Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CPHQ
Exam Name : NAHQ Certified Professional in Healthcare Quality (CPHQ)
Vendor Name : Healthcare
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CPHQ exam Format | CPHQ Course Contents | CPHQ Course Outline | CPHQ exam Syllabus | CPHQ exam Objectives


The content validity of the CPHQ examination is based on a practice analysis which surveys healthcare quality professionals on the tasks they perform as a part of their job. Each question on the exam links directly to one of the tasks listed in the content outline. Each question is designed to test if the candidate possesses the knowledge necessary to perform the task and/or has the ability to apply it to a job situation.



1. Organizational Leadership (35 items)

A. Structure and Integration

1. Support organizational commitment to quality

2. Participate in organization-wide strategic planning related to quality

3. Align quality and safety activities with strategic goals

4. Engage stakeholders to promote quality and safety (e.g., emergency preparedness, corporate compliance, infection prevention, case management, patient experience, provider network, vendors)

5. Provide consultative support to the governing body and clinical staff regarding their roles and responsibilities (e.g., credentialing, privileging, quality oversight, risk management)

6. Facilitate development of the quality structure (e.g., councils and committees)

7. Assist in evaluating or developing data management systems (e.g., data bases, registries)

8. Evaluate and integrate external best practices (e.g., resources from AHRQ, IHI, NQF, WHO, HEDIS, outcome measures)

9. Participate in activities to identify and evaluate innovative solutions and practices

10. Lead and facilitate change (e.g., change theories, diffusion, spread)

11. Participate in population health promotion and continuum of care activities (e.g., handoffs, transitions of care, episode of care, outcomes, healthcare utilization)

12. Communicate resource needs to leadership to Boost quality (e.g., staffing, equipment, technology)

13. Recognize quality initiatives impacting reimbursement (e.g., pay for performance, value-based contracts)

B. Regulatory, Accreditation, and External Recognition

1. Assist the organization in maintaining awareness of statutory and regulatory requirements (e.g., CMS, HIPAA, OSHA, PPACA)

2. Identify appropriate accreditation, certification, and recognition options (e.g., AAAHC, CARF, DNV GL, ISO, NCQA, TJC, Baldrige, Magnet)

3. Assist with survey or accreditation readiness

4. Participate in the process for evaluating compliance with internal and external requirements for:

a. clinical practice guidelines and pathways (e.g., medication use, infection prevention)

b. service quality

c. documentation

d. practitioner performance evaluation (e.g., peer review, credentialing, privileging)

e. gaps in patient experience outcomes (e.g., surveys, focus groups, teams, grievance, complaints)

f. identification of reportable events for accreditation and regulatory bodies

5. Facilitate communication with accrediting and regulatory bodies Certified Professional in Healthcare Quality Detailed Content Outline1

C. Education, Training, and Communication

1. Design performance, process, and quality improvement training

2. Provide education and training on performance, process, and quality improvement (e.g., including improvement methods, culture change, project and meeting management)

3. Evaluate effectiveness of performance/quality improvement training

4. Develop/provide survey preparation training (e.g., accreditation, licensure, or equivalent)

5. Disseminate performance, process, and quality improvement information within the organization

2. Health Data Analytics (30 items)

A. Design and Data Management

1. Maintain confidentiality of performance/quality improvement records and reports

2. Design data collection plans:

a. measure development (e.g., definitions, goals, and thresholds)

b. tools and techniques

c. sampling methodology

3. Participate in identifying or selecting measures (e.g., structure, process, outcome)

4. Assist in developing scorecards and dashboards

5. Identify external data sources for comparison (e.g., benchmarking)

6. Collect and validate data

B. Measurement and Analysis

1. Use data management systems (e.g., organize data for analysis and reporting)

2. Use tools to display data or evaluate a process (e.g., Pareto chart, run chart, scattergram, control chart)

3. Use statistics to describe data (e.g., mean, standard deviation, correlation, t-test)

4. Use statistical process control (e.g., common and special cause variation, random variation, trend analysis)

5. Interpret data to support decision-making

6. Compare data sources to establish benchmarks

7. Participate in external reporting (e.g., core measures, patient safety indicators, HEDIS bundled payments)

3. Performance and Process Improvement (40 items)

A. Identifying Opportunities for Improvement

1. Facilitate discussion about quality improvement opportunities

2. Assist with establishing priorities

3. Facilitate development of action plans or projects

4. Facilitate implementation of performance improvement methods (e.g., Lean, PDCA, Six Sigma)

5. Identify process champions

Certified Professional in Healthcare Quality

Detailed Content Outline1

B. Implementation and Evaluation

1. Establish teams, roles, responsibilities, and scope

2. Use a range of quality tools and techniques (e.g., fishbone diagram, FMEA, process map)

3. Participate in monitoring of project timelines and deliverables

4. Evaluate team effectiveness (e.g., dynamics, outcomes)

5. Evaluate the success of performance improvement projects

6. Document performance and process improvement results

4. Patient Safety (20 items)

A. Assessment and Planning

1. Assess the organization's culture of safety

2. Determine how technology can enhance the patient safety program (e.g., electronic health record (EHR), abduction/elopement security systems, smart pumps, alerts)

3. Participate in risk management exam activities (e.g., identification and analysis)

B. Implementation and Evaluation

1. Facilitate the ongoing evaluation of safety activities

2. Integrate safety concepts throughout the organization

3. Use safety principles:

a. human factors engineering

b. high reliability

c. systems thinking

4. Participate in safety and risk management activities related to:

a. incident report review (e.g., near miss and genuine events)

b. sentinel/unexpected event review (e.g., never events)

c. root cause analysis

d. failure mode and effects analysis



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug