Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Teacher-Certification CTEL : California Teacher of English Learners ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CTEL
Exam Name : California Teacher of English Learners
Vendor Name : Teacher-Certification
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California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL)

Program Leading to Certification to Teach



The Commission is the agency of California government that licenses teachers and other professionals
who serve in the public schools. As the policy-making body that establishes and maintains standards for
the education profession in the state, the Commission is concerned with the quality and effectiveness of
the preparation of teachers and other school practitioners. On behalf of the education profession and
the general public, one of the Commissions most important responsibilities is to establish and
implement strong, effective standards of quality for the preparation and test of teachers who
will teach English learners.



AB 2987, passed in 1992 (California Education Code sections 44253.1- 44253.6), created a two-tiered
teacher certification structure for teaching English learners. Known as the Bilingual, Crosscultural,
Language and Academic Development test and Certificate, this structure has been in effect
from 1994 to the present, and it consists of the following six tests or domains:

• Test 1: Language Structure and First- and Second-Language Development;

• Test 2: Methodology of Bilingual Instruction, English Language Development and Content Instruction;

• Test 3: Culture and Cultural Diversity;

• Test 4: Methodology for Primary-Language Instruction;

• Test 5: The Culture of Emphasis; and

• Test 6: The Language of Emphasis (listening, reading, speaking, and writing)

The first tier, called Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) Certificate, authorizes
instruction for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially Designed Academic Instruction in
English (SDAIE). Candidates must pass the first 3 Tests (above) to earn this certification. The second
level, called the Bilingual Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) Certificate,
authorizes instruction in ELD and SDAIE as well as instruction for primary-language development and
content instruction in the primary language. Candidates must pass all six tests in order to earn the
BCLAD Certificate.



The Standards of Program Quality and Effectiveness for Professional Teacher Preparation Programs were
also referenced by the panel in its development of the CTEL Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities and the CTEL
Program Standards. This was to ensure that content of CTEL Programs and the CTEL test were
closely aligned with the relevant content in the 2042 multiple and single subject teaching credential,
since all of these routes lead to an equivalent English learner authorization. The standards of the
national professional organizations such as those adopted by TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of
Other Languages) also served as a guide and provided a comprehensive perspective for panel members



The ELIDT developed two types of standards to guide institutional responses and expert review for CTEL
Programs. The first type, called “Program Design Standards”, make up Category I of the CTEL Program
Standards. These standards inform institutions about the organizational structures and resources
required for sponsorship of a CTEL program. Category II of the Standards Specific to CTEL Programs
provides guidance on the instructional content of the curriculum as well as the competencies that
candidates must demonstrate in order to meet the requirements of the CLAD Certificate. These
standards, called the “Candidate Competency Standards” are closely aligned with the CTEL Knowledge,
Skills, and Abilities.

Once the ELIDT completed the draft CTEL standards, Commission staff worked with formatting and
organization in order to align with the most currently-developed standards of quality for teacher
preparation. The Commission adopted the Standards of Quality and Effectiveness for California
Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) Programs Leading to CLAD Certification on November 30, 2006.


Language and Language Development

Domain 1:

Language Structure

and Use

Phonology and Morphology

Syntax and Semantics

Language Functions and Variations

Discourse

Pragmatics

Domain 2:

Additive Language

Development

Theories, Processes, and Stages of Language Acquisition

Theories, Models, and Processes of Second-Language Acquisition

Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors Affecting Language

Development

Affective Factors Affecting Language Development

Sociocultural and Political Factors Affecting Language

Development

Assessment

and

Instruction

Domain 1:

Assessment of

English Learners

Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction

Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment

Language and Content-Area Assessment

Domain 2:

Foundations of

English

Language/Literacy

Development and

Content Instruction

Foundations of Programs for English Learners

Foundations of English Language Literacy

Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE

Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE

Effective Resource Use in ELD and SDAIE

Domain 3:

Approaches and

Methods for ELD

and Content

Instruction

ELD – Approaches and Methods

ELD – Listening and Speaking

ELD – practicing and Writing

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)

Culture and

Inclusion

Domain 1:

Culture and Cultural

Diversity and Their

Relationship to

Academic

Achievement

Cultural Concepts and Perspectives

Cultural Contact

Cultural Diversity in California and the United States

Crosscultural Interaction

Domain 2:

Culturally Inclusive

Instruction

The Role of Culture in the Classroom and School

Culturally Inclusive Learning Environment

Family and Community Involvement

Culturally Inclusive Curriculum and Instruction



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug