Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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GAQM CPD-001 : Certified Project Director (CPD) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CPD-001
Exam Name : Certified Project Director (CPD)
Vendor Name : GAQM
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CPD-001 test Format | CPD-001 Course Contents | CPD-001 Course Outline | CPD-001 test Syllabus | CPD-001 test Objectives

Test Detail:
The Certified Project Director (CPD) exam, with test code CPD-001, is conducted by GAQM (Global Association for Quality Management) to validate the knowledge and skills of individuals in project management at the director level. This certification demonstrates an individual's ability to effectively lead and manage complex projects across various industries.

Course Outline:
The course for the Certified Project Director (CPD) certification covers a comprehensive range of project management topics, focusing on advanced project leadership, strategic planning, risk management, and stakeholder management. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered:

1. Project Management Leadership:
- Project governance and organizational structure.
- Leadership styles and approaches.
- Team development and motivation.
- Effective communication and negotiation.

2. Strategic Project Planning:
- Project selection and prioritization.
- Defining project objectives and success criteria.
- Stakeholder identification and analysis.
- Developing project scope and work breakdown structure (WBS).

3. Project Risk Management:
- Risk identification, analysis, and exam.
- Risk response planning and mitigation strategies.
- Monitoring and controlling project risks.
- Crisis management and contingency planning.

4. Project Quality Management:
- Quality planning and assurance.
- Quality control and performance measurement.
- Process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma, Lean).
- provider management and procurement.

5. Project Resource Management:
- Resource planning and allocation.
- Team management and resource development.
- Managing project dependencies and constraints.
- Conflict resolution and problem-solving.

6. Project Integration and Governance:
- Project integration management processes.
- Project management office (PMO) functions.
- Change management and project closure.
- Compliance and regulatory considerations.

Exam Objectives:
The Certified Project Director (CPD) test assesses the candidate's proficiency in the following domains:

1. Project Management Leadership
2. Strategic Project Planning
3. Project Risk Management
4. Project Quality Management
5. Project Resource Management
6. Project Integration and Governance

Each domain covers specific knowledge areas, skills, and tasks that candidates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in.

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus for the Certified Project Director (CPD) certification provides a detailed breakdown of the subjects covered in each domain. It may include sub-topics, best practices, and case studies that candidates should be familiar with. The syllabus may cover the following areas:

- Leadership theories and models
- Strategic planning frameworks
- Stakeholder identification and analysis techniques
- Risk identification and test methods
- Quality management methodologies and tools
- Resource allocation and management approaches
- Project integration processes and techniques
- Governance frameworks and regulatory requirements

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GAQM (CPD) dumps


Alphabet dumps more than 90% of its stake in Robinhood

The Google headquarters in Mountain View, California, Jan. 30, 2023.

Marlena Sloss | Bloomberg | Getty Images

Google parent Alphabet has pared back large positions in multiple publicly traded firms, including the trading platform Robinhood, the gene testing company 23andMe and language learning startup Duolingo.

The company dumped nearly 90% of its stake in Robinhood, according to SEC filings. The company sold off more than 4.3 million shares of the fintech stock during the period ending June 30. Robinhood posted its first profit as a publicly traded company on Aug. 2.

Robinhood has struggled since its 2021 initial public offering. The company saw a surge of users during the Covid-19 pandemic, drawn in by the flourishing tech trade. But the company was also at the center of a scandal over its role in the "meme stock" mania and retail trading outrage at payment for order flow.

Still, the company reported stronger-than-expected earnings, turning 3 cents per share for the second quarter compared with a Refinitiv consensus estimate of a 1 cent per share loss. Monthly active users, a key benchmark for Wall Street, remain depressed quarter over quarter and year over year.

Alphabet still held about 612,000 shares of Robinhood as of June 30.

Alphabet also trimmed significant positions in Duolingo and 23andMe. It sold about 523,000 shares of Duolingo. The company had previously held more than 6.7 million shares of 23andMe, the gene testing startup co-founded by Anne Wojcicki, the former wife of Google co-founder Sergey Brin. Alphabet sold them by the end of the period ending June 30.

Microsoft dumps Cortana leaving Siri as one of the last smart assistants

Microsoft makes room for Bing Chat

Siri appears to be the last smart assistant standing as Microsoft quietly sunsets Cortana in Windows, but this may be a meaningless victory given the rise of AI-based chatbots.

Cortana's death has been a long time coming. Microsoft began removing support for Cortana on mobile in 2021 and is now killing it off on Windows as well.

According to a Microsoft support document first shared by Windows Latest, Cortana will no longer be supported in Windows starting in August 2023. While it didn't provide a specific day, it seems an update will erase this smart assistant at any time, if not already.

Of course, the news isn't a surprise as Microsoft turns its attention to the new and shiny toy provided by an OpenAI partnership — Bing Chat. This Large Language Model-powered chatbot can answer complex questions and summarize sources with some questionable accuracy.

Other competitors in the smart assistant space that started with Siri in 2011 included Google Assistant, Amazon Alexa, Samsung Bixby, and dozens of other short-lived assistants. However, it seems everyone is moving on except Apple.

During the post-COVID layoffs that hit nearly every tech company except Apple, Amazon laid off a large chunk of its Alexa division. The company seems to bleed cash from Alexa and has slowly deprioritized the division, despite releasing new hardware.

If you've forgotten about Bixby, don't worry, so has Samsung. The assistant was slowly pushed to the background in favor of Google Assistant somewhere around 2020.

But even Google seems to be backing off its pride and joy smart assistant in favor of Bard. Google mentioned "AI" over 100 times during its 2023 I/O, but with emphasis on Bard and other LLMs — Google Assistant was an afterthought.

Siri is still a priority for Apple

That leaves Apple and Siri. Even as Apple's CEO Tim Cook states that some portion of its increasing R&D spend is going to Apple AI research, the results haven't shown in Siri — yet. There have been alleged internal arguments about Apple's need to abandon Siri for a restart aimed at LLMs like Bard, but a concern for user privacy continues to win out.

Regardless of Apple's approach, they at AppleInsider find it difficult to believe Apple would abandon a brand like Siri, despite the cruft. Even if the company rewrites Siri from scratch, they expect whatever LLM form it takes will still be called Siri.

Apple has always been a smart brand company and is unwilling to abandon recognizable product names. It isn't about to change the name of one of its most well-known products into something unrecognizable — that would lack business sense.

Saco woman fatally struck by dump truck

A Saco woman died after being struck by a dump truck near Main Street in Saco on Wednesday.

Kimberly Lavin, 56, was struck by a dump truck at around 4:42 p.m., according to the Saco Police Department. Lavin died at the scene of the crash.

Rocky Irish, 59, of Biddeford, had been attempting to make a left turn from Main Street onto Water Street, before striking Lavin, according to officials. Lavin has been eastward on Water Street before being struck.

An investigation into the crash is underway.

More articles from the BDN

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug