Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ASQ CQA : Certified Quality Auditor (CQA) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CQA
Exam Name : Certified Quality Auditor (CQA)
Vendor Name : ASQ
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CQA test Format | CQA Course Contents | CQA Course Outline | CQA test Syllabus | CQA test Objectives

Test Detail:
The ASQ CQA (Certified Quality Auditor) test is conducted by the American Society for Quality (ASQ) to certify professionals who possess the knowledge and skills required to effectively audit quality management systems. The test evaluates the candidate's understanding of quality auditing principles, techniques, and practices.

Course Outline:
The course for the ASQ CQA certification covers various Topics related to quality auditing. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered:

1. Introduction to Quality Auditing:
- Overview of quality auditing concepts, principles, and benefits.
- Understanding the role and responsibilities of a quality auditor.
- Introduction to relevant standards and regulations related to quality auditing.

2. Quality Management Systems:
- Understanding quality management system (QMS) standards, such as ISO 9001.
- Familiarization with QMS documentation, processes, and procedures.
- Knowledge of auditing requirements for different industries and sectors.

3. Audit Planning and Preparation:
- Planning an effective audit, including scope definition and audit objectives.
- Developing an audit plan, checklist, and audit schedule.
- Identifying relevant audit criteria and determining trial size.

4. Conducting the Audit:
- Conducting opening and closing meetings with auditees.
- Performing on-site audit activities, including gathering evidence, interviewing personnel, and reviewing records.
- Applying effective communication and interviewing techniques during the audit.

5. Audit Reporting and Follow-up:
- Documenting audit findings and nonconformities.
- Preparing accurate and concise audit reports.
- Understanding the follow-up process and verifying corrective actions.

6. Audit Techniques and Tools:
- Understanding various audit techniques, such as document review, process observation, and data analysis.
- Familiarization with audit tools, including sampling methods, checklists, and data analysis software.

Exam Objectives:
The ASQ CQA test focuses on evaluating the candidate's knowledge and understanding of the following key areas:

1. Auditing Fundamentals
2. Audit Process
3. Audit Competencies
4. Audit Tools and Techniques
5. Audit Standards and Regulations

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus for the ASQ CQA certification provides a detailed breakdown of the Topics covered in each test objective. It includes sub-topics, concepts, and specific tasks that candidates should be familiar with. The syllabus may cover the following areas:

- Quality management principles and concepts
- Audit planning and preparation
- Audit execution and evidence gathering
- Audit reporting and follow-up
- Auditing techniques and tools
- Quality standards and regulations

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ASQ Certified learning


5. Recognition of Prior Learning


5.1      The Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL – previously known as ‘APL’) is a process whereby students can be exempt from some parts of their chosen programme of academic study by recognition of their learning from previous experiences or achievements as part of the admissions process.

  • Recognised Prior 'Certified' Learning is the achievement of learning that has been formally assessed and certificated from previous study with a higher education organisation.
  • Recognised Prior 'Experiential' Learning is the non-certified acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge, gained through relevant experience, which is capable of being evaluated.
  • 5.2      Some programmes have approved units/periods of study undertaken at another institution or in the workplace. Where this is a recognised part of an approved programme this policy does not apply.

    5.3      The term ‘prior learning’ does not include the learning implicit in formal teaching, a work placement, group work or independent study designed as part of a programme of study alone. Recognition of such parallel learning would be expected to occur in the formal test practice of the programme.


    5.4      It is the achievement of learning, or outcomes of the learning, and not just the experience of the activities that is being accredited. In all cases evidence must be presented to the University that such learning has taken place.

    5.5      Evidence for acceptance of RPL should demonstrate that the learner has a reasonable expectation of satisfactorily completing the programme for which they are applying.

    5.6      Students will not be admitted to any programme with prior learning if they already hold a degree in the same subject.

    5.7      Students may request to view additional criteria, by which it judges applications for RPL.

    5.8      Faculties (i.e. the Faculty Admissions and Recruitment Officer and/or the Faculty Education Director) are responsible for deciding whether to admit a student with recognition of their prior learning and the relevant entry point into the programme, on the recommendation of the school (e.g. the programme director).

    5.9      Prior learning will not normally be accepted if five or more years have elapsed since it occurred unless the applicant can provide evidence that their learning has continued in a professional or similar context. In such cases the school may choose to set an test to test an applicant's current knowledge.

    5.10   To complement the University’s credit framework (see Section 4) the following table shows maximum amounts of credit for each type of programme that can be counted as prior learning.

    The maximum amount of certified prior learning may be exceeded where a student is returning to undertake a ‘top-up’ qualification, provided that the lower award is still relevant to the higher qualification.

    Award type

    Number of credit points for award

    Total amount of RPL permitted

    Postgraduate Level Award 

    Masters Degree



    Postgraduate Diploma



    Postgraduate Certificate



    Undergraduate Level Award 

    Graduate Diploma



    Graduate Certificate



    Integrated Masters Degree





    Honours Bachelors Degree





    Undergraduate Diploma



    Undergraduate Certificate



    Prior learning in the undergraduate professional programmes of BDS, MBChB and BVSc may be accepted in lieu of an individual unit, at the discretion of the relevant Programme Director.

    5.11      The conferring of one of the awards listed in the table and the recognition of prior learning within this is complemented by the following:

    a)     Sufficient credit at the highest level of the award, as outlined in the University’s credit framework, must be taken at the University of Bristol (or, for a Joint Award, one of its partner institutions) in order for the award to be conferred.

    b)     The final 120 credit points of an undergraduate degree programme must be taken and satisfactorily completed at the University of Bristol unless there is a specific agreement to the contrary that has been approved by Senate, therefore it follows that the University will not normally accredit prior learning within the final year of its bachelors and integrated masters programmes.

    c)     The dissertation or research component of a taught postgraduate programme must be taken and satisfactorily completed at the University of Bristol (or, for a Joint Award, one of its partner institutions).

    Recognising Prior Certified Learning

    5.12      Schools should consider the learning which has been accredited and decide, in the best interests of the student, how this can be taken into account. It is at the discretion of the school to decide if: (a) the subject content, and therefore knowledge gained, is sufficiently similar for a student to be exempt from unit(s), and (b) if marks can be transferred.

    5.13      Therefore, prior credit obtained from another institution can be recognised in one of two ways:

    (a)      Exemption from units, the marks of which do not contribute to the final award and need not be transferred (University of Bristol accepts the credit awarded by another institution);

    (b)      Exemption from units, the marks of which do contribute to the final award and are transferred (University of Bristol accepts the credit and marks awarded by another institution towards this award).

    5.14      Students who have previously been required to withdraw from a programme will not normally be re-admitted to the same point on a programme by the recognition of the prior learning.

    5.15      The requirement to transfer marks may be waived for students transferring into an undergraduate professional programme if there is still a significant proportion (e.g. 360 or more, out of 600 credit points) of the programme to complete.

    5.16      Where a student is permitted to top-up a qualification, the lower award is subsumed into the higher award made by the University on conferring of that award, in accordance with the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree Awarding bodies. There is no requirement for a student to ‘hand-in’ the certificate for the lower award in these circumstances.

    Recognising Prior Experiential Learning

    5.17      Schools should consider each case and decide from which units the student can be exempt. The school should satisfy itself that the applicant has sufficient knowledge and ability to have a reasonable expectation of completing the programme successfully.

    5.18      If a school is not satisfied that the experiential learning is equivalent to the standard of unit(s), it may require the applicant to undertake an appropriate method of exam.

    See Annex 13 on how RPL is applied to the calculation of the final programme mark and/or the degree classification in modular undergraduate programmes - with mark transfer and no mark transfer.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug