Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Best At-Home STD Tests for 2024

We include products they think are useful for their readers. If you buy through links on this page, they may earn a small commission. Here’s their process.

How they vet brands and products

Healthline only shows you brands and products that they stand behind.

Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations they make on their site. To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we:
  • Evaluate ingredients and composition: Do they have the potential to cause harm?
  • Fact-check all health claims: Do they align with the current body of scientific evidence?
  • Assess the brand: Does it operate with integrity and adhere to industry best practices?
  • We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness.

    Was this helpful?

    We compared the best at-home STD tests available online and found that Everlywell offers users the best overall experience.

    Best at-home tests

    Regular testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for overall health and any necessary treatments. At-home tests can provide an accurate and convenient method for knowing your status.

    STDs and STIs are very common. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million STIs are acquired daily worldwide.

    One reason for this is that contraceptive methods, such as condoms, aren’t always failproof. Overall, if you’re sexually active, you could contract an STI.

    Nowadays, there are dozens of at-home testing kits that may make getting tested easier.

    Here’s some information on quality at-home testing options, how to figure out what type is best for you, and when to contact a doctor.

  • Results in: a few days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis, and trichomoniasis
  • Cost: $49–$169
  • *Price is accurate as of the date of publication.

    Healthline's review

    Everlywell sells STD kits geared to males and females. With a finger prick and a vaginal swab, the Everlywell at-home STD kit for females lets you test for six of the most common STDs. Each purchase comes with instructions, the materials for demo collection, prepaid shipping both ways, and both digital and printable results.

    Aside from the kits, Everlywell also offers individual tests for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, syphilis, and HIV.

    Every Everlywell test is reviewed and approved by an independent board certified doctor in your state. If your results are positive, Everlywell will connect you with their independent physician network (at no additional cost) to discuss questions and treatment options.

    What their tester says

    Our market editor Christy Snyder tried out a couple of different products from Everlywell. The review of each product she used was different, but overall, she had a decent experience with the test kits. She found it was easy to register her kits as the directions were straightforward.

    Snyder also warns that some test kits may require a big blood demo that people may not be able to fulfill. She recommends doing your own research before purchasing a kit. She also advises knowing what information you will get from these kits as some, like the food sensitivity test, show that the “the science behind it isn’t necessarily full proof.”

    Our market editor Christy Snyder tried out a couple of different products from Everlywell. The review of each product she used was different, but overall, she had a decent experience with the test kits. She found it was easy to register her kits as the directions were straightforward.

    Snyder also warns that some test kits may require a big blood demo that people may not be able to fulfill. She recommends doing your own research before purchasing a kit. She also advises knowing what information you will get from these kits as some, like the food sensitivity test, show that the “the science behind it isn’t necessarily full proof.”

    Pros & cons
  • convenient at-home testing options
  • wide range of tests available
  • offers follow-up at no additional cost
  • can be expensive for some
  • requires you to collect your own sample, which may be difficult
  • convenient at-home testing options
  • wide range of tests available
  • offers follow-up at no additional cost
  • can be expensive for some
  • requires you to collect your own sample, which may be difficult
  • Product details
  • Collection method: finger prick, vaginal swab, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: contact from board certified physician if results are positive
  • Medication provided: no
  • Returns: returns within 15 days
  • Shipping: free shipping
  • Collection method: finger prick, vaginal swab, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: contact from board certified physician if results are positive
  • Medication provided: no
  • Returns: returns within 15 days
  • Shipping: free shipping
  • Results in: 7 business days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C
  • Cost: $29.50–$234.50
  • *Price is accurate as of the date of publication.

    Healthline's review

    Although self-collected samples aren’t typically as good as those taken in a lab, Nurx ensures accuracy by collecting fluids from various areas, such as a vaginal swab, throat swab, and rectal swab. This makes it possible to test for oral and anal STDs that might otherwise be missed.

    Nurx offers three at-home test kits to choose from:

  • Healthy Woman Kit ($190): This kit tests for infections most common in people with vaginas: HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis.
  • Basics Covered Kit ($150): This is a great option for people who have completed comprehensive testing before and just want a checkup. It includes testing for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
  • Full Control Kit ($220): This is a comprehensive test for anyone who hasn’t gotten tested before or who hasn’t gotten tested in over a year. It tests for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis C.
  • These tests are usually covered by insurance, and Nurx will bill your plan directly (or you can pay out of pocket). With insurance, you’ll pay $75 for the test kit, shipping both ways, and a $15 medical consultation fee.

    Once Nurx collects your samples, they’ll bill your insurance directly for the cost of the lab testing. Without insurance, see the rates for each kit above. These prices include the test kit, lab work, and shipping.

    Pros & cons
  • discreet options
  • available to those without insurance
  • affordable
  • some have reported difficulties with customer service
  • in-person test not available
  • discreet options
  • available to those without insurance
  • affordable
  • some have reported difficulties with customer service
  • in-person test not available
  • Product details
  • Collection method: finger prick, throat swab, vaginal swab, rectal swab, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: yes
  • Follow-up guidance: access to medical team regardless of result
  • Medication provided: yes
  • Returns: no returns or refunds
  • Shipping: free shipping
  • Collection method: finger prick, throat swab, vaginal swab, rectal swab, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: yes
  • Follow-up guidance: access to medical team regardless of result
  • Medication provided: yes
  • Returns: no returns or refunds
  • Shipping: free shipping
  • Best for variety of tests
  • Results in: 2–5 days
  • Tests for: HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes, syphilis, chlamydia trachomatis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, HPV, Mycoplasma genitalium, bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections
  • Cost: $59–$399
  • *Price is accurate as of the date of publication.

    Healthline's review

    myLAB Box offers several at-home STD kits:

  • Safe Box ($169): This box includes tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV (1 and 2).
  • Total Box ($369–$389): The company’s most comprehensive test includes tests for every condition in the Safe Box, plus hepatitis C, herpes type 2, syphilis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and HPV (an optional add-on for people older than 30 years).
  • Uber Box ($199): This comprehensive 8-panel test option tests for the most common STIs, including HIV (1 and 2), hepatitis C, herpes type 2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.
  • V-Box ($189): This at-home vaginal test pack tests for all common causes of atypical vaginal discharge, including yeast and bacterial vaginosis (both of which are not STIs), trichomoniasis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea.
  • Love Box – Couple’s Kit ($378): This comprehensive 8-panel test option tests couples for the most common STIs. It has tests for HIV (1 and 2), hepatitis C, herpes type 2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. It includes a vaginal swab, urine collection, and blood test.
  • Aside from these, the service sells individual tests for each STD or STI. These allow you to get the answers you need without driving to a lab or spending money on copays to visit a doctor’s office.

    Every kit comes with a single-use collection kit, instructions, a specimen bag, and a prepaid return envelope.

    Pros & cons
  • convenient at-home testing options
  • discreet packaging
  • easy demo collection
  • results may take up to 5 days
  • not available in New York
  • convenient at-home testing options
  • discreet packaging
  • easy demo collection
  • results may take up to 5 days
  • not available in New York
  • Product details
  • Collection method: finger prick, saliva sample, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: FSA/HSA only
  • Follow-up guidance: free physician telemedicine consult if results are positive
  • Medication provided: for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis
  • Returns: no returns or refunds
  • Shipping: free shipping in the United States (Alaska and Hawaii included)
  • Collection method: finger prick, saliva sample, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: FSA/HSA only
  • Follow-up guidance: free physician telemedicine consult if results are positive
  • Medication provided: for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis
  • Returns: no returns or refunds
  • Shipping: free shipping in the United States (Alaska and Hawaii included)
  • Results in: 2–5 days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, HIV, syphilis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma
  • Cost: $99–$249
  • *Price is accurate as of the date of publication.

    Healthline's review

    Available at CVS locations across the country and covered by both flexible spending accounts (FSAs) and health savings accounts (HSAs), LetsGetChecked is a convenient and accessible option for at-home tests and diagnostics.

    They offer three types of tests:

  • Simple 2 ($99): This test checks for chlamydia and gonorrhea, the two most common STDs.
  • Standard 5 ($149): This includes the tests in Simple 2, and it also tests for trichomoniasis, HIV, and syphilis. This is LetsGetChecked’s most popular STD test and uses a finger prick and urine sample.
  • Complete 8 ($249): This checks for all the tests in Standard 5, and it also includes testing for Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. This uses finger-prick and urine testing methods. (Note that Gardnerella vaginalis is often caused by bacterial vaginosis, but it is not a sexually transmitted disease. Also, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) doesn’t recommend routine screening for Ureaplasma or Mycoplasma.)
  • LetsGetChecked tests require you to collect a urine and blood sample, depending on which test you select.

    The service also includes a medical support team to answer any questions. If your results are positive, a nurse or physician will call you to explain your results and provide treatment options.

    Pros & cons
  • convenient at-home testing options
  • provides fast results
  • offers substantial savings with subscription
  • convenient at-home testing options
  • provides fast results
  • offers substantial savings with subscription
  • Product details
  • Collection method: finger prick, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: HSA/FSA only, offers itemized receipt for reimbursement
  • Follow-up guidance: $39 consultation with healthcare professionals to discuss positive results
  • Medication provided: yes, at an additional cost
  • Returns: no returns or refunds
  • Shipping: free shipping in the United States (Alaska and Hawaii included)
  • Collection method: finger prick, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: HSA/FSA only, offers itemized receipt for reimbursement
  • Follow-up guidance: $39 consultation with healthcare professionals to discuss positive results
  • Medication provided: yes, at an additional cost
  • Returns: no returns or refunds
  • Shipping: free shipping in the United States (Alaska and Hawaii included)
  • Best for multiple test bundles
  • Collection method: blood sample, urine sample, vaginal swab
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: as part of membership
  • Medication provided: as part of membership
  • Returns: refunds within 30 days
  • Shipping: free shipping
  • Healthline's review

    iDNA has a number of individual STI tests, including a test for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, the bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. They use a self-collection method, which means that you don’t need to go into a lab to get your results.

    Additionally, they offer two combination tests and a customizable test bundle. The customizable bundle — which starts at $78 — is useful if you want to be tested for numerous STIs, as it can be more convenient than ordering individual tests.

    Their pre-selected bundles include:

  • Complete Test ($298): This kit includes 10 STI tests, namely chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes 2, hepatitis C, HIV 1/2, HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma.
  • Standard Test ($198): This kit includes seven STI tests, namely chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes 2, hepatitis C, and HIV 1/2.
  • iDNA also offers memberships. Their $24.99-per-month membership offers you discounted tests, affordable doctor consultations, and one free monthly test of your choice. Their $49.99-per-month membership offers the same benefits, but with the option of a free doctor’s consultation or a free test every month.

    Pros & cons
  • offers customizable bundle testing
  • offers self-collection of results
  • affordable prices through membership
  • offers customizable bundle testing
  • offers self-collection of results
  • affordable prices through membership
  • Product details
  • Results in: 2–7 days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, herpes, HIV, HPV, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, syphilis, and trichomoniasis
  • Cost: $78–$88
  • Results in: 2–7 days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, herpes, HIV, HPV, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, syphilis, and trichomoniasis
  • Cost: $78–$88
  • Results in: 1–2 days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis (A, B, and C), HIV, herpes type 1 and 2, and syphilis
  • Cost: $24–$259
  • *Price is accurate as of the date of publication.

    Healthline's review

    Quick, secure, and completely confidential, STDCheck․com is a lab-based at-home test. This means you order the test over the phone or online and then go to a facility for demo collection.

    Lab-based tests are generally more thorough than self-collected examinations. STDCheck․com has 4,500 locations nationwide.

    While you can order individual tests from $24 to $99, the company’s 10 Test Panel is their most comprehensive offer.

    If you’re concerned about a accurate exposure, you can add the HIV RNA Early Detection Test, which can detect an HIV transmission as early as 9 to 11 days after exposure.

    Pros & cons
  • tests for STIs individually or in a single panel
  • no prescription required
  • same-day testing available
  • results available in 1–2 days
  • accepts health savings account (HSA) and flexible spending account (FSA) payments
  • insurance payments are not accepted
  • requires a lab visit
  • no doctor’s consultation for negative test result
  • tests for STIs individually or in a single panel
  • no prescription required
  • same-day testing available
  • results available in 1–2 days
  • accepts health savings account (HSA) and flexible spending account (FSA) payments
  • insurance payments are not accepted
  • requires a lab visit
  • no doctor’s consultation for negative test result
  • Product details
  • Collection method: blood sample, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: $95 physician consultation for positive results
  • Medication provided: yes, for $95
  • Returns: refunds if canceled before lab visit
  • Shipping: none (lab-based test)
  • Collection method: blood sample, urine sample
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: $95 physician consultation for positive results
  • Medication provided: yes, for $95
  • Returns: refunds if canceled before lab visit
  • Shipping: none (lab-based test)
  • Best for privacy while not at home
  • Results in: 1–3 days
  • Tests for: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B and C, herpes, HIV, syphilis, and trichomoniasis
  • Cost: $59–$198
  • *Price is accurate as of the date of publication.

    Healthline's review

    Though this is not an at-home testing service exclusively, PrioritySTD is one of the most reputable STD testing options. Most reviews say the tests are fast, private, and accurate. You can get same-day testing, same-day medications, and results in 24 to 72 hours.

    You can purchase your PrioritySTD test privately, online, or over the phone. PrioritySTD has more than 4,000 labs across the country. After your testing, you can access your results online or by calling a care counselor. Treatment options are available as well.

    Aside from individual STD tests, PrioritySTD offers the following panel tests:

  • Twin STD Panel ($119): This panel tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea.
  • 10-Panel Test ($198): PrioritySTD’s most popular test option tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, herpes type 1 and 2, HIV 1 (Ab and Ag), and HIV 2 (Ab).
  • The service complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and will not mail anything to your home or report anything to your healthcare professional.

    Pros & cons
  • no doctor referral needed
  • over 4,500 testing centers across the country
  • uses CLIA certified labs
  • fast results
  • no at-home tests available
  • doesn’t accept health insurance payment
  • orders are canceled without refund if not used within 90 days of purchase
  • no doctor referral needed
  • over 4,500 testing centers across the country
  • uses CLIA certified labs
  • fast results
  • no at-home tests available
  • doesn’t accept health insurance payment
  • orders are canceled without refund if not used within 90 days of purchase
  • Product details
  • Collection method: urine sample, blood sample
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: yes, if positive for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis
  • Medication provided: yes, if positive for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis
  • Returns: refunds if canceled before lab visit
  • Shipping: none (lab-based tests)
  • Collection method: urine sample, blood sample
  • Accepts insurance: no
  • Follow-up guidance: yes, if positive for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis
  • Medication provided: yes, if positive for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis
  • Returns: refunds if canceled before lab visit
  • Shipping: none (lab-based tests)
  • You can use this chart for a quick comparison of the tests in their roundup:

    There are a lot of factors to consider when choosing an at-home STD test, which is why they turned to the experts.

    Every product they recommend and brand they work with is thoroughly vetted by their team. If there are any lawsuits, recalls, or regulatory action letters documented about these products or companies, their vetting team makes sure they’re reported and listed.

    In addition to legalities, their team always checks for medical credibility, good business practices, privacy practices and security, social impact, and the validity of any health claims a brand makes about a product. At-home testing services are required to abide by telehealth standards in the following circumstances:

  • Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and/or Certified Analytics Professional (CAP) certified
  • guidance available to customers who test positive for an STD
  • prescription services available in the event of positive test results
  • physician orders for in-person lab testing available where necessary
  • With dozens of at-home testing kits available, it can be hard to choose the right one. After all, what does a good at-home STD testing kit look like? What should it entail? What do you need?

    There’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Your needs will vary, depending on your situation and circumstances. Also, they may change over time.

    This chart can help you determine which type of test is right for you.

    If you think you’ll need help determining results from your at-home test, taking an in-office test may be preferable. It’s an immediate source of information, and an action plan can be created on-site in the case of a positive result.

    Also, be sure the test you choose is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To determine whether the FDA approves a product, you can check the FDA’s website.

    At-home STD tests arrive with all the tools needed to collect a sample, such as:

  • needles or lancets
  • swabs
  • collection tubes
  • alcohol wipes
  • bandages
  • a prepaid envelope to mail your demo back to the company
  • You might need to provide a blood or urine demo or perform a rectal, oral, or vaginal swab. It’s best to return the samples the same day you take them. The company then sends results through your online account, usually within 1 to 7 days.

    While every home STD testing service is different, most brands recommended here offer professional advice or support for practicing test results at home.

    If you do a fully at-home STD test, there’s a risk you’ll misinterpret your results. Lab-based tests can also be difficult to interpret without a medical background.

    As such, it’s best to opt for a testing service where you have access to a healthcare professional who can discuss your results with you. They can help you interpret your results and advise on treatments and next steps.

    Talk with a healthcare professional if one of your partners has recently tested positive for an STD or STI or if you’re experiencing possible symptoms of an STI.

    The CDC recommends STD screenings from a healthcare professional in the following cases:

  • You’re between 13 and 64 years old and have never been tested for HIV.
  • You share needles. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have sex without a condom or other barrier methods. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have oral or anal sex regularly. Your doctor may recommend throat and rectal testing.
  • You’re pregnant. Your doctor will test you for hepatitis B and C, HIV, and syphilis.
  • If you have an STI but are experiencing more or worsening symptoms, like genital discharge or urinary symptoms, contact a healthcare professional to further evaluate your symptoms.

    The CDC makes the following additional recommendations for screening:

  • People who are sexually active and assigned female at birth, people assigned male at birth, and people under 25 years old may want to undergo annual chlamydia and gonorrhea testing.
  • People who are sexually active and assigned male at birth who have sex with other people assigned male at birth may want to undergo testing as frequently as every 3 to 6 months.
  • Can you test yourself for an STD at home?

    Our roundup of at-home STD tests is a good starting point if you want to get tested without contacting a doctor.

    Depending on the test, you may need to visit a lab for collection. Every other part of the process, including the lab order, payment, and results, is done online.

    If you receive a positive test result, the testing kit company may offer a consultation with one of their doctors. During that consultation, you can discuss any next steps, such as further testing or treatment.

    At this point, it’s also a good idea to contact your primary care doctor to share your results.

    Our roundup of at-home STD tests is a good starting point if you want to get tested without contacting a doctor.

    Depending on the test, you may need to visit a lab for collection. Every other part of the process, including the lab order, payment, and results, is done online.

    If you receive a positive test result, the testing kit company may offer a consultation with one of their doctors. During that consultation, you can discuss any next steps, such as further testing or treatment.

    At this point, it’s also a good idea to contact your primary care doctor to share your results.

    How do at-home and lab-direct STD tests work?

    With both at-home and lab-direct tests, you’ll provide a sample. The samples may include blood, urine, anal, vaginal, or oral swabs.

    The samples are submitted to a lab, and results are shared discreetly.

    If you receive a positive STD result, contact your primary care clinician to discuss the best treatment option for you. Also, be prepared to notify any partners of the positive result.

    With both at-home and lab-direct tests, you’ll provide a sample. The samples may include blood, urine, anal, vaginal, or oral swabs.

    The samples are submitted to a lab, and results are shared discreetly.

    If you receive a positive STD result, contact your primary care clinician to discuss the best treatment option for you. Also, be prepared to notify any partners of the positive result.

    How can I tell if I have an STD without going to the doctor?

    An at-home test may confirm whether you have an STD, but it’s important to contact your doctor if you have symptoms of a possible infection. These symptoms may include:

  • vaginal or penile burning or discharge
  • frequent urination
  • pelvic or genital pain
  • sores or bumps around your genitals, anus, or mouth
  • atypical bleeding (bleeding other than menstruation)
  • An at-home test may confirm whether you have an STD, but it’s important to contact your doctor if you have symptoms of a possible infection. These symptoms may include:

  • vaginal or penile burning or discharge
  • frequent urination
  • pelvic or genital pain
  • sores or bumps around your genitals, anus, or mouth
  • atypical bleeding (bleeding other than menstruation)
  • How often should I get tested for STDs?

    The CDC recommends that people ages 13 to 64 get tested for HIV at least once a year as part of their routine health checkup.

    The CDC also recommends that sexually active women younger than 25 years get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia every year.

    In addition, the CDC suggests that pregnant people get tested for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV early in their pregnancy.

    Sexually active men who have sex with men may want to also get tested for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea annually.

    If you experience symptoms at any time, don’t wait to get tested. The quicker you’re tested, the sooner you can begin treatment.

    The CDC recommends that people ages 13 to 64 get tested for HIV at least once a year as part of their routine health checkup.

    The CDC also recommends that sexually active women younger than 25 years get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia every year.

    In addition, the CDC suggests that pregnant people get tested for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV early in their pregnancy.

    Sexually active men who have sex with men may want to also get tested for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea annually.

    If you experience symptoms at any time, don’t wait to get tested. The quicker you’re tested, the sooner you can begin treatment.

    Are STD tests accurate?

    Most modern STD tests are very accurate. Still, test accuracy can vary, depending on the type of demo and the test detection method.

    Traditional in-office tests are more accurate than fully online tests, and home-to-lab tests are more accurate than self-collected tests. But all are highly efficient.

    Most modern STD tests are very accurate. Still, test accuracy can vary, depending on the type of demo and the test detection method.

    Traditional in-office tests are more accurate than fully online tests, and home-to-lab tests are more accurate than self-collected tests. But all are highly efficient.

    How reliable are at-home STD tests?

    While in-office STD tests may be considered the most reliable, the at-home test kits on their list also have a reputation for being accurate.

    It’s important that you don’t rely on home testing in place of contacting your doctor if you have any possible symptoms of an STD or STI or have other important questions about your overall health.

    While in-office STD tests may be considered the most reliable, the at-home test kits on their list also have a reputation for being accurate.

    It’s important that you don’t rely on home testing in place of contacting your doctor if you have any possible symptoms of an STD or STI or have other important questions about your overall health.

    Does insurance cover STD tests?

    Most insurance plans cover the cost of STD tests, as these tests are considered preventive and covered under the Affordable Care Act. But whether your plan covers a specific STD test depends on several factors, including your:

  • age
  • sex and gender
  • risk factors
  • pregnancy status
  • Also, the coverage of at-home tests varies.

    To learn more about your specific options, talk with a nurse, a doctor, or your insurance company.

    You can also find free or low cost STD testing sites across the country.

    Most insurance plans cover the cost of STD tests, as these tests are considered preventive and covered under the Affordable Care Act. But whether your plan covers a specific STD test depends on several factors, including your:

  • age
  • sex and gender
  • risk factors
  • pregnancy status
  • Also, the coverage of at-home tests varies.

    To learn more about your specific options, talk with a nurse, a doctor, or your insurance company.

    You can also find free or low cost STD testing sites across the country.

    Testing for STDs and STIs regularly is important.

    Testing can help prevent the transmission of STIs. It can also help you get the appropriate treatment if you have a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection, as many STDs and STIs can be treated or cured.

    Contacting a doctor or other healthcare professional is generally the most reliable way to know whether you’ve contracted an STI or have an STD. But an at-home test is an excellent alternative. For many, an at-home test is a confidential and convenient option.

    Kimberly Zapata is a mother, writer, and mental health advocate. Her work has appeared on several sites, including The Washington Post, HuffPost, Oprah, Vice, Parents, Health, and Scary Mommy — to name a few. When her nose isn’t buried in work (or a good book), Kimberly spends her free time running Greater Than: Illness, a nonprofit organization that aims to empower children and young adults working through mental health conditions. Follow Kimberly on Facebook or Twitter.

    Kristeen Cherney is a freelance writer and PhD candidate who specializes in covering Topics related to mental disabilities, women’s health, skin health, diabetes, thyroid disease, asthma, and allergies. She’s also currently working on her dissertation, which explores intersections of disability studies and literacy studies. When she’s not researching or writing, Cherney enjoys getting outdoors as much as possible. She also practices yoga and kick-boxing.


    Test-Optional Policy 2023-24

    Learn more about their test-optional policy:

    Can I switch my testing plan after submitting my Common Application?

    Students who submit standardized test results to Boston College and indicate on their applications that they wish to have scores considered will be unable to switch their application to test-optional at a later point in time. Once scores become part of a student's file, they cannot be removed.

    Students who apply as test-optional candidates and later wish to have the Admission Committee consider their standardized test results may request to do so in writing at bcapplicant@bc.edu. For full consideration, students should contact us directly as close to their deadlines as possible.

    Does this policy apply to international students?

    Yes. International students are still required to demonstrate English language proficiency via TOEFL, IELTS, or Duoligo English Test results. This English language proficiency requirement may be waived for students who speak English as their native language, have attended a US high school for at least three years in a non-ESOL curriculum, or submit standardized test results including scores of 650 or greater on the SAT EBRW or 29 or greater on the ACT English section. Learn more here.

    Does this policy apply to home-schooled students?

    Yes. However, because the Admission Committee has little context in which to evaluate home-schooled students’ academic results, standardized test results are extremely helpful to the Admission Committee. Home-schooled applicants are strongly encouraged to submit standardized test scores that allow us to put their applications in context with others in their pool. Other quantitative measures that students may also benefit from submitting include AP test scores and/or college coursework. Official college transcripts should be submitted for all college courses completed.

    Does this policy apply to athletic recruits?

    Yes. The NCAA has removed the test score requirement for athletic eligibility in Division I sports. Recruited athletes are responsible for ensuring their NCAA eligibility.


    T-Test: What It Is With Multiple Formulas and When To Use Them

    What Is a T-Test?

    A t-test is an inferential statistic used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups and how they are related. T-tests are used when the data sets follow a normal distribution and have unknown variances, like the data set recorded from flipping a coin 100 times.

    The t-test is a test used for hypothesis testing in statistics and uses the t-statistic, the t-distribution values, and the degrees of freedom to determine statistical significance.

    Key Takeaways
  • A t-test is an inferential statistic used to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the means of two variables.
  • The t-test is a test used for hypothesis testing in statistics.
  • Calculating a t-test requires three fundamental data values including the difference between the mean values from each data set, the standard deviation of each group, and the number of data values.
  • T-tests can be dependent or independent.
  • Investopedia / Sabrina Jiang

    Understanding the T-Test

    A t-test compares the average values of two data sets and determines if they came from the same population. In the above examples, a demo of students from class A and a demo of students from class B would not likely have the same mean and standard deviation. Similarly, samples taken from the placebo-fed control group and those taken from the drug prescribed group should have a slightly different mean and standard deviation.

    Mathematically, the t-test takes a demo from each of the two sets and establishes the problem statement. It assumes a null hypothesis that the two means are equal.

    Using the formulas, values are calculated and compared against the standard values. The assumed null hypothesis is accepted or rejected accordingly. If the null hypothesis qualifies to be rejected, it indicates that data readings are strong and are probably not due to chance.

    The t-test is just one of many tests used for this purpose. Statisticians use additional tests other than the t-test to examine more variables and larger demo sizes. For a large demo size, statisticians use a z-test. Other testing options include the chi-square test and the f-test.

    Using a T-Test

    Consider that a drug manufacturer tests a new medicine. Following standard procedure, the drug is given to one group of patients and a placebo to another group called the control group. The placebo is a substance with no therapeutic value and serves as a benchmark to measure how the other group, administered the actual drug, responds.

    After the drug trial, the members of the placebo-fed control group reported an increase in average life expectancy of three years, while the members of the group who are prescribed the new drug reported an increase in average life expectancy of four years.

    Initial observation indicates that the drug is working. However, it is also possible that the observation may be due to chance. A t-test can be used to determine if the results are correct and applicable to the entire population.

    Four assumptions are made while using a t-test. The data collected must follow a continuous or ordinal scale, such as the scores for an IQ test, the data is collected from a randomly selected portion of the total population, the data will result in a normal distribution of a bell-shaped curve, and equal or homogenous variance exists when the standard variations are equal.

    T-Test Formula

    Calculating a t-test requires three fundamental data values. They include the difference between the mean values from each data set, or the mean difference, the standard deviation of each group, and the number of data values of each group.

    This comparison helps to determine the effect of chance on the difference, and whether the difference is outside that chance range. The t-test questions whether the difference between the groups represents a true difference in the study or merely a random difference.

    The t-test produces two values as its output: t-value and degrees of freedom. The t-value, or t-score, is a ratio of the difference between the mean of the two demo sets and the variation that exists within the demo sets.

    The numerator value is the difference between the mean of the two demo sets. The denominator is the variation that exists within the demo sets and is a measurement of the dispersion or variability.

    This calculated t-value is then compared against a value obtained from a critical value table called the T-distribution table. Higher values of the t-score indicate that a large difference exists between the two demo sets. The smaller the t-value, the more similarity exists between the two demo sets.

    T-Score

    A large t-score, or t-value, indicates that the groups are different while a small t-score indicates that the groups are similar.

    Degrees of freedom refer to the values in a study that has the freedom to vary and are essential for assessing the importance and the validity of the null hypothesis. Computation of these values usually depends upon the number of data records available in the demo set.

    Paired demo T-Test

    The correlated t-test, or paired t-test, is a dependent type of test and is performed when the samples consist of matched pairs of similar units, or when there are cases of repeated measures. For example, there may be instances where the same patients are repeatedly tested before and after receiving a particular treatment. Each patient is being used as a control demo against themselves.

    This method also applies to cases where the samples are related or have matching characteristics, like a comparative analysis involving children, parents, or siblings.

    The formula for computing the t-value and degrees of freedom for a paired t-test is:

    T = mean 1 − mean 2 s ( diff ) ( n ) where: mean 1  and  mean 2 = The average values of each of the sample sets s ( diff ) = The standard deviation of the differences of the paired data values n = The sample size (the number of paired differences) n − 1 = The degrees of freedom \begin{aligned}&T=\frac{\textit{mean}1 - \textit{mean}2}{\frac{s(\text{diff})}{\sqrt{(n)}}}\\&\textbf{where:}\\&\textit{mean}1\text{ and }\textit{mean}2=\text{The average values of each of the demo sets}\\&s(\text{diff})=\text{The standard deviation of the differences of the paired data values}\\&n=\text{The demo size (the number of paired differences)}\\&n-1=\text{The degrees of freedom}\end{aligned} ​T=(n)​s(diff)​mean1−mean2​where:mean1 and mean2=The average values of each of the sample setss(diff)=The standard deviation of the differences of the paired data valuesn=The sample size (the number of paired differences)n−1=The degrees of freedom​

    Equal Variance or Pooled T-Test

    The equal variance t-test is an independent t-test and is used when the number of samples in each group is the same, or the variance of the two data sets is similar.

    The formula used for calculating t-value and degrees of freedom for equal variance t-test is:

    T-value = m e a n 1 − m e a n 2 ( n 1 − 1 ) × v a r 1 2 + ( n 2 − 1 ) × v a r 2 2 n 1 + n 2 − 2 × 1 n 1 + 1 n 2 where: m e a n 1  and  m e a n 2 = Average values of each of the sample sets v a r 1  and  v a r 2 = Variance of each of the sample sets n 1  and  n 2 = Number of records in each sample set \begin{aligned}&\text{T-value} = \frac{ mean1 - mean2 }{\frac {(n1 - 1) \times var1^2 + (n2 - 1) \times var2^2 }{ n1 +n2 - 2}\times \sqrt{ \frac{1}{n1} + \frac{1}{n2}} } \\&\textbf{where:}\\&mean1 \text{ and } mean2 = \text{Average values of each} \\&\text{of the demo sets}\\&var1 \text{ and } var2 = \text{Variance of each of the demo sets}\\&n1 \text{ and } n2 = \text{Number of records in each demo set} \end{aligned} ​T-value=n1+n2−2(n1−1)×var12+(n2−1)×var22​×n11​+n21​​mean1−mean2​where:mean1 and mean2=Average values of eachof the sample setsvar1 and var2=Variance of each of the sample setsn1 and n2=Number of records in each sample set​

    and,

    Degrees of Freedom = n 1 + n 2 − 2 where: n 1  and  n 2 = Number of records in each sample set \begin{aligned} &\text{Degrees of Freedom} = n1 + n2 - 2 \\ &\textbf{where:}\\ &n1 \text{ and } n2 = \text{Number of records in each demo set} \\ \end{aligned} ​Degrees of Freedom=n1+n2−2where:n1 and n2=Number of records in each sample set​

    Unequal Variance T-Test

    The unequal variance t-test is an independent t-test and is used when the number of samples in each group is different, and the variance of the two data sets is also different. This test is also called Welch's t-test.

    The formula used for calculating t-value and degrees of freedom for an unequal variance t-test is:

    T-value = m e a n 1 − m e a n 2 ( v a r 1 n 1 + v a r 2 n 2 ) where: m e a n 1  and  m e a n 2 = Average values of each of the sample sets v a r 1  and  v a r 2 = Variance of each of the sample sets n 1  and  n 2 = Number of records in each sample set \begin{aligned}&\text{T-value}=\frac{mean1-mean2}{\sqrt{\bigg(\frac{var1}{n1}{+\frac{var2}{n2}\bigg)}}}\\&\textbf{where:}\\&mean1 \text{ and } mean2 = \text{Average values of each} \\&\text{of the demo sets} \\&var1 \text{ and } var2 = \text{Variance of each of the demo sets} \\&n1 \text{ and } n2 = \text{Number of records in each demo set} \end{aligned} ​T-value=(n1var1​+n2var2​)​mean1−mean2​where:mean1 and mean2=Average values of eachof the sample setsvar1 and var2=Variance of each of the sample setsn1 and n2=Number of records in each sample set​

    and,

    Degrees of Freedom = ( v a r 1 2 n 1 + v a r 2 2 n 2 ) 2 ( v a r 1 2 n 1 ) 2 n 1 − 1 + ( v a r 2 2 n 2 ) 2 n 2 − 1 where: v a r 1  and  v a r 2 = Variance of each of the sample sets n 1  and  n 2 = Number of records in each sample set \begin{aligned} &\text{Degrees of Freedom} = \frac{ \left ( \frac{ var1^2 }{ n1 } + \frac{ var2^2 }{ n2 } \right )^2 }{ \frac{ \left ( \frac{ var1^2 }{ n1 } \right )^2 }{ n1 - 1 } + \frac{ \left ( \frac{ var2^2 }{ n2 } \right )^2 }{ n2 - 1}} \\ &\textbf{where:}\\ &var1 \text{ and } var2 = \text{Variance of each of the demo sets} \\ &n1 \text{ and } n2 = \text{Number of records in each demo set} \\ \end{aligned} ​Degrees of Freedom=n1−1(n1var12​)2​+n2−1(n2var22​)2​(n1var12​+n2var22​)2​where:var1 and var2=Variance of each of the sample setsn1 and n2=Number of records in each sample set​

    Which T-Test to Use?

    The following flowchart can be used to determine which t-test to use based on the characteristics of the demo sets. The key items to consider include the similarity of the demo records, the number of data records in each demo set, and the variance of each demo set.

    Image by Julie Bang © Investopedia 2019

    Example of an Unequal Variance T-Test

    Assume that the diagonal measurement of paintings received in an art gallery is taken. One group of samples includes 10 paintings, while the other includes 20 paintings. The data sets, with the corresponding mean and variance values, are as follows:

      Set 1 Set 2   19.7 28.3   20.4 26.7   19.6 20.1   17.8 23.3   18.5 25.2   18.9 22.1   18.3 17.7   18.9 27.6   19.5 20.6   21.95 13.7     23.2     17.5     20.6     18     23.9     21.6     24.3     20.4     23.9     13.3 Mean 19.4 21.6 Variance 1.4 17.1

    Though the mean of Set 2 is higher than that of Set 1, they cannot conclude that the population corresponding to Set 2 has a higher mean than the population corresponding to Set 1.

    Is the difference from 19.4 to 21.6 due to chance alone, or do differences exist in the overall populations of all the paintings received in the art gallery? They establish the problem by assuming the null hypothesis that the mean is the same between the two demo sets and conduct a t-test to test if the hypothesis is plausible.

    Since the number of data records is different (n1 = 10 and n2 = 20) and the variance is also different, the t-value and degrees of freedom are computed for the above data set using the formula mentioned in the Unequal Variance T-Test section.

    The t-value is -2.24787. Since the minus sign can be ignored when comparing the two t-values, the computed value is 2.24787.

    The degrees of freedom value is 24.38 and is reduced to 24, owing to the formula definition requiring rounding down of the value to the least possible integer value.

    One can specify a level of probability (alpha level, level of significance, p) as a criterion for acceptance. In most cases, a 5% value can be assumed.

    Using the degree of freedom value as 24 and a 5% level of significance, a look at the t-value distribution table gives a value of 2.064. Comparing this value against the computed value of 2.247 indicates that the calculated t-value is greater than the table value at a significance level of 5%. Therefore, it is safe to reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference between means. The population set has intrinsic differences, and they are not by chance.

    How Is the T-Distribution Table Used?

    The T-Distribution Table is available in one-tail and two-tails formats. The former is used for assessing cases that have a fixed value or range with a clear direction, either positive or negative. For instance, what is the probability of the output value remaining below -3, or getting more than seven when rolling a pair of dice? The latter is used for range-bound analysis, such as asking if the coordinates fall between -2 and +2.

    What Is an Independent T-Test?

    The samples of independent t-tests are selected independent of each other where the data sets in the two groups don’t refer to the same values. They may include a group of 100 randomly unrelated patients split into two groups of 50 patients each. One of the groups becomes the control group and is administered a placebo, while the other group receives a prescribed treatment. This constitutes two independent demo groups that are unpaired and unrelated to each other.

    What Does a T-Test Explain and How Are They Used?

    A t-test is a statistical test that is used to compare the means of two groups. It is often used in hypothesis testing to determine whether a process or treatment has an effect on the population of interest, or whether two groups are different from one another.


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug