Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Certified Government Auditing Professional® (CGAP®) test Syllabus

The CGAP test includes 115 multiple-choice questions, covers four domains, and requires a completion time of two hours and fifty-five minutes. The test includes questions on International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) Government Auditing Standards. Candidates who registered to take the test in the United States will receive a local version of the test with questions on U.S. Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS/Yellow Book).



P = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding; ability to apply concepts) in these course areas.

A = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these course areas.



Standards tested on the CGAP exam:

The IIA's International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF) (P) (Includes the Code of Ethics, International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards), Practice Advisories, and Development and Practice Aids)

INTOSAI Standards and Code of Ethics (A)

Additional standards tested on the CGAP test for candidates taking the test in the United States:



Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS/Yellow Book) (P)

Exam Non-disclosure

The CGAP test is a non-disclosed examination, which means that current test mock test will not be published or divulged.

NOTE: test subjects and/or format are subject to change as approved by The IIA's Professional Certification Board (PCB).



CGAP test Domains

The CGAP test core content covers four domains:

Domain I: Standards, Governance, and Risk/Control Frameworks (10-20 percent)

Domain II: Government Auditing Practice (35-45 percent)

Domain III: Government Auditing Skills and Techniques (20-25 percent)

Domain IV: Government Auditing Environment (20-25 percent)



Certified Government Auditing Professional® (CGAP®) test Syllabus — Domain I

Standards, Governance, and Risk/Control Frameworks (10-20%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding; ability to apply concepts) in these course areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these course areas.

A. Standards

Role of a comprehensive set of auditing/evaluation standards (A)

Application of appropriate standards in all assignments (P)

Role and impact of other auditing standards (standards of public accounting bodies, quality assurance bodies, etc.) and their relationship with the above standards (A)

B. Governance

Governance in the public sector (e.g., audit committee, code of conduct, open government, public scrutiny, equity, accountability) (P)

Role of audit within the governance structure (P)

C. Risk/Control Frameworks (e.g., COSO, CoCo)

Role of frameworks (A)

Elements of a risk/control framework (P)

Application of frameworks (P)

D. IIA Code of Ethics (P)



Certified Government Auditing Professional® (CGAP®) test Syllabus — Domain II

Government Auditing Practice (35-45%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding; ability to apply concepts) in these course areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these course areas.

A. Management of the Audit Function

Need for a formal document of purpose, authority, and responsibility (P)

Policies and procedures (A)

Quality assurance (A)

Planning (A)

Staffing (A)

Marketing the audit function (A)

Mission/role/outcome of audit function within government (A)

B. Types of Audit Services

Audits of compliance (P)

Audits of performance/value-for-money/operations (e.g., economy, efficiency, effectiveness) (P)

Audits of financial statements (A)

Audits of financial systems (P)

Audits of information and related technology (P)

Consulting/assistance services (e.g., non-audit advisory services) (A)

Integrity services (e.g., Fraud, Waste, and Abuse) (P)

C. Processes for Delivery of Audit Services

Management of individual projects (P)

Planning (The role of laws, regulations, rules, and ordinances in your planning process should be considered in the planning process) (P)

Risk and control test practices (P)

Performing the engagement (P)

Communicating results (P)

Monitoring results (follow-up) (P)



Certified Government Auditing Professional® (CGAP®) test Syllabus — Domain III

Government Auditing Skills and Techniques (20-25%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding; ability to apply concepts) in these course areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these course areas.

A. Management Concepts and Techniques (A)

B. Performance Measurement (P)

C. Program Evaluation (A)

D. Quantitative Methods (e.g., statistical methods and analytical review) (P)

E. Qualitative Methods (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, and flow charts) (P)

F. Methods for the Identification and Investigation of Integrity Violations (P)

G. Research/Data Collection Techniques (P)

H. Analytical Skills (e.g., distinguish between significant and insignificant information) (P)



Certified Government Auditing Professional® (CGAP®) test Syllabus — Domain IV

Government Auditing Environment (20-25%)

(P) = Candidates must exhibit proficiency (thorough understanding; ability to apply concepts) in these course areas.

(A) = Candidates must exhibit awareness (knowledge of terminology and fundamentals) in these course areas.

A. Performance Management (P)

B. Financial Management

Unique requirements in accounting for and reporting on government financial operations (P)

Principles of taxation and revenue generation (P)

Unique aspects of governmental budgeting (e.g., encumbrances, earmarking) (P)

Government accounting (e.g., fund accounting, resource accounting) (P)

Legal restrictions on sources and uses of funds (e.g., voted funds, conditional grants, revenues) (A)

Investment restrictions for public funds (A)

Activity-based costing/cost-allocation (A)

C. Implications of Various Service Delivery Methods

Direct delivery by government employees (P)

Grants (P)

Contracts (P)

Joint Ventures/Partnerships/Authorities/Special Operating Agencies/Quasi-governmental (A)

Privatization (A)

D. Implications of Delivering Services to Citizens

Due process rights of clients/citizens (P)

Confidentiality/privacy/rights of clients/citizens (P)

Issues arising from the methods of funding/delivering services (condition that client receiving service may not be party paying for the services; ability-to-pay principle; user pay; eligibility requirements; limitations on services available; entitlements; etc.) (A)

Reality of conflicting missions (e.g., satisfy both developers and environmentalists, keep families together and kids safe) (A)
Issues associated with at-risk populations (e.g., multiple, interacting causes and conditions; difficulty of measuring prevention) (A)

E. Unique Characteristics of Human Resources Management (A)

F. Unique Purchasing and Procurement Requirements (P)​



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug