Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

Wo erhalte ich vollständige Informationen über CSLE?

Nachfolgend finden Sie alle Details zu Übungstests, Dumps und aktuellen Fragen der CSLE: National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing Exam Prüfung.

2023 Updated Actual CSLE questions as experienced in Test Center

Aktuelle CSLE Fragen aus echten Tests von Killexams.com - easy finanz | easyfinanz

CSLE dumps collection - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam | https://www.easyfinanz.cc/

Certification-Board CSLE : National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Exam Dumps

Exam Dumps Organized by Richard

Latest 2023 Updated Certification-Board National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Syllabus
CSLE real qeustions / Braindumps contains genuine exam Questions

Practice Tests and Free VCE Software - Questions Updated on Daily Basis
Big Discount / Cheapest price & 100% Pass Guarantee

CSLE Exam Center Questions : Download 100% Free CSLE real qeustions (PDF and VCE)

Exam Number : CSLE
Exam Name : National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing Exam
Vendor Name : Certification-Board
Update : Click Here to Check Latest Update
Question Bank : Check Questions

Memorize to read CSLE braindumps before attempting real exam
You will unleash the true power of killexams.com CSLE Practice Questions when you take the real CSLE exam. Everything they provided in your get section will appear on the genuine CSLE exam in real-time. Therefore, they suggest downloading 100% free Actual Questions to evaluate CSLE demo questions, then registering and downloading the full version of CSLE PDF Download on your computer and going through the questions. Practice with VCE exam simulator, and that's all.

If you are interested in passing the Certification-Board CSLE exam to secure a great job, then registering at killexams.com is a must. They have a team of experts who are working hard to collect genuine CSLE test questions. By using their National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing Exam test questions, you can ensure that you will breeze through the CSLE exam. Additionally, you can get the updated CSLE test questions for free, and you can do it every time.

Several organizations offer CSLE Exam Questions, but having a valid and up-to-date CSLE Practice Questions is a significant concern. Therefore, it is essential to reexamine killexams.com before you rely on the free CSLE Exam Cram available on the web.

Killexams.com provides CSLE PDF Dumps, which includes all the updates and changes made in CSLE in 2023. With their PDF Dumps, you can ensure your success in the genuine CSLE exam. They recommend that you go through the full dumps collection at least once before you take the genuine test. This practice not only helps candidates to use their CSLE Free exam PDF but also enhances their knowledge, making them experts in their field.

Killexams CSLE Exam Questions offers several features that make it stand out from the rest. Their Exam Questions provides accurate and Checked questions and answers, and they offer a money-back guarantee if the candidate fails the exam. They also provide a demo version of their Exam Questions, which allows candidates to test their product before purchasing it. Furthermore, their Exam Questions is user-friendly, and the questions are designed to match the genuine exam pattern.

CSLE exam Format | CSLE Course Contents | CSLE Course Outline | CSLE exam Syllabus | CSLE exam Objectives

NIC Practical Cosmetology exam Core Content

A practical examination is an important component for assessing your competence in cosmetology. The NIC cosmetology practical examination covers the following core content:

- Hair-shaping

- Chemical waving

- Chemical relaxing

- Hair lightening and hair coloring

- Thermal curling

Further, depending on your state, you may also be tested in the following areas:

- Blow-drying styling

- Shaping and pin curl placement

- Roller placement

- Facials

- Manicuring

- Sculptured nails

Although you should always refer to your state guidelines for a list of required supplies, the required general supplies for the NIC cosmetology practical examination include:

- Dry storage kit/container

- Hand sanitizer

- Mannequin head and a table clamp

- A towel placed between the clamp and the table

- EPA registered disinfectant

- Container/bag for soiled/trash items

- Container/bag for items to be disinfected

- Cloth and paper towels

- Neck strips

- Shampoo cape

- Hair clamps

- Combs/hair brushes

- Spray bottle

- Protective cream

- Spatula

- Protective cotton

- Protective gloves

- First aid supply kit

- Tape

When taking the NIC cosmetology practical examination, you will want to ensure you follow all exam rules and instructions, including:

Do not leave the exam area without permission.

- You must bring your own exam kit in sanitary condition.

- You must bring a container of water if needed for any section of the exam. You may also bring a thermos of hot water, if desired.

- You will be given 10 minutes for client protection and for setting up your supplies.

- You will be given 2 minutes in between each section of the exam for setting up the required supplies.

- You will receive verbal instructions twice before beginning each section of the exam.

- Once you have completed the tasks of a specific section, step back from your work station to indicate that you have finished.

- Always ensure you are following all appropriate public protection and infection control procedures during all phases of the exam.

- You may not bring your cell phone or any other electronic device, handwritten notes, or any other printed materials into the exam room.

- You may not talk with any other candidates during the testing period.

- Depending on your state, you will use either a live model or a mannequin head/hand for the exam.

If you are allowed to use a model, you must adhere to the following guidelines:

- Your model must be at least 15 years old and cannot be a licensed cosmetologist or cosmetology student.

- Your model must present ID to gain admittance into the exam.

- Your model must agree to submit to all services during the exam and may not participate in any way during the exam.

- Your model cannot talk to you at any time during the exam.

Killexams Review | Reputation | Testimonials | Feedback

Strive out these real CSLE braindumps.
I would like to spread the word about killexams.com, which helped me excel in my CSLE exam and exceed all expectations. It is one of the best online test preparation resources I have ever come across and deserves recognition. Word of mouth is a powerful way of advertising and promoting a product, and I am happy to recommend killexams.com to anyone who wants to achieve success in their certification exams.

Determined all CSLE Questions in updated dumps that I read.
As an authority on the subject, I knew I needed assistance from Dumps if I wanted to pass a challenging exam like CSLE. And, indeed, I was correct. The killexams.com Dumps have an interesting technique that makes difficult subjects easy. They manage them in a short, simple, and precise manner, making it easy to remember and recall the information. I did so and was able to answer all of the questions in half the time. Truly, killexams.com dumps are an authentic partner in need.

Real exam CSLE Questions and answers.
The dumps provided by killexams.com are excellent. Although 76% is enough to pass the exam, I secured 92% marks in the genuine CSLE exam, all thanks to killexams.com. I cannot imagine using any other product for my exam preparation. It is a superb product, and I highly recommend it to everyone.

Am i able to find dumps Questions & Answers latest CSLE exam?
Despite finding the CSLE exam difficult, I managed to score 87% and pass it, thanks to killexams.com. Initially, I was about to supply up on taking this exam, but my friend suggested using killexams.com questions and answers. Within just four weeks, I was thoroughly prepared for the exam.

Splendid source! I were given genuine test questions of CSLE exam.
I scored 99% in the CSLE exam, and I owe it all to the Questions and Answers provided by killexams.com. Within just 15 days of preparation, I was able to master even the most difficult topics, thanks to their clear and powerful observation guide. I hope that killexams.com continues to develop similar courses for other IT certification exams, as their material is unparalleled.

Certification-Board exam information hunger


Exam Procedures

Your exam invitation, or Notice to Schedule (NTS), email from Meazure Learning will have links for you to check your computer system. If you take your exam online, it is important to verify that your computer meets the minimum requirements and that you have reliable access to the Internet. An internet connection disruption will suspend the exam session. 

IMPORTANT: If taking the exam online, you must use a computer on which you have full admin access.

  • You must be alone in the room throughout the test
  • You are required to have a webcam installed on your exam workstation
  • PC computers are recommended; however MACs are also acceptable
  • Chromebooks, tablets, iPads, dual/multiple monitors, and projectors are not permitted to be used as a testing device
  • Your computer must meet the system and equipment requirements listed here
  • Additional Resources
  • Preview the Candidate Experience with ProctorU
  • Browse the ProctorU Resource Center 
  • ​If you have computer system questions after following the instructions provided by Meazure Learning's schedule confirmation email, please contact Meazure Learning at +1 919-572-6880 or candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com.

    Note: Meazure Learning, Scantron, and ProctorU are all one-and-the-same organization.

  • Your valid, government issued photo ID (e.g., driver's license, passport, state-issued ID card) 
  • The printed exam confirmation notice you received from Meazure Learning
  • No other items can be brought into the exam environment 
  • A calculator and any other necessary resource materials will be provided on the computer for those taking the exam electronically
  • No reference material will be allowed in any test room
  • Please note that storage space will be limited
  • For all CCST level exams, Units Conversion Tables will be provided to candidates in either paper format (paper/pencil exams) or accessible within the electronic test interface for reference during the exam. Click here to review the Units Conversion Tables.

    It is important to be certain when selecting the method and time you want to take the exam. You may incur fees if you change the time and method of testing. Exams must be scheduled in advance as follows: 

  • Candidates in the United States and Canada: you must submit your scheduling request at least two calendar days prior to your desired exam date
  • Candidates in other countries: you must submit your scheduling request at least five calendar days prior to your desired exam date
  • If you are within your exam window or eligibility period, you may reschedule your exam appointment before the online and Exam Center reschedule cut-off times via the online exam scheduling system. If you are outside your exam window and want to request an extension, please contact certifications@isa.org.

    Changing from online exam to another online exam

    There is no rescheduling fee. However, it must be changed no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time.

    Changing from online exam to Exam Center exam

    There is no rescheduling fee. However, it must be changed at least 24 hours in advance of the scheduled appointment. Additionally, you must reschedule the new appointment no less than two calendar days in advance of the new appointment at a Meazure Learning test center.

    Changing from Exam Center exam to another Exam Center exam

    You will incur a rescheduling fee of 50 USD. Rescheduling fees are payable to Meazure Learning via a secure e-commerce site (credit card). The reschedule cut-off time is no later than two calendar days prior to the exam appointment. Additionally, if you are scheduling a new online exam appointment, it must be done no less than 24 hours prior to the new appointment date and time.

    Reschedule Fees: CAP Associate and CST Associate:
  • ISA members: 76 USD
  • Non-members: 95 USD
  • All other Certificate Programs:
  • ISA members: 120 USD
  • Non-members: 150 USD
  • CAP Certification Program:
  • ISA members: 108 USD 
  • Non-members: 135 USD
  • CCST Certificate Programs:
  • ISA members: 116 USD
  • Non-members: 145 USD
  • You can cancel an exam through Meazure Learning's online exam scheduling system.

  • Online exam appointments must be cancelled no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time. There is no cancellation fee
  • Exam center appointments must be cancelled no less than two calendar days prior to the scheduled testing appointment. There is a cancellation fee of 50 USD payable to Meazure Learning via a secure e-commerce site (credit card)
  • You may retest as many times as needed, if you do not pass or if you miss your scheduled exam, within your exam window or eligibility period. However, there is a fee each time that is payable to ISA. If you need to retest or have missed your exam, you must submit a request to certification@isa.org.

    If a candidate fails their exam, they may retest as many times as needed within their 12-month certification exam window or six-month certificate eligibility period. There is a fee each time retesting is needed. If a candidate does not pass the exam within the program exam deadline, the applicant must reapply for that certification or register again for the certificate course to sit for the exam.

    If you fail to appear for a scheduled exam or arrive more than 15 minutes after the scheduled start time, you will be considered a no-show and forfeit your exam. However, you may retake a missed exam by paying a rescheduling fee to ISA if you are within your exam window or eligibility period. To request a rescheduled exam, email certifications@isa.org with your request. See exam procedures section #4, Rescheduling an Exam, for reschedule fee costs.

    You may qualify for an exception if you meet certain conditions and submit documentation to Meazure Learning no later than five calendar days after the scheduled exam appointment. If the exception is approved, there will be a no-show exemption fee of 50 USD payable via secure e-commerce (credit card) and collected by Meazure Learning. Please contact Meazure Learning by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com for more details. 

    All ISA certification exams are closed-book and have multiple choice questions.  They apply a modified Angoff Method to determine the pass point for each exam (learn more about the modified Angoff Method below). Their certification exams last between 3 and 4 hours and their certificate exams last two hours.

    ISA does not provide a passing score; you are only notified whether you passed or failed. If you fail an exam, you will receive a score report that lists the domains and indicates the percentage of questions answered correctly within each domain. Note that the percentages are not used to calculate a candidate’s passing score.

    You will see your exam results on the screen at the completion of the exam. You will also receive your exam results immediately via email from (candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com). If you do not receive an email containing your results within 24 hours, please contact Meazure Learning by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com for assistance. 

    If you pass your exam, you will receive an email containing a digital badge from isa_badges@isa.org within one business day of completing the exam. To access, manage, and/or share your secure digital badge, use your email address and password to enter your BadgeCert portfolio. If it is the first time accessing your portfolio or if you have forgotten your password, click “Request new password?” on their login page to create your password. More information about using your digital badge can be found here.

    Be advised that they update their databases and systems with the previous month’s exam data in the first part of the following month.  ISA will update your credential status on the “My Credentials” tab from your ISA account and in ISA's Credential Directory within the first ten (10) business days of the following month you took your exam.

    Modified Angoff Method

    The modified Angoff Method uses expert judgements to determine the difficulty level of the exam. The easier the exam, the higher the pass point. Likewise, the more difficult the exam, the lower the pass point. The following is a basic outline of the modified Angoff Method (some details have been omitted):

  • A group of subject matter experts (SMEs) independently rate each exam question within a given form of the exam. The ratings are defined as the probability, or likelihood, that an acceptably (minimally) competent person with the requisite education and experience will answer the question correctly. An acceptably (minimally) competent person is defined as someone who adequately performs all job functions safely and requires no further training to do so.
  • The SMEs review each exam question as a group. A statistical consensus is reached for the difficulty rating of each exam question.
  • After the data is refined, the final step is to calculate the mean, or average, of all the exam question ratings. This becomes the overall pass point estimation.

  • Gannon University recognized as a Hunger-Free+ Campus

    No result found, try new keyword!An Erie university was recognized for its efforts to combat student hunger and provide meals by a state agency. Gannon University was designated as a ...

    While it is very hard task to choose reliable certification questions / answers resources with respect to review, reputation and validity because people get ripoff due to choosing wrong service. Killexams.com make it sure to serve its clients best to its resources with respect to real qeustions update and validity. Most of other's ripoff report complaint clients come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams happily and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client confidence is important to us. Specially they take care of killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. The same care that they take about killexams review, killexams reputation, killexams ripoff report complaint, killexams trust, killexams validity, killexams report and killexams scam. If you see any false report posted by their competitors with the name killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams ripoff report, killexams scam, killexams.com complaint or something like this, just keep in mind that there are always bad people damaging reputation of good services due to their benefits. There are thousands of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams practice questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Their demo questions and demo brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

    Which is the best dumps website?
    Of course, Killexams is completely legit and even fully reliable. There are several includes that makes killexams.com unique and legit. It provides current and completely valid real qeustions formulated with real exams questions and answers. Price is nominal as compared to almost all services online. The Questions and Answers are current on ordinary basis through most latest brain dumps. Killexams account structure and products delivery is really fast. Submit downloading is unlimited and intensely fast. Assistance is avaiable via Livechat and Email address. These are the characteristics that makes killexams.com a robust website that provide real qeustions with real exams questions.

    Is killexams.com test material dependable?
    There are several Questions and Answers provider in the market claiming that they provide genuine exam Questions, Braindumps, Practice Tests, Study Guides, cheat sheet and many other names, but most of them are re-sellers that do not update their contents frequently. Killexams.com is best website of Year 2023 that understands the issue candidates face when they spend their time studying obsolete contents taken from free pdf get sites or reseller sites. Thats why killexams.com update exam Questions and Answers with the same frequency as they are updated in Real Test. real qeustions provided by killexams.com are Reliable, Up-to-date and validated by Certified Professionals. They maintain dumps collection of valid Questions that is kept up-to-date by checking update on daily basis.

    If you want to Pass your exam Fast with improvement in your knowledge about latest course contents and courses of new syllabus, They recommend to get PDF exam Questions from killexams.com and get ready for genuine exam. When you feel that you should register for Premium Version, Just choose visit killexams.com and register, you will receive your Username/Password in your Email within 5 to 10 minutes. All the future updates and changes in Questions and Answers will be provided in your get Account. You can get Premium real qeustions files as many times as you want, There is no limit.

    Killexams.com has provided VCE VCE exam Software to Practice your exam by Taking Test Frequently. It asks the Real exam Questions and Marks Your Progress. You can take test as many times as you want. There is no limit. It will make your test prep very fast and effective. When you start getting 100% Marks with complete Pool of Questions, you will be ready to take genuine Test. Go register for Test in Exam Center and Enjoy your Success.

    PMI-ACP certification demo | WSO2-CEID Practice Questions | NS0-162 brain dumps | EMT pass marks | NACE-CIP2-001 cheat sheets | 050-894 question test | ASVAB exam questions | 102-500 boot camp | 1T6-530 practice exam | LEED-GA dumps | DES-6322 exam results | Google-ASA exam prep | H12-721 practice exam | CRFA VCE exam | PCIP3-0 Free PDF | AD0-E308 VCE exam | 300-620 VCE exam | CBBF actual questions | DES-6332 VCE exam | 1T6-111 brain dumps |

    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam learning
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Latest Topics
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Study Guide
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam tricks
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Dumps
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam tricks
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam information hunger
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam test
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Cheatsheet
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam PDF Download
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam real questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam exam syllabus
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Latest Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam boot camp
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Practice Test
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam study help
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Exam Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Latest Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Exam Cram
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam syllabus
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam syllabus
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Exam Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam braindumps
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam PDF Dumps
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam tricks
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Exam Braindumps
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam study tips
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam certification
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Latest Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam tricks
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam test
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Practice Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam genuine Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam real questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam Practice Questions
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam PDF Dumps
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam braindumps
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam certification
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam techniques
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam book
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam learn
    CSLE - National-Interstate Council Cosmetology Licensing exam exam syllabus

    Other Certification-Board exam Dumps

    NRP online exam | CSLE exam Braindumps | CDL demo test questions | FSOT exam tips | MTEL study guide | NAB-NHA real questions | SBAC test example | ISEE braindumps | ABCTE model question | NCC free online test | NCE exam prep | ABFM Dumps | TCRN boot camp | RACP test exam | ABPN-VNE exam test | BCB-Analyst exam questions | DMV prep questions | BCBA practice test | NLN-PAX cheat sheet pdf | ICTS Questions and Answers |

    Best real qeustions You Ever Experienced

    50-695 free pdf download | Copedo-Developer Free PDF | 44202T exam questions | CPEA test questions | I10-002 real questions | CFR-310 Latest Topics | 4A0-105 exam preparation | Google-ACE test prep | PR000005 exam prep | CPSA-F PDF Dumps | AD0-E121 Cheatsheet | ACCUPLACER demo test questions | ASVAB-Assembling-Objects exam tips | 7492X Questions and Answers | 920-803 cheat sheet | NCIDQ practice exam | CRT-271 brain dumps | Servicenow-CIS-ITSM examcollection | CIMAPRO17-BA2-X1-ENG test practice | HD0-400 Dumps |

    References :


    Similar Websites :
    Pass4sure Certification exam dumps
    Pass4Sure exam Questions and Dumps

    Direct Download

    CSLE Reviews by Customers

    Customer Reviews help to evaluate the exam performance in real test. Here all the reviews, reputation, success stories and ripoff reports provided.

    CSLE Reviews

    100% Valid and Up to Date CSLE Exam Questions

    We hereby announce with the collaboration of world's leader in Certification Exam Dumps and Real Exam Questions with Practice Tests that, we offer Real Exam Questions of thousands of Certification Exams Free PDF with up to date VCE exam simulator Software.

    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug