Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Content Specification Outlines
CMA® (Certified Management Accountant) Exams
Part 1 - Financial Planning, Performance, and Analytics

A. External Financial Reporting Decisions (15% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Financial statements
a. Balance sheet
b. Income statement
c. Statement of changes in equity
d. Statement of cash flows
e. Integrated reporting
2. Recognition, measurement, valuation, and disclosure
a. Asset valuation
b. Valuation of liabilities
c. Equity transactions
d. Revenue recognition
e. Income measurement
f. Major differences between U.S. GAAP and IFRS
B. Planning, Budgeting, and Forecasting (20% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Strategic planning
a. Analysis of external and internal factors affecting strategy
b. Long-term mission and goals
c. Alignment of tactics with long-term strategic goals
d. Strategic planning models and analytical techniques
e. Characteristics of a successful strategic planning process
2. Budgeting concepts
a. Operations and performance goals
b. Characteristics of a successful budget process
c. Resource allocation
d. Other budgeting concepts
3. Forecasting techniques
a. Regression analysis
b. Learning curve analysis
c. Expected value
Part 1 - Financial Planning, Performance, and Analytics
4. Budgeting methodologies
a. Annual business plans (master budgets)
b. Project budgeting
c. Activity-based budgeting
d. Zero-based budgeting
e. Continuous (rolling) budgets
f. Flexible budgeting
5. Annual profit plan and supporting schedules
a. Operational budgets
b. Financial budgets
c. Capital budgets
6. Top-level planning and analysis
a. Pro forma income
b. Financial statement projections
c. Cash flow projections
C. Performance Management (20% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Cost and variance measures
a. Comparison of genuine to planned results
b. Use of flexible budgets to analyze performance
c. Management by exception
d. Use of standard cost systems
e. Analysis of variation from standard cost expectations
2. Responsibility centers and reporting segments
a. Types of responsibility centers
b. Transfer pricing
c. Reporting of organizational segments
3. Performance measures
a. Product profitability analysis
b. Business unit profitability analysis
c. Customer profitability analysis
d. Return on investment
e. Residual income
f. Investment base issues
g. Key performance indicators (KPIs)
h. Balanced scorecard
D. Cost Management (15% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Measurement concepts
a. Cost behavior and cost objects
b. genuine and normal costs
c. Standard costs
d. Absorption (full) costing
e. Variable (direct) costing
f. Joint and by-product costing
2. Costing systems
a. Job order costing
b. Process costing
c. Activity-based costing
d. Life-cycle costing
3. Overhead costs
a. Fixed and variable overhead expenses
b. Plant-wide vs. departmental overhead
c. Determination of allocation base
d. Allocation of service department costs
4. Supply chain management
a. Lean resource management techniques
b. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
c. Theory of Constraints
d. Capacity management and analysis
5. Business process improvement
a. Value chain analysis
b. Value-added concepts
c. Process analysis, redesign, and standardization
d. Activity-based management
e. Continuous improvement concepts
f. Best practice analysis
g. Cost of quality analysis
h. Efficient accounting processes
E. Internal Controls (15% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Governance, risk, and compliance
a. Internal control structure and management philosophy
b. Internal control policies for safeguarding and assurance
c. Internal control risk
d. Corporate governance
e. External audit requirements
2. System controls and security measures
a. General accounting system controls
b. Application and transaction controls
c. Network controls
d. Backup controls
e. Business continuity planning
F. Technology and Analytics (15% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Information systems
a. Accounting information systems
b. Enterprise resource planning systems
c. Enterprise performance management systems
2. Data governance
a. Data policies and procedures
b. Life cycle of data
c. Controls against security breaches
3. Technology-enabled finance transformation
a. System development life cycle
b. Process automation
c. Innovative applications
4. Data analytics
a. Business intelligence
b. Data mining
c. Analytic tools
d. Data visualization
A. Financial Statement Analysis (20% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Basic financial statement analysis
a. Common size financial statements
b. Common base year financial statements
2. Financial ratios
a. Liquidity
b. Leverage
c. Activity
d. Profitability
e. Market
3. Profitability analysis
a. Income measurement analysis
b. Revenue analysis
c. Cost of sales analysis
d. Expense analysis
e. Variation analysis
4. Special issues
a. Impact of foreign operations
b. Effects of changing prices and inflation
c. Impact of changes in accounting treatment
d. Accounting and economic concepts of value and income
e. Earnings quality
Part 2 - Strategic Financial Management
B. Corporate Finance (20% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Risk and return
a. Calculating return
b. Types of risk
c. Relationship between risk and return
2. Long-term financial management
a. Term structure of interest rates
b. Types of financial instruments
c. Cost of capital
d. Valuation of financial instruments
3. Raising capital
a. Financial markets and regulation
b. Market efficiency
c. Financial institutions
d. Initial and secondary public offerings
e. Dividend policy and share repurchases
f. Lease financing
4. Working capital management
a. Working capital terminology
b. Cash management
c. Marketable securities management
d. Accounts receivable management
e. Inventory management
f. Types of short-term credit
g. Short-term credit management
5. Corporate restructuring
a. Mergers and acquisitions
b. Other forms of restructuring
6. International finance
a. Fixed, flexible, and floating exchange rates
b. Managing transaction exposure
c. Financing international trade
C. Decision Analysis (25% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Cost/volume/profit analysis
a. Breakeven analysis
b. Profit performance and alternative operating levels
c. Analysis of multiple products
2. Marginal analysis
a. Sunk costs, opportunity costs, and other related concepts
b. Marginal costs and marginal revenue
c. Special orders and pricing
d. Make vs. buy
e. Sell or process further
f. Add or drop a segment
g. Capacity considerations
3. Pricing
a. Pricing methodologies
b. Target costing
c. Elasticity of demand
d. Product life-cycle considerations
e. Market structure considerations
D. Risk Management (10% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Enterprise risk
a. Types of risk
b. Risk identification and exam
c. Risk mitigation strategies
d. Managing risk
E. Investment Decisions (10% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Capital budgeting process
a. Stages of capital budgeting
b. Incremental cash flows
c. Income tax considerations
d. Evaluating uncertainty
2. Capital investment analysis methods
a. Net present value
b. Internal rate of return
c. Payback
d. Comparison of investment analysis methods
F. Professional Ethics (15% - Levels A, B, and C)
1. Business ethics
a. Moral philosophies and values
b. Ethical decision making
2. Ethical considerations for management accounting and financial management professionals
a. IMAs Statement of Ethical Professional Practice
b. Fraud triangle
c. Evaluation and resolution of ethical issues
3. Ethical considerations for the organization
a. Organizational factors and ethical culture
b. IMAs Statement on Management Accounting, “Values and Ethics: From Inception to Practice”
c. Ethical leadership
d. Legal compliance
e. Responsibility for ethical conduct
f. Sustainability and social responsibility



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug