Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Nursing CFRN : Certified Flight Registered Nurse exam Dumps

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CFRN exam Format | CFRN Course Contents | CFRN Course Outline | CFRN exam Syllabus | CFRN exam Objectives


1. General principles of transport nursing practice

A. Transport physiology

1. Physiologic stressors of transport

2. Effects of altitude on patients

B. Scene operations

1. Secure landing zone

2. Incident Command System

C. Communications

1. Radio operations

2. Patient handoff (e.g., history from referring provider, updates for receiving provider, SBAR)

3. Crew resource management

D. Safety and survival

1. ELT

2. Navigation (e.g., maps, GPS, night-vision goggles)

3. Transponder codes

4. Survival principles (post-crash)

5. Transport vehicle emergencies

6. Pre-mission preparation (e.g., shift preparedness, risk exam, crew briefings, weather limitations,AMRM)

E. Management of man-made disasters (e.g., terrorism, industrial accident, transportation accident, mass casualties)

F. Professional issues

1. Evidence-based practice and research

2. Legal issues

a. HIPAA

b. EMTALA

c. Consent

d. Mandatory reporting (e.g., abuse, neglect, diversion, non-accidental trauma)

e. Legal concepts in patient care (e.g., negligence, assault, battery, abandonment)

3. Ethical issues

4. Psychosocial issues in transport, including families

G. Management

1. Quality management and fair work environment

2. Outreach and community education

3. Stress management (e.g., self-care, post-traumatic critical incident)

2. Resuscitation principles 27 31

A. Principles of exam and patient preparation

1. Physical exam

2. Pain and comfort exam

3. Preparing the patient for transport (i.e., packaging)

B. Airway management

1. Airway exam

2. Airway management

3. Difficulties encountered with airway

4. Rapid Sequence Induction for Intubation (RSI), including pharmacology

C. Mechanical ventilation

1. Invasive ventilation

2. Non-invasive ventilation

D. Perfusion

1. Components of oxygen delivery

2. Shock pathophysiology

3. Trauma triad (hypothermia, acidosis, coagulopathies)

4. Acid base imbalances

3. Trauma 26 31

A. Principles of management

1. Mechanism of injury

2. Shock

a. Hypovolemic

b. Obstructive

c. Distributive (including neurogenic)

d. Cardiogenic

3. Immobilization

B. Neurologic

1. Traumatic brain injuries

2. Spinal cord injuries

3. Post-traumatic seizures

C. Thoracic

1. Chest wall injuries

2. Pulmonary injuries

3. Cardiac injuries

4. Great vessel injuries

D. Abdominal

1. Hollow organ injuries

2. Solid organ injuries

3. Diaphragmatic injuries

4. Retroperitoneal injuries

5. Abdominal compartment syndrome

E. Orthopedic

1. Vertebral injuries

2. Pelvic injuries

3. Compartment syndrome

4. Amputations

5. Extremity fractures

6. Soft-tissue injuries

F. Burn

1. Chemical burns

2. Electrical burns

3. Thermal burns

4. Radiological burns

5. Inhalation injuries

G. Maxillofacial and neck

1. Facial injuries, including fractures

2. Ocular injuries

3. Blunt and penetrating neck injuries

4. Medical emergencies 44 44

A. Neurologic

1. Seizure disorders

2. Stroke

3. Neuromuscular disorders

4. Space occupying lesions

a. Blood

b. Tumors

c. Abscesses

d. Hydrocephalus

e. Encephalopathies

B. Cardiovascular

1. Acute coronary syndrome

2. Congestive heart failure

3. Pulmonary edema

4. Dysrhythmias

5. Aortic abnormalities

6. Hypertension

7. Mechanical/circulatory support (e.g., IABP, VAD, pacing)

C. Pulmonary

1. COPD

2. Acute lung injury/ARDS

3. Pulmonary infections

4. Asthma

5. Pulmonary embolism

D. Abdominal

1. Abdominal compartment syndrome

2. GI bleed

3. Conditions of the hollow organs (e.g., obstruction,rupture)

4. Conditions of the solid organs (e.g., pancreatitis, hepatitis)

E. Electrolyte disturbances

F. Metabolic and endocrine

1. Diabetic emergencies

2. Neuroendocrine disorders (e.g., diabetes insipidus, SIADH, HHNK)

3. Thyroid conditions

4. Adrenal disorders

G. Hematology

1. Coagulopathies (including platelet disorders)

2. Anemias

H. Renal

1. Acute kidney injury (i.e., acute renal failure)

2. Chronic renal failure

I. Infectious and communicable diseases

1. SIRS and sepsis

2. Isolation precautions (e.g., MRSA, influenza-like illness, highly-infectious diseases)

J. Shock

1. Hypovolemic

2. Obstructive

3. Distributive (including neurogenic and anaphylaxis)

4. Cardiogenic

K. Environmental and toxicological emergencies

1. Environment

a. Allergic reactions

b. Cold related (e.g., hypothermia, frostbite)

c. Heat related (e.g., heatstroke, heat exhaustion)

d. Submersion injuries (i.e., diving injuries, drowning, near drowning)

e. Bites and envenomation

2. Toxicology

A. Obstetrical patients

1. Complications of pregnancy

2. Delivery and post-partum care of mother and infant

3. Trauma

B. Pediatric

1. Trauma

2. Medical (e.g., respiratory, cardiac, and neurological emergencies, metabolic disturbances)

C. Geriatric

1. Trauma (e.g., falls, immobilization)

2. Medical (e.g., drug interactions and comorbidities, dementia)

D. Bariatric (e.g., logistical issues, drug dosage, skin issues,airway management)



Procedures

PA catheter

Point-of-care testing

Video laryngoscopy

Chest radiographs

Transvenous pacing

Capnography for non-intubated patients

Surgical cricothyrotomy

Therapeutic hypothermia

Central venous pressure measurement

Arterial line

Needle cricothyrotomy

Needle thoracostomy

Tourniquet application

Central line

Chest tube

Pelvic stabilization

Non-invasive mechanical ventilation

Traction splint

12-lead ECG

Invasive mechanical ventilation

Transcutaneous pacing

Blood product administration

Capnography for intubated patients

Endotrachael intubation

Initiate/titrate medications

Intraosseous catheter

IABP operation

Escharotomy

CT scans

Medical circulatory devices (VAD, Impella®)

Fracture/dislocation reduction

ICP monitoring

Pericardiocentesis

Neck radiographs

Ventriculostomy monitoring



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug