Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CFSA
Exam Name : Certified Financial Services Auditor (IIA-CFSA)
Vendor Name : IIA
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CFSA exam Format | CFSA Course Contents | CFSA Course Outline | CFSA exam Syllabus | CFSA exam Objectives


Certified Financial Services Auditor® (CFSA®) exam Syllabus

The CFSA exam tests a candidate's knowledge of current auditing practices and understanding of internal audit issues, risks, and remedies in the financial services industry.



The exam consists of 115 multiple-choice questions.

The testing period is two hours and fifty-five minutes.

Exam questions are all multiple-choice (objective) with four answer choices.

80% of the exam covers four domains: Financial Services Auditing, Auditing Financial Services Products, Auditing Financial Service Processes, and The Regulatory Environment.

The remaining 20% relate to the candidates' chosen discipline and will be at the proficiency level.

CFSA candidates may choose any one of the three disciplines as part of their CFSA exam test.

Candidates may not choose to be tested on more than one discipline.

The CFSA designation does not distinguish one chosen discipline from another.



The CFSA exam core content covers four domains:



Domain I: Financial Services Auditing (25-35%)

Domain II: Auditing Financial Services Products (25-35%)

Domain III: Auditing Financial Service Processes (25-35%)

Domain IV: The Regulatory Environment (10-20%)



CFSA exam Individual Disciplines

Banking: Products, Processes, and the Regulatory Environment (20% — Proficiency Level)

Insurance: Products, Processes, and the Regulatory Environment (20% — Proficiency Level)

Securities: Products, Processes, and the Regulatory Environment (20% — Proficiency Level)



Financial Services Auditing (25-35%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding, ability to apply concepts) in these subject areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these subject areas.

A. IIA International Professional Practices Framework (P)

B. Internal Control/Risk Management/Governance (P)

Internal Control Frameworks

Risk Management Frameworks

Governance Models

C. Audit Process (P)

Audit Planning

Audit Fieldwork

Risk Assessment

Analytical Review

Data Gathering and Evaluation

Testing

Tools and Techniques (e.g., CAAT)

Audit Communications

Monitoring Outcomes

D. Implications of Information Technology (P)

E. Auditing Financial Statement Elements (P)

Balance Sheet

Statement of Cash Flows

Income/Expense Statement

Off Balance-sheet Items

Auditing Financial Services Products (25-35%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding, ability to apply concepts) in these subject areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these subject areas.

A. Lending/Loans (A)

B. Deposits (A)

C. Trusts (A)

D. Annuities (A)

E. Derivatives (A)

F. Electronic Services (A)

G. Cash Management Services (A)

H. Stocks (A)

I. Bonds (A)

J. Commodities (A)

K. Mutual Funds (A)

L. Employee Benefits (A)

M. Capital Market Products (A)

N. Securities Lending (A)

O. Insurance Policies (A)

P. Insurance Products (A)

Q. Foreign Exchange (A)

R. Asset Management (A)

S. Money Market Products (A)

Auditing Financial Service Processes (25-35%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding, ability to apply concepts) in these subject areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these subject areas.

A. Risk Management (A)

Asset/Liability Management

Trading Market Risk

Credit, Liquidity, Operational Risk

Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

Reserves

B. Underwriting (A)

Loans

Securities

Insurance

Private Placement

Initial Public Offerings

C. Securitizations (A)

D. Treasury Operations (e.g., Cash Management) (A)

E. Back-office Operations (A)

F. Marketing Sales and Distribution (e.g., Insurance Agencies, Bank Branches, Brokers) (A)

G. Claims (A)

H. Investments (A)

I. Broker/Dealer Activities (A)

J. Rating Advisory Service (A)

K. Mergers and Acquisitions (A)

L. Loan Operations (e.g., Collateral Issues, Perfecting Liens) (A)

The Regulatory Environment (10-20%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding, ability to apply concepts) in these subject areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these subject areas.

A. Overview of the Regulatory Environment (A)

Function of Central Bank

Function of Insurance Regulators

Function of Securities Regulators

B. Laws and Regulations (A)

Equal Credit Opportunity/Antidiscrimination

Home Mortgage Disclosure

Reserve Requirements

Insider Transactions

Lending Disclosure

Deposits Disclosure

Real Estate Sales Disclosure

Self-assessment of Internal Controls/Risk Management

Investor/Depositor Protection

Financial and Personal Information Privacy

Anti-Money Laundering

C. Stock Exchanges and Other Markets (A)

D. Money and Banking (A)

Role of Money and Banking

Bond and Stock Markets

Effect of Interest Rate Movements

Monetary Management Theories



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug