Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CLEP test Format | CLEP Course Contents | CLEP Course Outline | CLEP test Syllabus | CLEP test Objectives


The CLEP College Composition test assesses writing skills taught in most first-year college composition courses. Those skills include analysis, argumentation, synthesis, usage, ability to recognize logical development, and research.



The College Composition test contains approximately 50 multiple-choice questions to be answered in approximately 50 minutes and 2 mandatory, centrally scored essays to be written in 70 minutes, for a total testing time of 120 minutes. The essays are scored twice a month by college English faculty from throughout the country via an online scoring system. Each of the two essays is scored independently by at least two different readers, and the scores are then combined. This combined score is weighted approximately equally with the score from the multiple-choice section. These scores are then combined to yield the test-takers score. The resulting combined score is reported as a single scaled score between 20 and 80. Separate scores are not reported for the multiple-choice and essay sections.



Note: Although scores are provided immediately upon completion for other CLEP exams, scores for the College Composition test are available to test takers one to two weeks after the test date. View the complete College Composition Scoring and Score Availability Dates.



The test includes some pretest multiple-choice questions that won't be counted toward the test taker's score.



Colleges set their own credit-granting policies and therefore differ with regard to their acceptance of the College Composition exam. Most colleges will grant course credit for a first-year composition or English course that emphasizes expository writing; others will grant credit toward satisfying a liberal arts or distribution requirement in English.



The American Council on Educations College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE CREDIT) has evaluated the test and recommended the awarding of college credit for a score of 50 or above on the CLEP College Composition exam.



Conventions of Standard Written English (10%)

This section measures test takers' awareness of a variety of logical, structural, and grammatical relationships within sentences. The questions test recognition of acceptable usage relating to the items below:



Syntax (parallelism, coordination, subordination)

Sentence boundaries (comma splices, run-ons, sentence fragments)

Recognition of correct sentences

Concord/agreement (pronoun reference, case shift, and number; subject-verb; verb tense)

Diction

Modifiers

Idiom

Active/passive voice

Lack of subject in modifying word group

Logical comparison

Logical agreement

Punctuation


Revision Skills (40%)

This section measures test takers' revision skills in the context of works in progress (early drafts of essays):



Organization

Evaluation of evidence

Awareness of audience, tone, and purpose

Level of detail

Coherence between sentences and paragraphs

Sentence variety and structure

Main idea, thesis statements, and syllabu sentences

Rhetorical effects and emphasis

Use of language

Evaluation of author's authority and appeal

Evaluation of reasoning

Consistency of point of view

Transitions

Sentence-level errors primarily relating to the conventions of Standard Written English


Ability to Use Source Materials (25%)

This section measures test takers' familiarity with elements of the following basic reference and research skills, which are tested primarily in sets but may also be tested through stand-alone questions. In the passage-based sets, the elements listed under Revision Skills and Rhetorical Analysis may also be tested. In addition, this section will cover the following skills:



Use of reference materials

Evaluation of sources

Integration of resource material

Documentation of sources (including, but not limited to, MLA, APA, and Chicago manuals of style)


Rhetorical Analysis (25%)

This section measures test takers' ability to analyze writing. This skill is tested primarily in passage-based questions
pertaining to critical thinking, style, purpose, audience, and situation:



Appeals

Tone

Organization/structure

Rhetorical effects

Use of language

Evaluation of evidence

The Essays

In addition to the multiple-choice section, the College Composition test includes a mandatory essay section that tests skills of argumentation, analysis, and synthesis. This section of the test consists of two essays, both of which measure a test taker's ability to write clearly and effectively. The first essay is based on the test taker's reading, observation, or experience, while the second requires test takers to synthesize and cite two sources that are provided. Test takers have 30 minutes to write the first essay and 40 minutes to read the two sources and write the second essay. The essays must be typed on the computer.



First Essay: Directions

Write an essay in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement provided. Support your discussion with specific reasons and examples from your reading, experience, or observations.



Second Essay: Directions

This assignment requires you to write a coherent essay in which you synthesize the two sources provided. Synthesis refers to combining the sources and your position to form a cohesive, supported argument. You must develop a position and incorporate both sources. You must cite the sources whether you are paraphrasing or quoting. Refer to each source by the authors last name, the title, or by any other means that adequately identifies it.



Essay Scoring Guidelines

Readers will assign scores based on the following scoring guide.



6 – A 6 essay demonstrates a high degree of competence and sustained control, although it may have a few minor errors.


A typical essay in this category


addresses the writing task very effectively

develops ideas thoroughly, using well-chosen reasons, examples, or details for support

is clearly-focused and well-organized

demonstrates superior facility with language, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety

demonstrates strong control of the standard conventions of grammar, usage, and mechanics, though it may contain minor errors
5 – A 5 essay demonstrates a generally high degree of competence, although it will have occasional lapses in quality.


A typical essay in this category:


addresses the writing task effectively

develops ideas consistently, using appropriate reasons, examples, or details for support

is focused and organized

demonstrates facility with language, using appropriate vocabulary and some sentence variety

demonstrates consistent control of the standard conventions of grammar, usage, and mechanics, though it may contain minor errors
4 – A 4 essay demonstrates competence, with some errors and lapses in quality.


A typical essay in this category


addresses the writing task adequately

develops ideas adequately, using generally relevant reasons, examples, or details for support

is generally focused and organized

demonstrates competence with language, using adequate vocabulary and minimal sentence variety

demonstrates adequate control of the standard conventions of grammar, usage, and mechanics; errors do not interfere with meaning
3 – A 3 essay demonstrates limited competence.


A typical essay in this category exhibits one or more of the following weaknesses:


addresses the writing task, but may fail to sustain a focus or viewpoint

develops ideas unevenly, often using assertions rather than relevant reasons, examples, or details for support is poorly focused and/or poorly organized displays frequent problems in the use of language, using unvaried diction and syntax
demonstrates some control of grammar, usage, and mechanics, but with occasional shifts and inconsistencies

2 – A 2 essay is seriously flawed.


A typical essay in this category exhibits one or more of the following weaknesses:


addresses the writing task in a seriously limited or unclear manner

develops ideas thinly, providing few or no relevant reasons, examples, or details for support is unfocused and/or disorganized
displays frequent serious language errors that may interfere with meaning

demonstrates a lack of control of standard grammar, usage, and mechanics

1 – A 1 essay is fundamentally deficient.


A typical essay in this category exhibits one or more of the following weaknesses:


does not address the writing task in a meaningful way

does not develop ideas with relevant reasons, examples, or details

displays a fundamental lack of control of language that may seriously interfere with meaning

0 – Off topic.


Provides no evidence of an attempt to respond to the assigned topic, is written in a language other than English, merely copies the prompt, or consists of only keystroke characters.
* For the purposes of scoring, synthesis refers to combining the sources and the writers position to form a cohesive, supported argument.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug