunocompromise (e.g., HIV/AIDS, patients receiving chemotherapy)

8. Renal failure

9. Sepsis and septic shock

6. Maxillofacial, Ocular, Orthopedic and Wound Emergencies 21

A. Maxillofacial

1. Abscess (i.e., peritonsillar)

2. Dental conditions

3. Epistaxis

4. Facial nerve disorders (e.g., Bells palsy, trigeminal neuralgia)

5. Foreign bodies

6. Infections (e.g., Ludwig'sangina, otitis, sinusitis, mastoiditis)

7. Acute vestibular dysfunction (e.g., labrinthitis, Ménière's disease)

8. Ruptured tympanic membrane

9. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation

10. Trauma

B. Ocular

1. Abrasions

2. Burns

3. Foreign bodies

4. Glaucoma

5. Infections (e.g., conjunctivitis, iritis)

6. Retinal artery occlusion

7. Retinal detachment

8. Trauma (e.g., hyphema, laceration, globe rupture)

9. Ulcerations/keratitis

C. Orthopedic

1. Amputation

2. Compartment syndrome

3. Contusions

4. Costochondritis

5. Foreign bodies

6. Fractures/dislocations

7. Inflammatory conditions

8. Joint effusion

9. Low back pain

10. Osteomyelitis

11. Strains/sprains

12. Trauma (e.g., Achilles tendon rupture, blast injuries)

D. Wound

1. Abrasions

2. Avulsions

3. Foreign bodies

4. Infections

5. Injection injuries (e.g., grease gun, paintgun)

6. Lacerations

7. Missile injuries (e.g., guns, nail guns)



8. Pressure ulcers

9. Puncture wounds

10. Trauma (i.e., including degloving injuries)

7. Environment and Toxicology Emergencies, and Communicable Diseases 15

A. Environment

1. Burns

2. Chemical exposure (e.g., organophosphates, cleaning agents)

3. Electrical injuries

4. Envenomation emergencies (e.g., spiders, snakes, aquatic organisms)

5. Food poisoning

6. Parasite and fungal infestations (e.g., giardia, ringworm, scabies)

7. Radiation exposure

8. Submersion injury

9. Temperature-related emergencies (e.g., heat, cold, and systemic)

10. Vector borne illnesses:

a. Rabies

b. Tick-borne illness (e.g., Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever)

B. Toxicology

1. Acids and alkalis

2. Carbon monoxide

3. Cyanide

4. Drug interactions (includingalternative therapies)

5. Overdose and ingestions

6. Substance abuse

7. Withdrawal syndrome

C. Communicable Diseases

1. C. Difficile

2. Childhood diseases (e.g., measles, mumps, pertussis, chicken pox,

diphtheria)

3. Herpes zoster

4. Mononucleosis

5. Multi-drug resistant organisms (e.g., MRSA, VRE)

6. Tuberculosis



8. Professional Issues 16

A. Nurse

1. Critical Incident Stress Management

2. Ethical dilemmas

3. Evidence-based practice

4. Lifelong learning

5. Research

B. Patient

1. Discharge planning

2. End of life issues:

a. Organ and tissue donation

b. Advance directives

c. Family presence

d. Withholding, withdrawing, and palliative care

3. Forensic evidence collection

4. Pain management and procedural sedation

5. Patient safety

6. Patient satisfaction

7. Transfer and stabilization

8. Transitions of care

a. external handoffs

b. internal handoffs

c. patient boarding

d. shift reporting

9. cultural considerations (e.g., interpretive services, privacy, decision making)

C. System

1. Delegation of tasks to assistive personnel

2. Disaster management (i.e., preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery)

3. Federal regulations (e.g., HIPAA, EMTALA)

4. Patient consent for treatment Performance improvement

6. Risk management

7. Symptom surveillance

a. recognizing symptom clusters

b. mandatory reporting of diseases

D. Triage



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug