Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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GAQM CPEH-001 : Certified Professional Ethical Hacker (CPEH) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CPEH-001
Exam Name : Certified Professional Ethical Hacker (CPEH)
Vendor Name : GAQM
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CPEH-001 test Format | CPEH-001 Course Contents | CPEH-001 Course Outline | CPEH-001 test Syllabus | CPEH-001 test Objectives


Exam Detail:
The Certified Professional Ethical Hacker (CPEH-001) test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of individuals in ethical hacking and penetration testing. It validates their ability to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks for defensive purposes. Here are the test details for the CPEH-001 certification:

- Number of Questions: The test typically consists of multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but typically, the test includes around 125 to 150 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the test is 4 hours.

Course Outline:
The CPEH-001 certification course covers a wide range of Topics related to ethical hacking and penetration testing. The course outline typically includes the following areas:

1. Introduction to Ethical Hacking:
- Understanding the principles, scope, and legal aspects of ethical hacking.
- Exploring the different phases of a hacking attack and the hacker's mindset.

2. Footprinting and Reconnaissance:
- Gathering information about the target system or network through passive and active reconnaissance techniques.
- Identifying potential vulnerabilities and weaknesses.

3. Scanning Networks:
- Using various tools and techniques to scan and discover network resources.
- Mapping the network and identifying open ports, services, and potential vulnerabilities.

4. Enumeration and Vulnerability Analysis:
- Enumerating system and network resources to gather detailed information.
- Analyzing vulnerabilities and assessing their impact on the target environment.

5. System Hacking:
- Exploiting weaknesses in operating systems and applications.
- Gaining unauthorized access, privilege escalation, and maintaining persistence.

6. Malware Threats:
- Understanding different types of malware and their characteristics.
- Analyzing malware behavior and implementing countermeasures.

7. Sniffing and Social Engineering:
- Capturing network traffic and analyzing it for sensitive information.
- Exploiting human vulnerabilities through social engineering techniques.

8. Web Application Hacking:
- Identifying and exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications.
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), SQL injection, and other common web application attacks.

9. Wireless Network Hacking:
- Assessing wireless network security and exploiting vulnerabilities.
- Cracking WEP and WPA/WPA2 encryption, rogue access points, and denial-of-service attacks.

10. Cryptography:
- Understanding encryption algorithms, digital certificates, and cryptographic protocols.
- Assessing cryptographic weaknesses and implementing secure practices.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the CPEH-001 test are as follows:

- Evaluating candidates' understanding of the principles and methodologies of ethical hacking.
- Assessing candidates' knowledge of various hacking techniques, tools, and methodologies.
- Testing candidates' ability to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in systems and networks.
- Evaluating candidates' understanding of the legal and ethical considerations in ethical hacking.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the CPEH-001 certification covers the following topics:

1. Introduction to Ethical Hacking
2. Footprinting and Reconnaissance
3. Scanning Networks
4. Enumeration and Vulnerability Analysis
5. System Hacking
6. Malware Threats
7. Sniffing and Social Engineering
8. Web Application Hacking
9. Wireless Network Hacking
10. Cryptography



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Tis the season for stressed-out kids — it's finals time for thousands of local high school students. Cynthia Muchnick is an educational consultant and the author of "The Everything Guide to Study Skills." Muchnick has three study tips to Excellerate performance and lower stress for students. thinking about forgetting important facts or a tricky math formula? Try writing it down on the test as soon as a teacher hands it out. "Or type it into their laptop if it's a laptop test. That way you have those formulas and short-term facts that their short-term memory might forget," says Muchnick. Next, manners matter. Encourage students to get in the habit of saying "thank you" to their teachers after class every single day. The simple habit creates a connection that makes tougher conversations easier to have. "These teachers are up there giving a presentation, teaching a class. Acknowledge and thank them for the time they put into that. It makes them like you more and think you're a kind person. I recommend that for your coach, for your teacher, for any mentor or adult in your life. Just say, thank you," Muchncik said.And finally, form a study group for finals. It's easier than ever with things like FaceTime and Discord. Ideally, it's great to find a student who has better mastery of the topic. Surprisingly, the benefits go both ways."Sometimes, being the one who really understands the material by reiterating it and teaching it to other students in your peer group helps you understand the information better and be better prepared for papers and tests," Muchnick said.

SACRAMENTO, Calif. —

Tis the season for stressed-out kids — it's finals time for thousands of local high school students.

Cynthia Muchnick is an educational consultant and the author of "The Everything Guide to Study Skills."

Muchnick has three study tips to Excellerate performance and lower stress for students.

Worried about forgetting important facts or a tricky math formula? Try writing it down on the test as soon as a teacher hands it out.

"Or type it into their laptop if it's a laptop test. That way you have those formulas and short-term facts that their short-term memory might forget," says Muchnick.

Next, manners matter.

Encourage students to get in the habit of saying "thank you" to their teachers after class every single day. The simple habit creates a connection that makes tougher conversations easier to have.

"These teachers are up there giving a presentation, teaching a class. Acknowledge and thank them for the time they put into that. It makes them like you more and think you're a kind person. I recommend that for your coach, for your teacher, for any mentor or adult in your life. Just say, thank you," Muchncik said.

And finally, form a study group for finals. It's easier than ever with things like FaceTime and Discord. Ideally, it's great to find a student who has better mastery of the topic. Surprisingly, the benefits go both ways.

"Sometimes, being the one who really understands the material by reiterating it and teaching it to other students in your peer group helps you understand the information better and be better prepared for papers and tests," Muchnick said.


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No result found, try new keyword!Cynthia Muchnick is an educational consultant and the author of "The Everything Guide to Study Skills." Muchnick has three study tips to Excellerate performance and lower stress for students.
 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug