Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CRCM
Exam Name : Certified Regulatory Compliance Manager
Vendor Name : Banking
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A compliance manager's responsibilities generally include direct compliance risk program management and/or validation of compliance risk control effectiveness. The execution of operational business processes incorporating compliance risk controls is not a function or duty generally performed by a compliance manager as a normal and customary job responsibility and thus does not qualify towards meeting the experience requirement.

To satisfy the Professional Experience requirement, primary responsibility for the full range of compliance risk functions is required. Compliance risk functions include, but are not limited to:

Performing compliance risk exams, audits or examinations, or Developing, implementing, and/or managing all aspects of a compliance risk management program to ensure compliance with U.S. federal laws and regulations.
These jobs are typically found within corporate compliance, legal, audit departments (internal or external), Regulatory Agencies, or dedicated compliance practices within consulting firms. Job responsibilities must be primarily focused on compliance risk management:

Program design, implementation and oversight, Consultation as a subject-matter expert, Administration, enforcement or audit of compliance-related policies, procedures and processes to manage compliance risk, and/or exam of a bank's compliance program.

Task 1: Act as a compliance subject matter expert on projects and committees.
Task 2: Evaluate development of, or changes to, products, services, processes, and systems to determine compliance risk and impacts and ensure policies remain compliant.
Task 3: Provide compliance support to internal and external parties (e.g., answer questions, review marketing and external communications, conduct research and analysis).
Task 4: Review and/or provide compliance training to applicable parties.
Task 5: Participate in conducting due diligence for vendors.
Task 6: Design and maintain a comprehensive compliance risk exam program to identify and mitigate risk within the organizations risk appetite.
Task 7: Conduct compliance risk exams in accordance with the risk exam program to evaluate relevant information (e.g., inherent risk, control environment, residual risk, potential for consumer harm) and communicate results to applicable parties.

The following knowledge is required to perform the tasks within Domain 1:
• All applicable laws, regulations, and guidance
Other essential CRCM knowledge:
• Risk exam program scope and objectives
• Compliance risk appetite (e.g., thresholds, escalation points, pass/fail rates)
• Banks products, services, processes, market area, and operations
• Regulatory and industry landscape
• Risk rating methodology
• Key risk indicators (KRIs)
• Volume and severity of known compliance incidents, breakdowns, and/or customer complaints
• Compliance policies, procedures, and other internal controls (e.g., quality assurance, independent testing)
• Exam/audit and internal compliance monitoring results
• Volume and complexity of products, transactions, and customer base
• exact changes to compliance regulations, key personnel, products, services, systems, and/or processes
• Volume and complexity of products and services provided by third parties

Domain 2: Compliance Monitoring (25%)
Task 1: Define the scope of a specific monitoring or testing activity.
Task 2: Test compliance policies, procedures, controls, and transactions against regulatory requirements to identify risks and potential exceptions.
Task 3: Review and confirm potential exceptions, findings, and recommendations with business units and issue final report to senior management.
Task 4: Validate that any required remediation was completed accurately and within required timelines.
Task 5: Administer a complaint management program.
Task 6: Review first line compliance monitoring results and develop an action plan as needed.
Task 7: Evaluate the reliability of systems of record and the validity of data within those systems that areused for compliance monitoring.

The following knowledge is required to perform the tasks within Domain 2:
• All applicable laws, regulations, and guidance.
Other essential CRCM knowledge:
• Regulator expectations
• Banks products, services, processes, market area, and operations
• Compliance policies, procedures, and controls
• Applicable source data
• Target audience
• Compliance risk rating methodology
• Compliance risk appetite (e.g., thresholds, escalation points, pass/fail rates)
• Complaints received internally and externally, including volumes, sources, trends, and root causes
• Regulatory expectations on complaint management program administration
• Complaint handling procedures
• Critical systems and usage by the business units
• exact changes to critical systems or processes

Domain 3: Governance and Oversight (10%)
Task 1: Establish and maintain a compliance management policy to set expectations for board, senior management, and business unit responsibilities.
Task 2: Develop, conduct, and track enterprise-wide and/or job-specific compliance training.
Task 3: Conduct periodic reviews of the compliance management program to evaluate its effectiveness and communicate results to appropriate parties.
The following knowledge is required to perform the tasks within Domain 3:
• Regulatory expectations
• Compliance risk appetite (e.g., thresholds, escalation points, pass/fail rates)
• Banks products, services, processes, and operations
• Employee roles and responsibilities
• Compliance risk exam results
• Regulatory change environment
• Compliance monitoring results
• Compliance audit/exam findings
• Compliance management policy (CMP)
• Volume and severity of known compliance incidents, breakdowns, and/or customer complaints

Domain 4: Regulatory Change Management (15%)
Task 1: Monitor and evaluate applicable regulatory agency notifications for new compliance regulations or changes to existing regulations to assess potential regulatory impacts and remediation needs.
Task 2: Assess new, revised, or proposed regulatory changes for compliance impacts, communicate to the appropriate parties, and develop action plans as needed.
Task 3: Assess regulatory guidance and compliance enforcement actions to determine if remediation is required to address potential compliance impacts.
Task 4: Report on the status of regulatory changes and implementation to appropriate parties.
Task 5: Monitor and validate action plans for confirmed regulatory impacts to ensure timely adherence to the mandatory compliance date.
The following knowledge is required to perform the tasks within Domain 4:
• All applicable laws, regulations, and guidance.
Other essential CRCM knowledge:
• Banks products, services, processes, market area, and operations
• Key stakeholders
• Timeline and extent of impact to business units
• Planned changes to critical systems
• New or revised compliance policies, procedures, controls, and training
• Changes to banks products, services, processes, market area, and operations
• Penalties and potential restitution for non-compliance
• Scope of impacts

Domain 5: Regulator and Auditor Compliance Management (11%)
Task 1: Prepare and review requested audit/exam materials to ensure timely and accurate fulfillment and self-identify potential areas of concern.
Task 2: Participate in audit/exam meetings to provide business overviews, address questions, discuss findings, or provide updates to appropriate parties.
Task 3: Review and draft responses to audit/exam results and ensure action plans are developed and communicated to appropriate parties.
Task 4: Report on action plan status to appropriate levels of management and auditors/examiners.
Task 5: Coordinate and submit ongoing regulatory reports to auditors/examiners.
The following knowledge is required to perform the tasks within Domain 5:
• All applicable laws, regulations, and guidance.
Other essential CRCM knowledge:
• Banks products, services, processes, market area, and operations
• Key stakeholders
• Compliance policies, procedures, and controls
• Critical systems and usage by the business units
• Services provided by third parties
• Compliance risk appetite (e.g., thresholds, escalation points, pass/fail rates)
• Effectiveness of actions taken
• Regulatory expectations
• Top risk, emerging risk, and areas of continued focus
• New bank products, services, processes, market area, and operations

Domain 6: Compliance Analysis and Internal/External Reporting (11%)
Task 1: Analyze and validate data to support regulatory reporting and ensure accuracy and comprehensiveness.
Task 2: Complete required reporting, ensure timely submission to the appropriate agency, and resubmit when required.
Task 3: Develop, implement, and monitor a plan of action to prevent future reporting errors or breakdowns.
The following knowledge is required to perform the tasks within Domain 6:
• CRA
• HMDA
• BSA (CTR, SARS)
• OFAC
• Regulation Z (Credit card agreements, marketing on college campuses)
• Regulation II
• Banks products, services, processes, market area, and operations
• Critical systems and usage by the business units
• Findings and root causes
• Compliance policies, procedures, and controls
• Regulator expectations
• Compliance risk appetite (e.g., thresholds, escalation points)
• Penalties and potential restitution for non-compliance
• Scope of impacts



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug