Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CFEX
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CFEX exam Format | CFEX Course Contents | CFEX Course Outline | CFEX exam Syllabus | CFEX exam Objectives

A Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) is a leader in the anti-fraud community, noted as a specialist in the prevention, detection and deterrence of fraud. CFEs represent the highest standards held by the ACFE

Before earning the CFE Credential, you are required to pass the CFE Exam. The CFE exam tests your knowledge of the four major areas that comprise the fraud examination body of knowledge:

Financial Transactions and Fraud Schemes — tests your comprehension of the types of fraudulent financial transactions incurred in accounting records. To pass Financial Transactions & Fraud Schemes, you will be required to demonstrate knowledge of the following concepts: basic accounting and auditing theory, fraud schemes, internal controls to deter fraud and other auditing and accounting matters.

Law — ensures your familiarity with the many legal ramifications of conducting fraud examinations, including criminal and civil law, rules of evidence, rights of the accused and accuser, and expert witness matters.

Investigation — includes questions about interviewing, taking statements, obtaining information from public records, tracing illicit transactions, evaluating deception and report writing.

Fraud Prevention and Deterrence — tests your understanding of why people commit fraud and ways to prevent it. subjects covered in this section include crime causation, white-collar crime, occupational fraud, fraud prevention, fraud risk exam, and the ACFE Code of Professional Ethics.

Explanation of Certification Process

• Requirements

• Explanation of exam Process

• Investigation Techniques

• Planning the Investigation

• Interview Theory and Application

• Analysing Documents

• Data Analysis and Reporting Tools

• Computer Forensics

• Covert Exams

• Sources of Information

• Tracing Illicit Transactions

• Reporting Standards

• exam on Investigation Techniques

• Overview of the Legal System

• Criminal Prosecutions for Fraud

• Basic Principles of Evidence

• Individual Rights During Exams

• Civil Justice System

• Law Related to Fraud

• Testifying as an Expert Witness

• Securities Fraud

• Money Laundering

• Bankruptcy Fraud

• exam on Law Related to Fraud Accounting Concepts

• Financial Statement Fraud

• Consumer Fraud

• Healthcare Fraud

• Financial Institution Fraud

• Check and Credit Card Fraud

• Insurance Fraud

• Fraudulent Disbursements

• Inventory and Other Assets

• Cash Receipts

• Bribery and Corruption

• Theft of Intellectual Property

• Computer and Internet Fraud

• Public Sector Fraud

• Contract and Procurement

• Fraud exam on Financial Transactions and Fraud Schemes

• Understanding Behaviour

• White-Collar Crime

• ACFE Code of Professional Ethics

• Managements Responsibilities

• Auditors Responsibilities

• Corporate Governance

• Fraud Prevention Programs

• Fraud Risk Assessment

• Fraud Risk Management

• exam on Fraud Prevention and Deterrence

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ACFE Examiner exam contents



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Applications for marking examiners called online


Applications for the selection of marking examiners for the Grade Five Scholarship exam 2023 have been called online from August 11, the Department of Exams announced.

In a media notice, the Department said the applications will be accepted until September 1.

Applications can be submitted through the exam Department’s official website (www.doenets.lk), its mobile application, or via https://onlineexams.gov.lk/eic by using the National Identity Card (NIC) number to log in.

Correctly completed applications should be forwarded by the Principal to the Sri Lanka Exams Department online before September 01.

Before completing the application it is essential to read the Technical Instructions, Common Instructions, and instruction video to complete the application properly. Any questions can be made through the following contact numbers:1911, 0112785231, 0112785216, 0112784037.

Sandhya Karunaratne

FDIC examiners may need higher pay, freer voice to bolster supervision

Barr Gruenberg Regulators, including FDIC Chair Martin Gruenberg (center), have conducted internal reviews of latest high-profile bank failures. Outside experts say more competitive wages, culture shifts and whistleblower protections could help regulators attract and retain examiner talent and Boost oversight.

Anna Rose Layden/Bloomberg

WASHINGTON — One takeaway from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.'s post-mortem on Signature Bank's failure this spring was that more than one of the agency's satellite offices — including the New York regional office that supervised Signature — had persistent staffing shortages up until the bank collapsed.

However, these challenges were not new.

The New York office had repeatedly raised staffing concerns to the regulator's Risk Management Supervision division as early as 2020, and these concerns persisted for years, according to the FDIC's post-failure report, which was issued in April.

A number of factors hindered the New York office's ability to staff-up, the agency said. Those include the high cost of living in the New York metro area, the COVID-19 pandemic as well as competition from other regulators and private firms that can offer more competitive wages and benefits.

The agency increased employee pay and bonus incentives in 2022. Yet, experts and officials agree, this year's turmoil may necessitate further changes to fill vacancies on teams that supervise large financial institutions.

In order for the agency to attract talent, the FDIC will have to raise wages, which banks would be required to pay for in the form of higher exam fees, said Mayra Rodríguez Valladares, Managing Principal at MRV Associates.

"I think that there has to be more pay, and with the FDIC, that means you've got to raise the [deposit insurance] premium from the banks so that you can pay more, so you can attract caliber," she said.

Valladares said while most prospective examiners consider far more factors than just pay when accepting a position, the different rates each agency pays affect turnover. Younger employees with less experience are more prone to leave for a higher wage, she said, especially since the pandemic. After all, junior analysts and examiners at the FDIC can earn less than $100,000 annually, short of what is paid in the private sector, or even at other regulatory agencies.

"Typically, the Fed is known to pay more than the OCC and then the FDIC, but there's other things than pay," she said. "People who are younger — let's say they've only been there two, three years — and now [in] a situation post COVID, where there's such demand [for labor], those are the people that tend to be more likely to jump, and go where there's higher pay."

An FDIC spokesperson declined to comment at this time on its staffing efforts underway to address the many issues raised by the report.

Agency-generated reports following the historic March bank failures concluded there's more to effective supervision than staffing, however. The Federal Reserve's autopsy of Silicon Valley Bank's demise — another of the major failures of the latest banking crisis — also underscored the need for the agencies to empower examiners when they do identify risks.

The policies of previous administrations may have made some examiners more reluctant to forcefully raise concerns, says Arthur E. Wilmarth, a law professor at  George Washington University Law Professor who specializes in banking issues.

He noted that the heads of the FDIC, OCC and Fed during the Trump administration issued a joint statement in September 2018 stipulating that bank examiners could not criticize a bank for violating supervisory guidance, but rather only after institutions behavior met a higher bar: actual violations of laws and regulations.  

"That joint statement created considerable uncertainty whether examiner criticisms — such as those contained in matters requiring board attention — would be treated as nonbinding 'supervisory guidance,' and the statement could have encouraged bank managements to deliver short shrift to criticisms contained in bank examinations," Wilmarth wrote in an email.

According to The Wall Street Journal, during visits with employees, then-FDIC Chair Jelena McWilliams and then-Fed Vice Chair for Supervision Randal Quarles asked bank examiners to be less aggressive when flagging risky practices and pressing firms to change course.

"Both [the FDIC and Fed] reports indicate that [in each case, the agency] did not back up its examiners' warnings with timely and effective enforcement actions. One can certainly understand why FDIC examiners might become demoralized and more likely to leave the agency. …The Fed's review of the failure of SVB and the [Government Accountability Office]'s interim review of that failure paint a very similar picture with regard to the actions of the Fed's examiners and supervisory staff and SVB's management."

Valladares says empowering examiners requires more workplace protections so examiners can act without the fear of retaliation.

"They really need a kind of whistleblower protection," she said. "[At] SVB, those examiners were doing their job. …Someone — either middle management or senior management — stepped in and said 'it's OK, let's deliver them a higher score, or let's not push for enforcement.'"


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug