Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : COMPASS
Exam Name : Computer Adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System
Vendor Name : ACT
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COMPASS test Format | COMPASS Course Contents | COMPASS Course Outline | COMPASS test Syllabus | COMPASS test Objectives

Test Detail:
The ACT COMPASS (Computer Adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System) is an test tool used by educational institutions to evaluate the skills and knowledge of incoming students in various subjects. It helps determine their readiness for college-level coursework and assists in proper course placement. The following description provides an overview of the ACT COMPASS test.

Number of Questions and Time:
The number of questions and time allocation for the ACT COMPASS test may vary depending on the specific institution and the subjects being assessed. Generally, each subject test consists of multiple-choice questions, and the time given for each test section may range from 30 minutes to 60 minutes. The number of questions can range from 20 to 45, depending on the subject and test version.

Course Outline:
The ACT COMPASS test covers different subject areas, including reading, writing skills, mathematics, and English as a Second Language (ESL). The course outline varies for each subject. Below is a general outline of the subject areas:

1. Reading:
- Comprehension of passages
- Identifying main ideas and supporting details
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- Analyzing author's tone and purpose

2. Writing Skills:
- Grammar and usage
- Sentence structure and formation
- Punctuation and capitalization
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- Identifying and correcting errors

3. Mathematics:
- Algebraic operations
- Functions and equations
- Geometry and measurement
- Data analysis and statistics
- Problem-solving and mathematical reasoning

4. English as a Second Language (ESL):
- Vocabulary and word usage
- Grammar and sentence structure
- memorizing comprehension
- Listening comprehension
- Written expression and communication

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the ACT COMPASS test are to assess students' knowledge and skills in the relevant subject areas and provide information for proper course placement. The test aims to evaluate the following:

1. memorizing comprehension and critical thinking skills
2. Writing skills, including grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure
3. Mathematical reasoning and problem-solving abilities
4. English language proficiency for ESL students

Exam Syllabus:
The ACT COMPASS test syllabus outlines the specific content and skills assessed in each subject area. The syllabus includes the following topics:

- memorizing comprehension passages and questions
- Grammar rules and usage
- Mathematical concepts, formulas, and problem-solving strategies
- ESL-related vocabulary, grammar, and reading/listening comprehension

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ACT Latest Questions


Major Questions Doctrine Reaches the Clean Water Act

The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously affirmed a district court’s dismissal of environmental plaintiffs’ claim that shrimp trawlers require either a Section 404 or National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to use trawling nets to catch shrimp and return their bycatch to the sea. North Carolina Coastal Fisheries Reform Group v. Capt. Gaston LLC, No. 21-2184, 2023 WL 5009246 (4th Cir. Aug. 7, 2023). Despite what it called the plaintiffs’ “broad” but “plausible” memorizing of the statutory text when “viewed in isolation,” the court recognized the “significant political and economic consequences” of that memorizing and dismissed the case under the “major questions doctrine” recently formalized by the Supreme Court in West Virginia v. EPA (2022) and Biden v. Nebraska (2023).

Key Takeaways
  • For the first time, a federal court has expressly invoked the major questions doctrine to limit the jurisdictional scope of the CWA.
  • The decision underlines federal courts’ increasing willingness to limit the scope of, and agencies’ regulatory jurisdiction under, environmental statutes like the CWA.  absent a clear and specific authorizing statement by Congress.
  • As a result, commercial fishers need not obtain a Section 404 or NPDES permit, in addition to complying with existing federal and state regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, when employing trawling methods or returning bycatch.
  • Major Questions’ Rising Tide

    Over the past two decades, the U.S. Supreme Court has formalized a significant background principle of law: “clear congressional authorization for agency action” is necessary in “‘extraordinary cases’ when the ‘history and breadth’ and ‘economic and political significance’ of [an agency’s assertion of authority] gives [the court] ‘reason to hesitate before concluding that Congress meant to confer such authority.’”1

    As they have previously written, there is a substantial debate over the source and legitimacy of the major questions doctrine. Justice Neil Gorsuch’s concurrence in West Virginia v. EPA suggests that the doctrine is a “strong form” rule of interpretation, meaning that the courts should reject any expansive memorizing of agency authority, even if it is a plausible memorizing of the statute, that does not arise from the unambiguous statutory grant of authority. Justice Amy Coney Barrett has taken a less expansive view, casting the major questions doctrine not as an overprotective “clear statement rule” but instead as a “commonsense principle[] of communication” from Congress to the executive branch.2 “[A] vacuum is no home for a textualist,” she wrote, and “the ‘meaning’ of a word or phrase may only become evident when placed in context.”3 The major questions doctrine thus “gives Congress’s words their best reading” by memorizing them in the broader context of the “statutory scheme,” the historic scope of the subject agency’s “wheelhouse,” and skepticism for an agency’s “claims to discover in a long-extant statute an unheralded power to regulate a significant portion of the American economy.”4 In summary, Justice Barrett says that “the doctrine should not be taken for more than it is—the familiar principle that they do not interpret a statute for all it is worth when a reasonable person would not read it that way.”5

    But the doctrine has been strongly criticized by the Court’s liberal wing. Justice Elena Kagan lambasted the doctrine as inconsistent with textualism, writing that “a broad term is not the same thing as a ‘vague’ one. A broad term is comprehensive, extensive, wide-ranging; a ‘vague’ term is unclear, ambiguous, hazy.”6 Thus, in adopting the major questions doctrine, “[t]he current Court is textualist only when being so suits it. When that method would frustrate broader goals, special canons like the ‘major questions doctrine’ magically appear as get-out-of-text-free cards.”7 The major questions doctrine thereby improperly “forces Congress to delegate in highly specific terms” rather than—as it usually does—“broadly” in light of agencies’ subject-matter expertise and agility.8

    In its opinion here, though, the Fourth Circuit found this debate to be above its pay-grade. “[W]hatever its analytical foundation, an inferior court must simply apply the major-questions doctrine.”9 On that basis, the plaintiffs’ expansive memorizing of the CWA had to sink.

    Plaintiffs Bait the Statutory Hook

    The CWA prohibits the “discharge” of any “pollutant” to “navigable waters” from a “point source” without a permit.10 The act defines “pollutant” to include both “biological materials” and “dredged spoil.”11 “Discharge” is “any addition of any pollutant to navigable waters from any point source.”12 “Navigable waters” include all “standing or continuously flowing bodies of water . . . [such] as streams, oceans, rivers, and lakes.”13 Finally, a “point source” includes “any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any . . . vessel or other floating craft.”14

    Under the statute’s citizen-suit provision, the plaintiffs here argued that a group of commercial shrimp trawlers who operate in a coastal estuary off of North Carolina regularly made two kinds of unpermitted discharges in violation of the CWA. First, plaintiffs argued the shrimp trawlers’ bycatch—live and dead marine organisms other than shrimp that get caught in the shrimpers’ trawling nets—were “biological materials” and thus “pollutants,” which the shrimp trawlers then “discharged” to navigable waters from a point source when thrown back into North Carolina’s Pamlico Sound from the shrimp trawlers’ boats. Second, they argued that the shrimp trawlers disturbed rocks and sediment when trawling their nets along the ocean floor, and that such disturbed rocks and sediment constituted discharged “dredged spoil.” Therefore, the plaintiffs asserted, the shrimp trawlers could only legally conduct these activities—each very common to the shrimp and other commercial fisheries—subject to a CWA permit.

    The Fourth Circuit Doesn’t Take the Bait

    Writing for a unanimous court and affirming the district court’s decision below, Judge Richardson rebuked the plaintiffs’ bycatch claim as an overbroad and out-of-context memorizing of the CWA. The court found that the plaintiffs’ memorizing of bycatch as “biological material” “sounds plausible” if “viewed in isolation.” However, under the Magnuson-Stevens Act, “Congress has erected a distinct regulatory scheme to address the bycatch problem,” which “leaves regulating bycatch to the states and the National Marine Fisheries Service—not the EPA.” Additionally, “EPA has never sought the authority to regulate bycatch in the fifty years since the Clean Water Act was passed,” and “does not even seek it now.” Finally, under plaintiffs’ memorizing of the statute, “[a]nyone who fishes from a boat using live bat, or by chumming, or who—after catching a fish—releases it back into the ocean, would violate the Clean Water Act unless they first obtained a Clean Water Act permit alongside their ordinary fishing permits.” The plaintiffs’ plausible literal interpretation of “biological materials” to include bycatch thus “fall[s] short of the clear congressional authorization needed when the major-questions doctrine applies.”

    The court rejected the plaintiffs’ sediment claim based on the CWA’s plain text. The court held that rocks and sediment kicked up by the shrimpers’ trawl nets are not “pollutants” because they “cannot be understood as dredged spoil,” simply because it had never been “dredged” (“cleared out,” “removed,” or “excavated”) but only temporarily disturbed. Furthermore, the rocks and sediment were not “discharged” to Pamlico Sound because they were not “added” to the waters, but rather were already there.

    Future Course of the Major Questions Doctrine

    This case is in line with the Supreme Court’s exact ratcheting back of the jurisdictional scope of the CWA and other environmental statutes, and demonstrates how the Supreme Court’s newly formalized “major questions doctrine” is likely to impede federal agencies and NGOs’ attempts to expand their use of the existing environmental statutes to address new (or newly identified) concerns. Following the Court’s clear statement of the doctrine in West Virginia, and despite Justice Kagan’s pushback, “an inferior court must simply apply the major-questions doctrine” when faced with any statutory memorizing with “significant political and economic consequences.”

    [View source.]

    Letters: FIT for the 21st Century Act; Don Overcash; other questions

    FIT for the 21st Century Act is a step in the right direction

    Last month the House Financial Services Committee and the House Agriculture Committee both passed HR 4763, the Financial Innovation and Technology (FIT) for the 21st Century Act. Rep. Pettersen and Rep. Caraveo each sit on one of the committees, and I am thankful for the bipartisan leadership they showed in passing the measure.

    I believe that digital asset innovation opportunities are essential to Colorado continuing to be a leader in the tech space, and the FIT for the 21st Century Act is a step in the right direction.

    It will provide much-needed clarity to the industry — creating a regulatory framework for registering and operating digital assets and blockchain technology in the United States. I think this bill strikes the right balance of addressing issues the industry faces, providing tools to punish the bad actors in the field while protecting innovation and promoting the growth of digital assets in the United States.

    This is not a partisan issue. Congress needs to act now to ensure that the United States can handle this emerging technology and be a global leader.

    Coloradans who work in blockchain and digital assets deserve to have the stability of regulatory clarity and an established comprehensive market structure. The FIT for the 21st Century Act is a step in the right direction, thanks to Representative Pettersen and Representative Caraveo. I hope this bipartisan measure continues to be supported by all their Colorado delegation in Congress.

    Wyatt Cunningham, Fort Collins

    Overcash is unfit to serve as mayor of Loveland

    Voters should remember that Don Overcash was admonished for his conduct during a council meeting by the Reporter-Herald Editorial Board. After giving public comment, I was ambushed by Overcash from the dais. He never showed any remorse. He actually repeated this conduct again when I was no longer even a resident in Colorado. Overcash is a bully, and Loveland deserves better.

    Chaplain Howard Dotson, Fridley, Minn.

    Other questions worth asking

    Maybe someone out there can answer these questions.

    Why is it all right for a political party to demonize a group of people like the LGBTQ community and work to take their civil rights away? Why is it all right for a political party to severely restrict abortion and take away a woman’s civil right to chose an abortion? Why is it all right for a political party to attempt to restrict food stamps to poor people that were forced to carry a child to term through anti-abortion laws and now have no way of feeding them without assistance? Why is it all right for a political party to change the education system in its state (Florida) to ensure that students don’t know the truth about their history?

    How can TV personalities on stations like Fox News, OAN and Newsmax Excellerate the lives of his or her audience when he or she is totally biased in reporting by continuously spreading lies and disinformation? How can a country survive when a large portion of the population supports a lie that the 2020 election was fraudulent, and that the leader of that party should not be indicted on potential crimes related to the Jan. 6 riots and other actions to overturn the election?

    That their current ruling political party is going after its political opponents is simply disinformation and nonsense. This is where the law applies to everyone, and where they must preserve their democracy. Why is it all right that the current leader of the Republican Party has no policies other than revenge against his political opponents and taking authoritarian power over many government departments if he wins in 2024?

    None of this is all right. Remember Germany in the 1930s and what happened there. It must never happen here.

    Paul McCarter, Loveland

    Contentious Rulings, Ethics Questions Don’t Dent Supreme Court Standing

    No result found, try new keyword!The latest results, published on Wednesday ... Alabama’s congressional district map under the Voting Rights Act. In addition, a series of bombshell media reports published over the last few ...

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug