Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Nursing CNOR : CCI Certified Nurse Operating Room ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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CNOR test Format | CNOR Course Contents | CNOR Course Outline | CNOR test Syllabus | CNOR test Objectives


The Certified Perioperative Nurse (CNOR) credential is the only accredited certification for perioperative registered nurses. Earning the CNOR is a mark of distinction and demonstrates a commitment to upholding the highest standards in patient safety.

CNOR certification assesses the knowledge and skills of a perioperative nurse with a minimum of two years of clinical practice. More than 40,000 nurses internationally hold the CNOR credential and consider the designation a personal and professional accomplishment.



"Age-specific, anatomy & physiology, exam, diagnostic studies, documentation, laboratory results, nursing diagnosis, nursing process, NANDA, Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS), pathophysiology, physical exam, preoperative fasting, vital signs"

"Allergies, complementary/alternative

medicine (CAM), herbs, illegal/illicit drugs, medication reconciliation, pharmacology, recreational drugs side effects"
"Preoperative verification, site

marking, surgical safety checklist, The Joint Commission, time out, wrong site, wrong procedure, wrong person"
"Alternatives, autonomy, benefits, complications, informed consent, patient rights, privacy, respect, risk"
Advance directive, allow natural death (AND), CPR directive, DNR, living will, medical durable power of attorney, Patient Self- Determination Act (PSDA)

"Allergies, analgesia, narcotics, NSAIDS, nonpharmacological interventions, opioids, pain block, pain intensity scales, PCA, pharmacology, regional anesthesia, self-report, signs, symptoms, The Joint Commission"

"Nursing diagnoses, preoperative nursing interventions, patient needs"

"Age-specific, anxiety, behavioral responses, collaboration, comfort, cultural /ethnic diversity,"

"legal/ethical standards, pain management, physiological responses, patient-centered, resources, SCIP protocol, spiritual needs"

"Chemical, radiation, fire, laser, positioning"

"Hand hygiene, PPE, contact, droplet, airborne"

"Hyperthermia, hypothermia, infection control, infection prevention, patient temperature"

"control, perfusion, surgical procedure, wound classification, wound healing"

"Comfort, anxiety, medication, pain management, cultural, ethical, and spiritual needs"

"Body mechanics, chemical, counts, deep vein thrombosis, documentation, ergonomics, equipment, manufacturers instructions for use (IFU), fire, hazardous materials, lead aprons, National Patient Safety Goals, smoke plume, laser, laser goggles, positioning, radiation, tourniquet, Universal Protocol, WHO checklist"

"Patient dignity, modesty, privacy, positioning, skin prep antisepsis"

"Anesthesia agents, labeling, medications, pain management"

"Aseptic technique, expiration date, instruments, package integrity, sterile, surgical products"

"Air exchanges, humidity, noise, room temperature, traffic"

"Documentation, explant, implant, verification"

Autotransfusion, blood products, Continuity of care, hand-off/hand over, interdisciplinary, PACU, transfer of care criteria
"Discharge, regulatory guidelines, wound care"

"Bioburden, biofilm, cleaning, critical item, decontamination, decontamination area, disinfection, documentation, enzymatic cleaner, FDA, germicide, high-level disinfection, loaner instrumentation, low-level disinfection, non-critical item, PPE, semi-critical item, Spaulding classification, ultrasonic cleaner"

Dynamic air removal, gravity displacement, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization, immediate use sterilization, implants, load, packaging, prevacuum, steam, sterilization

"Biological indicator, Bowie-Dick, chemical indicator, documentation, emulating indicators, load parameters, physical monitor, pressure, temperature, regulations, tracking"

"Controlled conditions, event related, regulatory requirements, shelf life, storage, time related, tracking, transportation, vendors"

"Blood, bloodborne pathogen, chemotherapy drugs, CJD, ETO, glutaraldehyde, radioactive materials"

"Bioburden, biofilm, cleaning, critical item, decontamination, decontamination area, disinfection, documentation, enzymatic cleaner, FDA, germicide, high-level disinfection, loaner instrumentation, low-level disinfection, non-critical item, PPE, semi-critical item, Spaulding classification, ultrasonic cleaner"

Dynamic air removal, gravity displacement, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization, immediate use sterilization, implants, load, packaging, prevacuum, steam, sterilization

"Biological indicator, Bowie-Dick, chemical indicator, documentation, emulating indicators, load parameters, physical monitor, pressure, temperature, regulations, tracking"

"Controlled conditions, event related, regulatory requirements, shelf life, storage, time related, tracking, transportation, vendors"

"Blood, bloodborne pathogen, chemotherapy drugs, CJD, ETO, glutaraldehyde, radioactive materials"

"Allergy, anaphylactic shock, anaphylaxis, latex free, latex safe, sensitivity, transfusion reaction"

"Advanced cardiac life support, basic life support, cardio- pulmonary resuscitation, ischemia, myocardial infarction"

"Acidosis, calcium, Dantrium, dantrolene sodium, dysrhythmia, hypercarbia, hyperkalemia, hypermetabolic, hyperthermia, tachycardia, trigger"

"Airway obstruction, anoxia, arterial blood gas, aspiration, atelectasis, bronchospasm, difficult airway, hypoxia, laryngospasm, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism"

ARDS, autotransfusion, blunt trauma, DIC, diagnostic tests, DNR, end of life care, MAST, mechanism of injury, multisystem, organ donor, rapid sequence intubation, shock, trauma, traumatic brain injury, triage

Burn, explosion, flammable, fuel, ignition source, oxygen, RACE, PASS, thermal injury
"Allied health care providers, competency, delegation, mentor, management, patient acuity, scope of practice, staff education, supervision, support personnel, UAP"

"Cost containment, environmental consciousness (go green), fiscal responsibility, product evaluation, product selection, recycling, reprocess, resource management, single-use device, supply management"

"Accountability, ethics, family, health care industry representative, loaner instrumentation, patient rights, patient privacy, student, vendor, visitor"

"Biologic implants, PPE, preventive maintenance, room turnover, spills, terminal cleaning"

"Accrediting agency, advocacy, best practice, board of nursing, community standard, evidence- based practice, guidelines, nurse practice act, patient rights, position statement, recommended practices, regulation, regulatory standards,"

"scope of practice, standard, statute"

"Best practice, certification, competency, continuing education, life-long learning, professional organization, self- exam, staff education"

"Audit, best practice, change, evidence-based practice, information literacy, measures, performance improvement, Plan- Do-Study-Act, quality assurance, quality improvement, research, risk management, shared governance"

"Chain of command, collegiality, confidentiality, culture of safety, delegation, ethics, healthy work environment, horizontal violence, just culture, lateral violence, patient advocate, professional growth, professional standards"



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug