Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CIPS CIPS-L4M7-Procurement : CIPS Level 4 L4M7 Diploma in Procurement and Supply ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CIPS-L4M7-Procurement
Exam Name : CIPS Level 4 L4M7 Diploma in Procurement and Supply
Vendor Name : CIPS
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CIPS Diploma Practice Test

 

Placement Test Practice

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Being prepared is the best way to ease the stress of test taking. If you are having difficulty scheduling your Placement Test, please contact the UNG Testing Office.

  • Practice, practice, practice before your scheduled Placement Test. 
  • If you have a physical or learning disability, contact Disability Services promptly to discuss whether or not you are eligible for accommodations at UNG for your Placement Test.
  • The night before your Placement Test, get a good night’s sleep. This is not an ideal time to stay out late with friends. Take a rain check on that.
  • Make certain you eat something nutritious before your test. Your brain cannot work on low fuel. Also make certain you are hydrated. Good choices are fruit, yogurt, almonds, or peanut butter crackers and water.
  • Make certain you have directions to the test site and that you allow sufficient time to get lost at least once, search for a parking space, use the restroom, check in with the testing administrator, and take some calming breaths before the test begins.
  • The testing environment tends to be a little cool, so please bring a sweater with you, just in case. Scratch paper and pencils are provided by the testing administrator. You will not be permitted to use an outside calculator or your cell phone in the testing center; lockers are provided to secure your personal items.
  • If you are required to take more than one subject area test, the order in which they are administered is: Writing 1st (if required); studying 2nd (if required); and Math 3rd (if required). All of this is completed on a computer in one session.
  • Please read all test directions carefully. They often see students scoring low on the Placement Test simply because they rush through the directions and then don’t fully understand or follow them. The directions for each test are different, so take the time to read through each set of instructions.
  • The Placement Tests are not timed (with the exception of the WritePlacer). Please do not be concerned if other students are finishing before you. They may not be required to take the same number of tests as you. They also may have a different set of math problems or different studying passages than you. Nobody is your pace car and this isn’t a race to the finish line.
  • Upon receiving an Admissions decision on your Check Application Status site, please contact Dede deLaughter (by email or by phone at 706-310-6207)with any questions you may have about your test results and/or any retesting options.
  • If you do place into Learning Support, please understand that this is not punitive but, rather, in your best interest. UNG strives to support you in achieving your academic goals, and that includes starting you in the appropriate level of instruction that sets you up for academic success.
  • If you have a red yes in any Placement Test Required row on your Check Application Status page in Banner, read the information below relating to the area in which you have the red yes.

  • Don’t rush. You will have one hour to write your essay. Your essay will be evaluated on organization, focus, development and support, sentence structure, and mechanical conventions.
  • Use the provided scratch paper to do your brainstorming.
  • Using your brainstorming ideas, write your essay.
  • BEFORE YOU SUBMIT your essay, PROOFREAD!
  • Proofreading tips:
  • Make sure your essay actually answers the prompt.
  • If you used examples, make certain they are clear and concise.
  • Avoid using impressive-sounding vocabulary unless you are absolutely certain you are using those words correctly.
  • Re-read every paragraph carefully. You know what you meant to say. Will the reader know what you meant to say?
  • Re-read your entire essay from the bottom to the top, one sentence at a time. This is a good way to catch grammar errors, like sentence fragments, subject-verb agreement errors, punctuation errors, and the like.
  • Be sure to review the information in the preparation modules before and between practice exams to Strengthen your score!
  • Visit the free Longsdale Publishing Accuplacer practice site. Then click on the Register NEW Account button. Look on your Check Application Status page for the School Number and School Key. After you register, you will be issued a username and password. SAVE this information for future log-in access!
  • Select the Quantitative Reasoning, Algebra, and Statistics (QRAS) test.
  • Be sure to review the information in the preparation modules before and between practice exams to Strengthen your score!
  • Schedule Your Accuplacer Test

    Look on your Check Application Status page for the link or contact UNG Testing. If you need assistance or wish to opt out of Accuplacer testing, please email learningsupport@ung.edu.

    Test Taking Tips
  • Take your time. Answering the math problems as accurately as possible could save you time and money in the future if you are not required to take an extra math class.
  • Check your answers. Remember, in a multiple choice test, there are usually at least two wrong answers that are based on the most common miscalculations or process errors.
  • Calculators and scrap paper. Certain placement test problems will allow you to use the built-in calculator. If not, use the scratch paper that will be provided. (This scratch paper will be collected before you leave the test, so don’t make your to-do list on it.)
  • Visit the free Longsdale Publishing Accuplacer practice site. To set up your free account, first obtain the UNG School Number and School Key by emailing learningsupport@ung.edu - preferably from your UNG email account, providing your student ID (900) number. Then click on the Register New Account button. After you register, you will be issued a username and password. Save this information for future log-in access!
  • Select the appropriate Eligibility Exam: QRAS if you are attempting eligibility to take College Algebra, MATH 1111; Advanced Algebra and Functions if you are eligible to take MATH 1111 and are attempting eligibility to take Pre-calculus, MATH 1113, Brief Calculus, MATH 2040, or Calculus I, MATH 1450.
  • Be sure to review the information in the preparation modules before and between practice exams to Strengthen your score!
  • Schedule Your Accuplacer Test

    Scheduling information is located on the Math Eligibility Exams page.

    Test Taking Tips
  • Take your time. The test is not timed.
  • Check your answers. Remember, in a multiple choice test, there are usually at least two wrong answers that are based on the most common miscalculations or process errors.
  • Calculators and scrap paper: certain placement test problems will allow you to use the built-in calculator. If not, use the scratch paper that will be provided. (This scratch paper will be collected before you leave the test, so don’t make your to-do list on it.)
  • Establishing Connection...


    Free real estate practice test + 7 study hacks to ace the real estate exam

    From time management techniques to memory tricks and managing stress — we’ll share their study hacks to help you ace your state real estate exam. Hone and test your real estate knowledge using their free real estate practice exam.

    As a lifelong educator, learner, and collector of advanced degrees in education and curriculum design, I know from experience which study habits and hacks really work, and I’ve researched the most effective ones for this article. We’ll help you supercharge your real estate test study habits and launch your new real estate career with confidence.

    Understand the real estate exam

    Before they dive in, it’s helpful to understand the structure and content of your real estate exam. Real estate exams are typically:

  • A multiple-choice format
  • Timed with allotted times of 2 to 3 ½ hours
  • Divided into two sections: national real estate principles and practices, and state real estate laws
  • The test also covers a variety of subjects including: 

  • Financing
  • Ownership
  • Property disclosures
  • Property value and appraisals
  • Contracts
  • Legal descriptions
  • Standards of conduct
  • Math calculations
  • Passing grades are determined by each state but typically hover around 70%, and you’ll need a passing score in both sections. Each state’s rules vary on retaking the exam, but you can usually retake only the portion of the test you didn’t pass the first time. With their free real estate practice exam, you’ll be on your way to passing with flying colors. 

    Take their free real estate practice exam

    Ready to test your knowledge? Try their free real estate practice test with some typical multiple-choice questions you might find on a state real estate exam. If you’re not ready yet, check out their study hacks, motivational tips, and other tools below.

    SAVE 30% on all prelicensing courses with The CE Shop using promo code HW30. Click to learn more about their prelicensing course packages and test Prep Edge.

    Licensee Mark has knowledge about all the issues related to a property. Which of the following property issues should be disclosed to potential buyers?

  • The neighbors have a dog.  
  • The neighborhood has a low crime rate. 
  • The kitchen has a leaky faucet. 
  • The tree in the back yard is at least 30 years old.
  • Which of the following examples below is of a fixture that is real property?

  • Above-ground hot tub in the backyard
  • Shelves attached to the wall with brackets
  • Stand-alone storage shelf in the cupboard
  • Photos and wall hangings
  • After a seller counters an offer, what happens to an initial offer from the buyer?

  • It is void and no longer in play.
  • It becomes the back-up offer.
  • It is accepted by the seller until the buyer accepts the counter.
  • Sellers cannot counter a buyer’s initial offer.
  • In a real estate transaction, if Sarah, acting as a broker for Blue Skies Realty, gives a portion of the commission earned from a sale to Emily, a buyer, what is this practice commonly referred to as?

  • A commission
  • A rebate
  • A kickback
  • A violation
  • A house on your street has built an addition, raising its property value. Now you notice your own property’s value has gone up. Which economic principle best describes this situation?

  • Value bump
  • Conditional value
  • Progression
  • Stalemate
  • Ava, Jane, and Nora are joint owners of a vacation home. Unfortunately, Jane passed away. Consequently, Ava and Nora allowed Jane’s nephew, Eric, who inherited Jane’s share of the property, to join them at the vacation home. What type of ownership arrangement does this represent?

  • Estate in generality
  • Tenancy in common
  • Joint tenancy
  • Common tenancy
  • An example of this type of leasehold estate is a month-to-month lease.

    A month-to-month lease is an example of what type of leasehold estate?

  • Estate for years
  • Periodic estate
  • Estate at will
  • Estate for months
  • The homeowner tells their agent they’re in a rush to sell because they’re moving for a new job and they are open to offers below the asking price. The agent then tells a potential buyer that the seller could go for a $15,000 discount from the listed price. Which statement accurately represents the situation?

  • The agent has breached his duty of confidentiality to his client
  • The agent hasn’t violated any fiduciary responsibilities
  • The agent can secure the buyer’s offer now
  • The agent must wait for the seller to lower his asking price
  • If the rate of transer tax is $.48 per $100, what will a seller pay on a property purchased for $280,000?

  • $11,344
  • $1,344
  • $134
  • $13.40
  • What best describes a deed?

  • A lease agreement
  • A document to transfer ownership
  • A law of property title
  • A recording fee
  • Study group of students with books and laptops in a coffee shop 7 study hacks to master the real estate exam

    There are proven strategies for studying for exams that will help you to retain information more effectively and efficiently. Let’s take stock of best study habits.

    Create the most efficient study plan

    You’ll boost your chances of acing your test if you make a study schedule and stick to it. But there are ways to get the most out of the schedule, too. Your best bet is to structure your studying around spaced repetition, the idea that you’ll retain more knowledge if your study sessions are spread out. 

    So, set aside dedicated study time each day or week and make it a priority. Start by breaking down the subjects you need to cover and allocate specific time slots for each topic. This will help you stay organized and ensure you’ve covered all the required material before the exam. Finally, take breaks to give your brain time to rest and process the information you’ve learned, and your memory will be primed for test day. 

    Snag the highest-quality study materials

    Not all study materials are cut from the same cloth. Having access to high-quality real estate practice exams, study guides, and texts from reputable sources is key. Ideally, you’ll want practice questions that most closely mirror the real estate test so you have no surprises on test day. 

    Consider using a combination of different resources for a well-rounded understanding of the test content. 

  • Textbooks to grasp the foundational concepts
  • Online courses for interactive learning
  • Flashcards for memorization
  • Audio lessons for review
  • Practice exams to test your knowledge and identify areas for improvement
  • Check out their top picks for real estate test prep offered by real estate schools, too. They vetted the top national real estate schools for their test prep materials, pass rates, and more.

    SEE ALSO: Real estate test prep: The ultimate guide to acing your state’s real estate exam

    Study like the pros

    Whether you’re studying from your car, on your commute or from home, let’s break down the study techniques backed by science and practiced by top students to help you ace your exam.

    Active recall: Studies show over and over that quizzing yourself without looking at your notes improves your understanding.[2] So does teaching the material to yourself or others out loud.

    Mix it up: Mix up different subjects during your study sessions rather than focusing on one syllabu exclusively – it will help your brain determine what’s important to remember.[3]

    Visualize to remember: Create visual aids or use mnemonic devices to associate complex information with images or easily memorable phrases, as these will significantly enhance memory recall.[4]

    SAVE 30% on all prelicensing courses with The CE Shop using promo code HW30. Click to learn more about their prelicensing course packages and test Prep Edge.

    Join study groups for a comprehension boost

    Joining a study group is like unlocking a secret weapon to master the real estate exam. It brings in diverse perspectives, boosts your understanding as you talk things out, and bridges any gaps you might have in your grasp of the material. 

    As an added bonus, being part of a group amps up your motivation and keeps everyone accountable, leading to better retention of tricky concepts. So, consider leveling up your studying by joining a study group or finding a buddy to learn with.

    Try the PrepAgent Real Estate test Study Group on Facebook or check out The CE Shop Pre-Licensing Student Forum, also on Facebook.

    Stay motivated and manage stress

    When you’re preparing for the real estate exam, it’s completely normal to feel the pressure. Remember, taking care of yourself is just as crucial as hitting the books. Start by carving out moments for self-care amidst your study sessions. Take breaks to stretch, breathe deeply, or go for a short walk—whatever refreshes your mind.

    Don’t forget to reach out to friends, family, or study buddies. Chatting with them can bring a fresh perspective or just the encouragement you need. You’ve got this—believe in yourself and don’t forget to celebrate your progress.

    Review and revise your notes regularly

    When you revisit your notes, you’re flexing your mental muscles. You aren’t just refreshing your memory, you’re strengthening the neural pathways that help you recall information during the exam. Plus, research shows that regular notes review boosts confidence and reduces anxiety.

    Start by skimming through your notes to refresh your memory, then actively engage with the material by summarizing key points in your own words. Finally, quiz yourself or create flashcards to reinforce your understanding and test yourself. Soon, your test jitters will take a backseat to your confidence. 

    The best ways to simulate real estate test conditions

    As you get closer to test day, it’s crucial to simulate test conditions during your study sessions. Find a quiet and distraction-free environment where you can focus. Set a timer and allocate specific time limits for each section of the practice exam. This will help you familiarize yourself with the time constraints and train your mind to work efficiently under pressure.

    During the real estate practice exam:

  • Avoid distractions, such as checking your phone
  • Take it seriously and treat the practice test as if it were the real exam
  • Review your answers and identify areas where you need more practice
  • Refine your study plan and target your weak areas before the actual exam
  • Frequently asked questions about the real estate exam
  • How hard is the real estate exam?

    The passing score for the real estate test differs across states, but usually hovers around 70%. With thorough preparation, these exams, while challenging, are achievable. To locate the passing rate on your state’s real estate exam, you can use the Association of Real Estate Law Officials website to find your state’s real estate regulatory board.

  • How many questions are on the real estate exam?

    There are typically between 75 and 150 questions on the real estate exam, though each state differs. The test is timed and consists of a national portion and a state-specific portion, both of which you’ll need to pass to pass the overall exam.

  • How do I pass the real estate exam?

    Passing the real estate test involves a mix of preparation and strategy. Start by creating a study plan that includes regular review sessions and practice tests. Consider joining study groups, or enrolling in test prep offered by real estate schools like The CE Shop or Aceable Agent. Finally, manage stress by staying well-rested and confident in your preparation—you’ve got this!

  • How long is the real estate exam?

    Real estate exams are timed, and typically run between 1.5 and 2.5 hours, depending on the state in which you take the exam. Exams are typically in a multiple-choice format, with some scenario-based questions included.

  • What is the format of the real estate exam?

    Real estate exams are commonly taken on computers at designated testing centers, though some states might also offer paper-based options. These exams usually include multiple-choice questions and are divided into two sections: one covering national subjects and the other focusing on state-specific content. Exams are timed and usually between 75-150 questions to answer, depending on the state.

  • What happens if I fail one part of the exam?

    If you fail one part of the test (either the national or state-specific section), you often have the opportunity to retake only the section you failed. Check your state’s policies, as retake rules vary in each state, and you may need to pay an additional fee or wait a specific amount of time before retaking the exam.

  • Are there requirements to take the real estate exam?

    Yes! Eligibility requirements vary by state. In most cases, you must complete pre-licensing education, provide identification, and pay an test fee before being eligible to take the exam. Check with your state’s real estate commission for exact requirements.

  • What happens after passing the real estate exam?

    After passing the real estate exam, you can apply for your real estate license with your state’s regulatory authority. You’ll often be mailed your real estate license (and a pocket card). Once you have your license, you can start working as a real estate professional, such as a real estate agent or broker.

  • The full picture

    With these study hacks, you’ll build a solid foundation of knowledge for your new career and boost your confidence for the real estate exam. Don’t miss out on their free practice real estate test to check your progress and find ways to Strengthen your studying. Embrace the challenge, stay focused, and set your course for a thriving real estate career!

    Related


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    No result found, try new keyword!Likewise, it’s a bad idea to take the LSAT without first training with real practice tests. That said, very few athletes run daily marathons. Instead, they vary their training with shorter ...
     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug