Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CFP exam Format | CFP Course Contents | CFP Course Outline | CFP exam Syllabus | CFP exam Objectives


The CFP® certification examination is a key requirement for achieving CFP® certification. By passing the exam, you demonstrate that you've attained the knowledge and competency necessary to provide comprehensive personal financial planning advice to your clients. CFP Board is here to guide you with the support, tools and resources you need for a successful exam experience.



To develop CFP® exam content that reflects the current practice of financial planning, CFP Board conducts regular Job Analyses to identify the important tasks performed by planners and assess the knowledge and skills needed to perform these tasks. This process is conducted by CFP® professionals and led by testing experts to assure the exam remains current, reliable, valid and legally defensible.



CFP Board works with volunteer CFP® professionals to develop the exam. These volunteers include Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) who serve as item writers and reviewers, as well as members of the Council on Exams, which is made up of SMEs with considerable experience with the CFP® exam who provide final review and approval of all exam questions.



The criterion for passing the CFP® exam is established through a process known as Standard Setting, during which CFP® professionals determine the minimal competency level required to pass the exam. CFP Board does not predetermine the pass rate for the exam or have an established percentage of questions that must be answered correctly to pass.



The following Principal courses are based on the results of CFP Boards 2015 Job Task Analysis. The Principal
Topics serve as a curricular framework and also represent subject courses that CFP Board accepts for continuing
education credit, effective January 2016. Each exam question will be linked to one of the following topics, in the
approximate percentages indicated following the general headings.



8 PRINCIPAL KNOWLEDGE subject CATEGORIES:

A. Professional Conduct and Regulation (7%)

B. General Principles of Financial Planning (17%)

C. Education Planning (6%)

D. Risk Management and Insurance Planning (12%)

E. Investment Planning (17%)

F. Tax Planning (12%)

G. Retirement Savings and Income Planning (17%)

H. Estate Planning (12%)

A. PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

AND REGULATION (7%)

A.1 CFP Boards Code of Ethics and Professional

Responsibility and Rules of Conduct

A.2 CFP Boards Financial Planning Practice Standards

A.3 CFP Boards Disciplinary Rules and Procedures

A.4 Function, purpose, and regulation of financial

institutions

A.5 Financial services regulations and requirements

A.6 Consumer protection laws

A.7 Fiduciary

B. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF

FINANCIAL PLANNING (17%)

B.8 Financial planning process

B.9 Financial statements

B.10 Cash flow management

B.11 Financing strategies

B.12 Economic concepts

B.13 Time value of money concepts and calculations

B.14 Client and planner attitudes, values, biases and

behavioral finance

B.15 Principles of communication and counseling

B.16 Debt management

C. EDUCATION PLANNING (6%)

C.17 Education needs analysis

C.18 Education savings vehicles

C.19 Financial aid

C.20 Gift/income tax strategies

C.21 Education financing

D. RISK MANAGEMENT AND

INSURANCE PLANNING (12%)

D.22 Principles of risk and insurance

D.23 Analysis and evaluation of risk exposures

D.24 Health insurance and health care cost management (individual)

D.25 Disability income insurance (individual)

D.26 Long-term care insurance (individual)

D.27 Annuities

D.28 Life insurance (individual)

D.29 Business uses of insurance

D.30 Insurance needs analysis

D.31 Insurance policy and company selection

D.32 Property and casualty insurance

E. INVESTMENT PLANNING (17%)

E.33 Characteristics, uses and taxation of investment vehicles

E.34 Types of investment risk

E.35 Quantitative investment concepts

E.36 Measures of investment returns

E.37 Asset allocation and portfolio diversification

E.38 Bond and stock valuation concepts

E.39 Portfolio development and analysis

E.40 Investment strategies

E.41 Alternative investments

F. TAX PLANNING (12%)

F.42 Fundamental tax law

F.43 Income tax fundamentals and calculations

F.44 Characteristics and income taxation of business entities

F.45 Income taxation of trusts and estates

F.46 Alternative minimum tax (AMT)

F.47 Tax reduction/management techniques

F.48 Tax consequences of property transactions

F.49 Passive activity and at-risk rules

F.50 Tax implications of special circumstances

F.51 Charitable/philanthropic contributions and deductions

G. RETIREMENT SAVINGS AND

INCOME PLANNING (17%)

G.52 Retirement needs analysis

G.53 Social Security and Medicare

G.54 Medicaid

G.55 Types of retirement plans

G.56 Qualified plan rules and options

G.57 Other tax-advantaged retirement plans

G.58 Regulatory considerations

G.59 Key factors affecting plan selection for businesses

G.60 Distribution rules and taxation

G.61 Retirement income and distribution strategies

G.62 Business succession planning

H. ESTATE PLANNING (12%)

H.63 Characteristics and consequences of property titling

H.64 Strategies to transfer property

H.65 Estate planning documents

H.66 Gift and estate tax compliance and tax calculation

H.67 Sources for estate liquidity

H.68 Types, features, and taxation of trusts

H.69 Marital deduction

H.70 Intra-family and other business transfer techniques

H.71 Postmortem estate planning techniques

H.72 Estate planning for non-traditional relationships



1. ESTABLISHING AND DEFINING THE

CLIENT-PLANNER RELATIONSHIP

A. Identify the client (e.g., individual, family, business, organization)

B. Discuss the financial planning process

C. Explain scope of services offered

D. Assess and communicate ability to meet the clients needs and expectations

E. Identify and disclose conflicts of interest in client relationships

F. Discuss responsibilities of parties involved

G. Define and document the scope of the engagement

H. Provide client disclosures

1. Regulatory disclosure

2. Compensation arrangements and associated potential conflicts of interest

2. GATHERING INFORMATION NECESSARY

TO FULFILL THE ENGAGEMENT

A. Explore with the client their personal and financial needs, priorities and goals

B. Assess the clients level of knowledge, experience and risk tolerance

C. Evaluate the clients risk exposures (e.g., longevity, economic, liability, healthcare)

D. Gather relevant data including:

1. Summary of assets (e.g., cost basis information, beneficiary designations and titling)

2. Summary of liabilities (e.g., balances, terms, interest rates)

3. Summary of income and expenses

4. Estate planning documents

5. Education plan and resources

6. Retirement plan information

7. Employee benefits

8. Government benefits (e.g., Social Security, Medicare)

9. Special circumstances (e.g., legal documents and agreements, family situations)

10. Tax documents

11. Investment statements

12. Insurance policies and documents (e.g., life, health, disability, liability)

13. Closely held business documents (e.g., shareholder agreements)

14. Inheritances, windfalls, and other large lump sums

3. ANALYZING AND EVALUATING THE

CLIENTS CURRENT FINANCIAL STATUS

A. Evaluate and document the strengths and vulnerabilities of the clients current financial situation including:

1. Statement of financial position/balance sheet

2. Cash flow statement

3. Capital needs analysis (e.g., insurance, retirement, major purchases

4. Asset protection (e.g., titling, trusts, etc.)

5. Asset allocation

6. Client liquidity (e.g., emergency fund)

7. Government benefits (e.g., Social Security, Medicare)

8. Employee benefits

9. Investment strategies

10. Current, deferred and future tax liabilities

11. Estate tax liabilities

12. Tax considerations

13. Income types

14. Retirement plans and strategies (e.g., qualified plans, IRAs)

15. Accumulation planning

16. Distribution planning

17. Estate documents

18. Ownership of assets

19. Beneficiary designations

20. Gifting strategies

21. Executive compensation (e.g., deferred compensation, stock options, RSUs)

22. Succession planning and exit strategy

23. Risk management (e.g., retained risk and insurance coverage)

24. Educational financial aid

25. General sources of financing

26. Special circumstances (e.g., divorce, disabilities, family dynamics, etc.)

27. Inheritances, windfalls, and other large lump sums

28. Charitable planning

29. Aging and eldercare

30. Mental capability and capacity issues

B. Identify and use appropriate tools and techniques to conduct analyses including:

1. Financial calculator

2. Computer spreadsheet

3 Financial planning software

4. DEVELOPING THE RECOMMENDATION(S)

A. Evaluate alternatives to meet the clients goals and objectives

1. Sensitivity analysis (e.g., factors outside of client control)

B. Consult with other professionals as appropriate

C. Develop recommendations considering:

1. Client attitudes, values and beliefs

2. Behavioral finance issues (e.g., anchoring, overconfidence, recency)

3. Their interdependence

D. Document recommendations

5. COMMUNICATING THE RECOMMENDATION(S)

A. Present financial plan and provide guidance

1. Goals

2. Assumptions

3. Observations and findings

4. Alternatives

5. Recommendations

B. Obtain feedback from the client and revise the recommendations as appropriate

C. Provide documentation of plan recommendations and any additional disclosures

D. Verify client acceptance of recommendations

6. IMPLEMENTING THE RECOMMENDATION(S)

A. Create a prioritized implementation plan with timeline

B. Directly or indirectly implement the recommendations

C. Coordinate and share information, as authorized, with others

D. Define monitoring responsibilities with the client (e.g., explain what will be monitored, frequency of monitoring, communication method(s))

7. MONITORING THE RECOMMENDATION(S)

A. Discuss and evaluate changes in the clients personal circumstances (e.g., aging issues, change in employment)

B. Review the performance and progress of the plan

C. Review and evaluate changes in the legal, tax and economic environments

D. Make recommendations to accommodate changed circumstances

E. Review scope of work and redefine engagement as appropriate

F. Provide ongoing client support (e.g., guidance, education)

8. PRACTICING WITHIN PROFESSIONAL AND REGULATORY STANDARDS

A. Adhere to CFP Boards Standards of Professional Conduct

B. Manage practice risk (e.g., documentation, monitor client noncompliance with recommendations)

C. Maintain awareness of and comply with regulatory and legal guidelines



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug