Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CLOUDF
Exam Name : EXIN Cloud Computing Foundation
Vendor Name : Exin
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CLOUDF test Format | CLOUDF Course Contents | CLOUDF Course Outline | CLOUDF test Syllabus | CLOUDF test Objectives


Duration: 1 hour

Number of questions: 40 (Multiple Choice)

Pass mark: 65%

Open book: No

Electronic equipment allowed: No

Level: Foundation

Available languages: English, French, Japanese, Spanish, German, Dutch, Brazilian Portuguese

Requirements: None



EXIN Cloud Computing Foundation is a certification that tests candidates on the basics of Cloud Computing. This vendor-neutral qualification includes some technical knowledge and looks at the general management aspects of Cloud Computing.



Main subjects

The principles of Cloud Computing

Using and accessing the Cloud

Security and Compliance

Implementing and managing Cloud Computing

Evaluation of Cloud Computing



Exam details

Exam type: Multiple-choice questions

Number of questions: 40

Pass mark: 65%

Open book/notes: No

Electronic equipment/aides permitted: No

Time allotted for examination: 60 minutes



Exam

requirement

Exam specification Weight

1. The principles of Cloud Computing 30%

1.1 The concept of Cloud Computing 5%

1.2 The evolution towards Cloud Computing 10%

1.3 Cloud Computing architectures 10%

1.4 Drivers and limitations of Cloud Computing 5%

2. Implementing and managing Cloud Computing 20%

2.1 Building local Cloud environment 10%

2.2 Managing Cloud services 10%

3. Using the Cloud 15%

3.1 Accessing the Cloud 5%

3.2 Cloud and the business processes 5%

3.3 Service providers and the Cloud 5%

4. Security and compliance 20%

4.1 Securing the Cloud 10%

4.2 Identity and privacy 10%

5. Evaluation of Cloud Computing 15%

5.1 The business case 10%

5.2 Evaluating implementations 5%

Total 100%



1. The principles of Cloud Computing

1.1 The candidate understands the concept of Cloud Computing

The candidate can:

1.1.1 Explain what Cloud Computing is

1.1.2 Compare the main Deployment Models for Cloud Computing

(Private, Public, Community and Hybrid cloud)

1.1.3 Describe the main Service Models for Cloud Computing (Paas, IaaS, SaaS)

1.2 The candidate knows the evolution toward Cloud Computing

The candidate can:

1.2.1 Describe the main concepts from which Cloud Computing developed

1.2.2 Explain the role of network and servers in Cloud Computing

1.2.3 Describe the role of the Internet in Cloud Computing

1.2.4 Explain the role of Virtualization in Cloud Computing

1.2.5 Describe the role of managed services in Cloud Computing

1.3 The candidate understands the Cloud Computing architectures

The candidate can:

1.3.1 Explain the difference between a single purpose and multipurpose architecture

1.3.2 Describe the Service Oriented Architecture

1.4 The candidate knows drivers and limitations of Cloud Computing

The candidate can:

1.4.1 Identify the main drivers for Cloud Computing

1.4.2 Identify the main limitations of Cloud Computing

2. Implementing and Managing Cloud Computing

2.1 The candidate understands the building of Local Cloud environment

The candidate can:

2.1.1 Describe the main components of a local cloud environment and how they are

interconnected

2.1.2 Describe the use of secured access to a Local Area Network

2.1.3 Describe the risks of connecting a local cloud network to the public internet

2.2 The candidate understands the principles of managing Cloud services

The candidate can:

2.2.1 Describe the use of IT Service Management principles (ISO/IEC 20000) in a Cloud

environment

2.2.2 Explain the management of service levels in a Cloud environment

3. Using the Cloud

3.1 The candidate knows how users can access the Cloud

The candidate can:

3.1.1 Describe how to access Web Applications through a Web Browser

3.1.2 Describe the Cloud Web Access Architecture

3.1.3 Describe the use of a Thin Client

3.1.4 Describe the use of mobile devices in accessing the cloud

3.2 The candidate understands how Cloud Computing can be used for business processes

The candidate can:

3.2.1 Identify the impact of Cloud Computing on the primary processes of an organization

3.2.2 Describe the role of standard applications in collaboration

3.3 The candidate understands how Service Providers can use the Cloud

The candidate can:

3.3.1 Explain how using Cloud Computing changes the relation between vendors and

customers

3.3.2 Identify benefits and risks of providing Cloud based services

4. Security and compliance

4.1 The candidate understands the security risks of Cloud Computing and knows mitigating

measures

The candidate can:

4.1.1 Describe the security risks in the cloud

4.1.2 Describe measures mitigating security risks

4.2 The candidate understands managing identity and privacy in the Cloud

The candidate can:

4.2.1 Describe the main aspects of Identity management

4.2.2 Describe privacy and compliance issues and safeguards in Cloud Computing

5. Evaluation of Cloud Computing

5.1 The candidate understands the business case for Cloud Computing

The candidate can:

5.1.1 Describe the costs and possible savings of Cloud Computing

5.1.2 Describe the main operational and staffing benefits of Cloud Computing

5.2 The candidate understands evaluation of Cloud Computing implementations

The candidate can:

5.2.1 Describe the evaluation of performance factors, management requirements and

satisfaction factors

5.2.2 Describe the evaluation of service providers and their services in Cloud Computing



Core concepts

Application hosting Multi-user

Authentication, Authorization, Accounting

(AAA, Triple A)

Network

Availability Network Attached Storage (NAS)

Back-up service Network infrastructure

Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Network protocol

Claim based solution Online games

Client-Server Open System Interface (OSI)

Cloud access architecture Open Virtualization Format (OVF)

Cloud Computing Open-ID

Cloud presence Operating system

Common Internet File System (CIFS) Operational benefit

Compliance Operational Expenditure (OPEX)

Confidentiality Pay-as-you-go model

Denial-of-service attack (DoS) Performance factors

Deployability Permissive federation

Digital identity Personal Identifiable Information (PII)

Distributed Denial-of-service (DDOS) Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) Portability

Drop box Privacy

Encrypted federation Privacy notice

Extensible Markup Language (XML) Private cloud

Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol

(XMPP)

Public cloud

Extranet Recovery

Failover Redundancy

Federation Remote datacenter

Guest operating system Replication

Hybrid cloud Risk

Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) Satisfaction factors

Hypervisor Scalability

Identity Scripting language

Identity management Security

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Server

Instant messaging (IM) Service level

Instant Messaging and Presence Service

(IMPS)

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

Integrity Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)



Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Single sign-on (SSO)

Interoperability Software as a service (SaaS)

Intranet Staffing benefit

IT infrastructure Stakeholder

IT service Subcontracted provider

JavaScript provider contract

Latency provider management

Local Area Network (LAN) Support

Location independent Thin client

Loosely coupled Throughput

Mainframe Tiered architecture

Man-in-the-middle attack Time to Value

Messaging protocol Time-to-market

Microcomputer Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

Middleware Traceability

Migration Transmission Control Protocol / Internet

Protocol (TCP/IP)

Minicomputer Utility

Mobile device Verified federation

Mobility Virtual Machine (VM)

Multimedia Message Service (MMS) Virtual Private Network (VPN)

Multiprocessing Virtualization

Multi-programming Virtualized environment

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Web browser

Multipurpose architecture Web frontend

Multi-sides Workload

Additional terms

Application Memory

Audit National Security Agency (NSA)

Back-up Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)

Bandwidth Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

Bits per second (bps) Processing

Blog Protocol Analyzer

Business logic Short Message Service (SMS)

Bytes per second (Bps) Slide share

Cell phone Smartphone

Client Social media

Common carrier Software

Cost Storage

Customer Storage Management Initiative-Specification

(SMI-S)

Customer Relation Management tool System Management Architecture for System

Hardware (SMASH)

Data center Track

Database User

Datacenter architecture Video telecommunication

E-commerce Virtualization Management Initiative (VMAN)

Economic benefit Virus (infection)

E-mail Voice-over-IP (VoIP)

Frame relay network Web Service Management (WS-MAN)

Green IT Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM)

Hardware Webmail

Institute for Electrical and Electronics

Engineers (IEEE)

Website

International Standards Organization (ISO) Wiki

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Wikispace



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug