Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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NI CLAD : Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer (CLAD) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CLAD
Exam Name : Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer (CLAD)
Vendor Name : NI
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CLAD exam Format | CLAD Course Contents | CLAD Course Outline | CLAD exam Syllabus | CLAD exam Objectives


The best preparation for this exam is LabVIEW programming experience applying the concepts presented in LabVIEW Core1 and Core2 courses. Class attendance alone will not be sufficient. Typical CLAD candidates have taken NIs LabVIEW Core 1 and Core 2 courses (or equivalent) and have at least 6 to 9 months of experience using LabVIEW.

This prep guide provides an overview of the exam, including exam logistics and coverage. The relevant knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) tested by the CLAD exam are listed in the KSAs: Knowledge, Skills and Abilities tested by the CLAD section. A detailed course List table follows the KSA descriptions.

This prep guide also includes example questions. This is not a demo exam. The questions are included as a study aid. They reflect the scope of the CLAD exam and familiarize the test-taker with NIs approach to testing the KSAs relevant to a Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer.

Scoring

A score of 70% or higher is required to pass the exam.



Individuals may take the CLAD exam at any PearsonVUE testing center by scheduling the exam at http://www.pearsonvue.com/ni/. When you schedule the exam, be sure to specify whether you wish to take the exam using LabVIEW NXG or LabVIEW 20xx (where xx indicates current year). The images and terminology of the exam will reflect the LabVIEW editor you choose, but the exam content will otherwise be identical. Simply choose the LabVIEW editor with which you are most comfortable.

Passing the CLAD exam using either editor earns the same CLAD Certification.

You cannot use LabVIEW or any other resources during the exam. The CLAD exam provides screenshots from the LabVIEW environment and LabVIEW Help where appropriate. Refer to the Example Questions & Resources section for examples.

To take the exam, you must agree to a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA). The NDA states that you will not copy, reproduce, or communicate any section of the exam in any form, including verbal or electronic. Failure to comply with the NDA will result in penalties ranging from a failed exam to a lifetime ban from LabVIEW Certification



The CLAD exam centers around jobs requiring programming in professional settings, including Automated Test, High-Channel-Count Data Acquisition, or Domain Support. Most of these jobs include collecting and/or processing data in the form of signals from sensors. To verify the relevant knowledge, skills and abilities, the CLAD uses an NI-DAQmx system as representative hardware. NI-DAQmx was chosen because it can be simulated on all versions of LabVIEW. If you have access to LabVIEW, you have the resources to prepare for the exam. You do not need to purchase specific hardware.

Appendix I of the document provides instructions for setting up simulated hardware sufficient for exam preparation. The appendix also includes a list of the DAQmx functions possibly used in the exam. The exam does not test DAQmx function-specific settings. The questions use NI-DAQmx to test knowledge and skills necessary for common data acquisition tasks, such as calculating demo rates, determining the correct order of operations, and programming basic file I/O.

A person using LabVIEW at the Associated Developer level will be able to:

• Use software architectures from a single VI to a simple State Machine or Event-Driven UI

Handler.

• Collect data from sensors using NI Hardware.

• Use Array functions extensively to extract and manipulate a single channel of data from multiple-channel data represented by a 1D waveform array or a 2D numeric array.

• Use loops to run a test a set number of times or until a condition is met, to establish a voltage ramp, or conduct other repeated tasks.

• Create and modify SubVIs, clusters, and Type Defs to simplify their code and contribute to larger projects.



Hardware (10% of exam questions)

• Connecting Hardware: Sensors, DAQ, Devices under test (DUT.

• Acquiring and validating a signal

• Processing signals

• Using appropriate demo rates

LabVIEW Programming Environment (25% of exam questions)

• Setting up and using a LabVIEW Project to:

o Add, delete, and move elements

o Use libraries and appropriate types of folders

o Avoid cross-linking

• Data Types:

o Recognize data types on the front panel

o Recognize data types on the block diagram from terminals and wires

o Choose appropriate controls, indicators, data types, & functions for a given scenario

• Predicting order-of-execution and behavior of

o A non-looping VI

o A Simple State Machine

o An Event-driven UI Handler

o Parallel Loops (without queues)

• Using basic functions to create a simple Acquire-Analyze-Visualize application

• Troubleshooting by identifying and correcting the cause of a broken arrow or incorrect data

• Error handling using error clusters and merge error functions to ensure errors are handled well

• Navigating LabVIEW help to get more information about inputs, outputs, and functions

LabVIEW Programming Fundamentals (50% of exam questions)

• Loops

o Create continuous HW acquisition or generation loop by applying a

Open-Configure-Perform Operation-Close model.

o Retain data in shift registers

o Use input and output terminals effectively, including:

▪ Determining the last value output

▪ Indexing input and output terminals

▪ Concatenating output

▪ Using conditional output

▪ Using shift registers, both initialized and uninitialized.

o Use timing of loops appropriately, including:

▪ Software timing

▪ Hardware timing

o Use For Loops and While Loops appropriately



Arrays

o View data from an n-channel HW acquisition VI (using the DAQmx Read VI) using a

waveform graph, waveform chart, or numeric/waveform array indicator.

o Extract a single channel of data (waveform or 1D Array) from a:

▪ 1D waveform array representing acquired data from multiple channels

▪ 2D numeric array representing acquired data from multiple channels

▪ 1D numeric array representing single measurement from multiple channels

o Use a For Loop with auto-indexing and conditional tunnels to:

▪ Iterate through an array

▪ Iterate processing code on each channel of data in a 1D waveform array

▪ Generate an array of data that meets required conditions

o Identify by sight and be able to use and predict the behavior of the following array

functions and VIs:

▪ Array Size

▪ Index Array

▪ Replace Subset

▪ Insert Into Array

▪ Delete From Array

▪ Initialize Array

▪ Build Array

▪ Array Subset

▪ Max & Min

▪ Sort 1D Array

▪ Search 1D Array

▪ Split 1D Array

• Writing conditional code to perform an action based on the value of a user input or a measurement result.

• practicing and Writing data to a file

o Use Open/Act/Close model for file I/O

o Write data to a text file using high-level file I/O functions

o Continuously stream data to a text file or a TDMS file

o Append data to an existing data file

o Log data using simple VIs



Acquire data from DAQmx functions

o Display data on a graph

o Save data to a CSV file

o Choose single measurement/multiple channel and single channel/multiple

measurements configurations appropriately

Programming Best Practices (15% of exam questions)

• SubVIs – Reusing Code

o Create SubVIs to increase readability and scalability of VIs

o Configure the subVI connector pane using best practices

o Choose appropriate code as a SubVI source

• Clusters – Grouping Data of Mixed Data Types

o Create, manipulate, analyze, and use cluster data in common scenarios

o Group related data by creating a cluster to Improve data organization and VI readability

• Type Defs – Propagate Data Type Changes

o Create Type Defs and use Type Defs in multiple places

o Update Type Defs to propagate changes to all instances of the Type Def



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug