Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CQIA exam Format | CQIA Course Contents | CQIA Course Outline | CQIA exam Syllabus | CQIA exam Objectives


Computer Delivered – The CQIA examination is a one-part, 110-question, three-and-a-half-hour exam and is offered in English only. Of these questions, 100 are scored and 10 are unscored.Paper and Pencil – The CQIA examination is a one-part, 100-question, three-hour exam and is offered in English only.



Certification from ASQ is considered a mark of quality excellence in many industries. It helps you advance your career, and boosts your organizations bottom line through your mastery of quality skills. Becoming certified as a Quality Improvement Associate confirms your commitment to quality and the positive impact it will have on your organization.



Each certification candidate is required to pass an examination that consists of multiple-choice questions that measure comprehension of the body of knowledge.



A. Terms, Concepts, and Principles 1. Quality definitions Describe and distinguish between the common definitions of quality. (Apply)2. Quality planDefine a quality plan, describe its purpose and objectives to achieve the quality mission or policy. Identify the various functional areas and people having responsibility for contributing to its development. (Understand)3. Quality systemsUnderstand the difference and relationship between quality assurance, quality control, and continuous quality improvement. (Understand)4. Organizational cultureUnderstand how culture influences the success of process improvement efforts such as lean, Six Sigma, ISO 9001, Baldrige, and change management. (Understand)5. Employee involvement and empowermentDefine and distinguish between employee involvement and employee empowerment. Describe the benefits of both concepts. (Understand) 6. Systems and processesDefine and distinguish between a system and a process and describe the interrelationships between them. Describe the components of a system – supplier, input, process, output, customer (SIPOC) – and how these components impact the system as a whole. (Analyze)7. VariationDefine and distinguish between common and special cause variation in relation to quality measures. (Understand)8. StandardizationDescribe how quality systems provide consistency and standardization (e.g. ISO 9001). (Remember)Topics in this body of knowledge (BoK) include subtext explana-tions and the cognitive level at which the questions will be written. This information will provide useful guidance for both the exam Development Committee and the candidate preparing to take the exam. The subtext is not intended to limit the subject matter or be all-inclusive of material that will be covered in the exam. It is meant to clarify the type of content that will be included on the exam. The descriptor in parentheses at the end of each entry refers to the maximum cognitive level at which the Topic will be tested. A complete description of cognitive levels is provided at the end of this document. BODY OF KNOWLEDGECertified Quality Improvement Associate (CQIA)

B. Benefits of Quality Describe how using quality tools, techniques, and concepts can Excellerate processes and deliverables (including products and services), and how each benefit all parts of an organization. Describe what quality means to various stakeholders (e.g., employees, organizations, customers, suppliers, community, and interested parties) and how each can benefit from quality. (Understand)C. Foundations of QualityUnderstand the key concepts and teachings of the foundational quality thought leaders including 1) Walter Shewhart, 2) W. Edwards Deming, 3) Joseph Juran, 4) Kaoru Ishikawa, 5) Philip Crosby, and 6) Armand Feigenbaum. (Understand)II. Team Basics (16 Questions)A. Team Organization 1. Team purpose Describe why teams are an effective way to identify and solve problems, and describe when, where, why, and how teams can be used effectively. (Apply)2. Types of teamsDefine and distinguish between various types of teams: process teams, continuous improvement teams, workgroups, self-managed teams, ad hoc project teams, cross-functional teams, and virtual teams. (Apply)3. Value of teamsExplain how a teams efforts can support an organizations key strategies and effect positive change throughout the organization. (Understand)

B. Roles and Responsibilities Describe the roles and responsibilities of various team stakeholders: (Understand) 1. Sponsor 2. Champion3. Facilitator4. Leader5. Member6. Scribe7. TimekeeperC. Team Formation and Group Dynamics 1. Initiating teams Apply the elements of launching and sustaining a successful team, including establishing a clear purpose and goals, developing ground rules and schedules, gaining support from management, and obtaining commitment from team members. (Apply)2. Selecting team members Describe how to select team members based on knowledge, skill sets, and team logistics, such as an adequate number of members in relation to the size or scope of the project, appropriate representation from affected departments or areas, and diversity. (Apply)3. Team stages Describe the classic stages of team development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. (Understand)4. Team conflict Identify the value of team conflict and recognize how to resolve it. Define and describe groupthink and how to overcome it. Determine how good logistics, an agenda, and effective training facilitate team success. (Analyze)

5. Team decision-making Describe and use different decision-making models, such as voting (majority rule, multi-voting) and consensus. Use follow-up techniques to clarify the issue to be decided, to confirm agreement on the decision, and to achieve closure. (Apply)III. Continuous Improvement Techniques (40 Questions)A. Process Improvement 1. Six Sigma concepts and toolsCompare Six Sigma concepts, tools, and techniques. Understand the DMAIC phases: define, measure, analyze, improve, and control. (Understand)2. Lean concepts and toolsCompare lean concepts, tools, and techniques. Understand lean tools used to reduce waste, including set-up and cycle-time reduction, pull systems (kanban), continuous improvement (kaizen), just-in-time (JIT), 5S, value stream mapping, and error-proofing (poka-yoke). (Understand) 3. BenchmarkingDefine benchmarking and describe how it can be used to develop and support best practices. (Understand)4. Incremental and breakthrough improvement Describe and distinguish between these two types of improvements, the steps required for each, and the type of situation in which either type would be expected. (Understand)

B. Improvement Techniques Select and utilize improvement opportunity techniques and/or methodologies: (Apply) 1. Brainstorming2. Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle3. Affinity diagrams4. Cost of poor quality (COPQ)5. Internal audits C. Improvement Tools Select, interpret, and apply the basic improvement tools: (Apply) 1. Flowcharts 2. Histograms 3. Pareto charts4. Scatter diagrams5. Check sheets6. Control charts7. Decision trees D. Root Cause AnalysisUtilize root cause tools such as the 5 Whys and fishbone diagram to implement correction and corrective action. (Apply)E. Risk Management Understand the tools and techniques used to identify and communicate risks, including failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT). Understand prioritization of activities and projects based on risk. (Understand)IV. provider Relationship (7 Questions)A. provider selectionIdentify the provider selection criteria and approval process. (Remember)B. provider relationshipUnderstand provider relationships, associated challenges, and effects of a diverse supply base. (Understand)C. provider PerformanceIdentify provider performance measures, including quality performance, on-time delivery, and level of service. (Apply)V. Customer Relationship(7 Questions)A. Customer IdentificationDistinguish between internal and external customers. Describe their influence on products, services, and processes. (Understand)B. Voice of the Customer (VOC)1. Data gathering and useDescribe various methods for collecting customer satisfaction feedback, including formal surveys, informal feedback, warranty claims, and focus groups. Understand the importance of using customer satisfaction feedback to drive continuous improvement. (Understand)2. Complaint processDefine and identify a customer complaint. Understand and apply the complaint handling process including documentation, action taken, and providing resolve to the customer. (Apply) 3. Customer needsUnderstand the key elements of quality function deployment (QFD) and how it identifies and prioritizes customer expectations and needs. (Understand)





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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug