Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Teacher-Certification CTEL : California Teacher of English Learners ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Latest 2024 Updated Teacher-Certification California Teacher of English Learners Syllabus
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Exam Number : CTEL
Exam Name : California Teacher of English Learners
Vendor Name : Teacher-Certification
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Full list of CTEL Practice Questions questions updated today
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California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL)

Program Leading to Certification to Teach



The Commission is the agency of California government that licenses teachers and other professionals
who serve in the public schools. As the policy-making body that establishes and maintains standards for
the education profession in the state, the Commission is concerned with the quality and effectiveness of
the preparation of teachers and other school practitioners. On behalf of the education profession and
the general public, one of the Commissions most important responsibilities is to establish and
implement strong, effective standards of quality for the preparation and test of teachers who
will teach English learners.



AB 2987, passed in 1992 (California Education Code sections 44253.1- 44253.6), created a two-tiered
teacher certification structure for teaching English learners. Known as the Bilingual, Crosscultural,
Language and Academic Development test and Certificate, this structure has been in effect
from 1994 to the present, and it consists of the following six tests or domains:

• Test 1: Language Structure and First- and Second-Language Development;

• Test 2: Methodology of Bilingual Instruction, English Language Development and Content Instruction;

• Test 3: Culture and Cultural Diversity;

• Test 4: Methodology for Primary-Language Instruction;

• Test 5: The Culture of Emphasis; and

• Test 6: The Language of Emphasis (listening, reading, speaking, and writing)

The first tier, called Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) Certificate, authorizes
instruction for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially Designed Academic Instruction in
English (SDAIE). Candidates must pass the first 3 Tests (above) to earn this certification. The second
level, called the Bilingual Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) Certificate,
authorizes instruction in ELD and SDAIE as well as instruction for primary-language development and
content instruction in the primary language. Candidates must pass all six tests in order to earn the
BCLAD Certificate.



The Standards of Program Quality and Effectiveness for Professional Teacher Preparation Programs were
also referenced by the panel in its development of the CTEL Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities and the CTEL
Program Standards. This was to ensure that content of CTEL Programs and the CTEL test were
closely aligned with the relevant content in the 2042 multiple and single subject teaching credential,
since all of these routes lead to an equivalent English learner authorization. The standards of the
national professional organizations such as those adopted by TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of
Other Languages) also served as a guide and provided a comprehensive perspective for panel members



The ELIDT developed two types of standards to guide institutional responses and expert review for CTEL
Programs. The first type, called “Program Design Standards”, make up Category I of the CTEL Program
Standards. These standards inform institutions about the organizational structures and resources
required for sponsorship of a CTEL program. Category II of the Standards Specific to CTEL Programs
provides guidance on the instructional content of the curriculum as well as the competencies that
candidates must demonstrate in order to meet the requirements of the CLAD Certificate. These
standards, called the “Candidate Competency Standards” are closely aligned with the CTEL Knowledge,
Skills, and Abilities.

Once the ELIDT completed the draft CTEL standards, Commission staff worked with formatting and
organization in order to align with the most currently-developed standards of quality for teacher
preparation. The Commission adopted the Standards of Quality and Effectiveness for California
Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) Programs Leading to CLAD Certification on November 30, 2006.


Language and Language Development

Domain 1:

Language Structure

and Use

Phonology and Morphology

Syntax and Semantics

Language Functions and Variations

Discourse

Pragmatics

Domain 2:

Additive Language

Development

Theories, Processes, and Stages of Language Acquisition

Theories, Models, and Processes of Second-Language Acquisition

Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors Affecting Language

Development

Affective Factors Affecting Language Development

Sociocultural and Political Factors Affecting Language

Development

Assessment

and

Instruction

Domain 1:

Assessment of

English Learners

Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction

Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment

Language and Content-Area Assessment

Domain 2:

Foundations of

English

Language/Literacy

Development and

Content Instruction

Foundations of Programs for English Learners

Foundations of English Language Literacy

Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE

Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE

Effective Resource Use in ELD and SDAIE

Domain 3:

Approaches and

Methods for ELD

and Content

Instruction

ELD – Approaches and Methods

ELD – Listening and Speaking

ELD – reading and Writing

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)

Culture and

Inclusion

Domain 1:

Culture and Cultural

Diversity and Their

Relationship to

Academic

Achievement

Cultural Concepts and Perspectives

Cultural Contact

Cultural Diversity in California and the United States

Crosscultural Interaction

Domain 2:

Culturally Inclusive

Instruction

The Role of Culture in the Classroom and School

Culturally Inclusive Learning Environment

Family and Community Involvement

Culturally Inclusive Curriculum and Instruction



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Teacher-Certification Teacher cheat sheet

 

Post Baccalaureate Teacher Certification Program

Drexel University School of Education What is the Post Baccalaureate Teacher Certification? 

The​ ​Post​ Bachelor’s​ Baccalaureate​ ​Teaching​ ​Certification​ ​program​ ​in​ Elementary Education​ ​(grades​ ​PreK-4)​, Middle Level (grades 4-8), ​and​ Secondary​ ​Education​ ​(grades​ ​7-12)​ ​are​ ​designed for​ ​professionals​ ​who​ ​hold​ ​a​ ​bachelor’s​ ​degree​ ​and​ ​who​ ​seek​ ​to​ ​qualify​ ​for Pennsylvania​ ​state​ ​teacher​ ​certification​ ​at​ ​the​ ​elementary, middle,​ ​or​ ​secondary​ ​level. Students take courses online that satisfy Pennsylvania teaching certificate requirements while completing the required number of weeks of students teaching. Pennsylvania has reciprocation agreements with nearly every state in the U.S. meaning you can transfer your teaching certificate to another state. 

What ​Can ​You ​Do ​with ​a ​Post ​Baccalaureate ​Teacher Certification?

The​ ​curriculum​ ​for​ ​this​ ​teacher​ ​certificate​ ​program​ at Drexel University ​is​ ​designed​ ​for​ ​those​ ​changing careers​ ​into​ ​the​ ​education​ ​field,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​those​ ​who​ ​already​ ​serve​ ​as​ ​temporary, emergency,​ ​or​ ​substitute​ ​teachers​ ​and​ ​wish​ ​to​ ​earn​ ​a​ ​formal​ ​teaching​ ​credential.

Students​ ​who​ ​wish​ ​to​ ​complete​ ​a​ master’s​ ​degree​ ​in​ ​Teaching,​ ​Learning​ ​and Curriculum​ ​have​ ​the​ ​opportunity​ ​to​ ​transfer​ ​the​ ​credits​ ​earned​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Post​ ​Bachelor’s Teaching​ ​Certificate​ ​into​ ​the​ ​MS​ ​in​ ​Teaching,​ ​Learning​ ​&​ ​Curriculum program.

The​ PA teacher​ ​certification​ program​ requirements at​ ​Drexel​ ​University’s​ ​School​ ​of​ ​Education​ prepares ​students​ ​for​ ​a​ ​Pennsylvania​ ​Instructional​ ​I​ ​Certificate.

How Long Does it Take to Get a Teaching Certification?

A commonly asked question regarding their programs, is "how long is the teacher certification program"? If you already have a bachelor's degree, the elementary, middle level and secondary education programs typically take two years to complete. Drexel also offers a dual certification option for secondary and special education. A bachelor's degree program typically takes up to 4 years to complete.

How to Get a Teaching Certification 1. Earn your bachelor's degree

The first step towards becoming a K-12 teacher is to earn a bachelor’s degree. If you earn a bachelor’s degree in a program that leads to teaching certification, such as elementary education or teacher education, you will graduate with all the requirements necessary to become a licensed teacher. If your bachelor’s degree is in a non-teaching program, you will need to follow the next steps on this list to complete your educator certification program..

2. Decide what subject and/or grade level you want to teach

If you already have a bachelor’s degree, you can become a teacher through their teacher certification program. The first step is to determine what subject you would like to teach. Some students choose a subject that reflects their bachelor’s degree experience while others may choose a new subject that they are passionate about.

3. Complete a certification program

Once you have decided on a subject, you should enroll in a teacher certification program and focus on your chosen subject. You will complete required coursework for certification and gain the knowledge needed to complete the required Praxis exams.

4. Gain student teaching experience

While you complete your required coursework, you will also gain the required hours of student teaching experience. Most teacher certification programs require 12 weeks of student teaching experience. The School of Education’s Field Placement Office assists students with identifying student teaching opportunities in school districts close to where they live, anywhere in the U.S. and other parts of the world.

5. Pass your certification exams

Once you have completed your required courses and student teaching experience, you will schedule and sit for your Praxis exams. Passing the required exams is a critical final step to become a certified teacher. Passing the exams will allow you to begin teaching in classrooms on your own. Some school districts may allow emergency certifications to allow teachers who have not completed their exams to teach in their schools for a certain period of time until they can pass the required exams.

6. Become licensed

Once you have passed the required exams, you will be issued an Instructional I teaching certificate in the state where you took the exams. As a certified teacher, you will be eligible for teaching positions in the subject in which you are certified. You can add additional certifications or complete requirements for an Instructional II teaching certificate as you advance in your career.

Post ​Baccalaureate ​Teacher ​Certification ​Program Options Post Bachelor's Middle Level Teaching Certificate (Grades 4-8)

Drexel's Post Bachelor's Teaching Certificate in Middle Level (grades 4-8) is ideal for students who would like to teach middle school students in the areas of Math, Science, English, and Social Studies. In addition to gaining knowledge of effective teaching methods, students will also learn how to create culturally responsive pedagogy and create a safe, productive, and positive classroom environment that facilitates learning for all students.

The coursework for a certificate for middle level education consists of 33 credit hours (13 courses) and includes mandatory field-based experiences and 12 weeks of student teaching.

The Post Bachelor's Teaching Certificate for Middle Level (Grades 4-8) curriculum and course descriptions may be found in the Drexel Online Course Catalog.

Post Bachelor’s Secondary Education Teaching Certificate (Grades 7-12)

The Post Bachelor’s Teaching Certificate in Secondary Education (Grades 7-12) is designed for individuals who hold a bachelor’s degree and who seek to qualify for PA state teacher certification at the secondary level. The curriculum is designed for those changing careers as well as those who already serve as temporary, emergency, or substitute teachers and wish to earn a formal teaching credential.

The coursework for a general certificate of secondary education consists of 30 credit hours (11 courses) and includes mandatory field-based experiences and 12 weeks of student teaching.

The Post Bachelor's Teaching Certificate for Secondary Education (Grades 7-12) curriculum and course descriptions may be found in the Drexel Online Course Catalog.

Teacher Certification Specialties

The School of Education offers eight content-specific areas of study each leading to their own certifications with required courses and Praxis exams:

  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Earth and Space Science
  • English
  • General Science
  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Social Studies
  • Pennsylvania ​Teaching ​Certification ​Requirements

    Once​ ​a​ ​student​ ​has​ ​successfully​ ​completed​ ​their​ ​course​ ​of​ ​study​ ​and​ ​all​ ​exams required​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Pennsylvania​ ​Department​ ​of​ ​Education​ ​(PDE),​ ​Drexel​ ​recommends the​ ​student​ ​to​ ​PDE​ ​for​ ​issuance​ ​of​ ​the​ ​appropriate​ ​teaching​ ​certificate.

    Instructional​ ​I​ ​Teacher​ ​Certification Requirements

    Pennsylvania’s​ ​initial​ ​state​ ​certification​ ​is​ ​known​ ​as​ ​“Instructional​ ​I”​ ​and​ ​is​ ​valid​ ​for​ ​a total​ ​of​ ​six​ ​years ​(the​ ​six​ ​years​ ​need​ ​not​ ​be​ ​continuous).​ ​To​ ​continue​ ​teaching​ ​after six​ ​years,​ ​teachers​ ​must​ ​receive​ ​an​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​Certification.

    Instructional​ ​II​ ​Teacher​ ​Certification Requirements

    The​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​Certification​ ​is​ ​considered​ ​a​ ​“permanent”​ ​certification.​ ​(It​ ​must, however,​ ​be​ ​renewed​ ​every​ ​five​ ​years​ ​through​ ​the​ ​fulfillment​ ​of​ ​continuing​ ​education requirements.)​ ​A​ ​teacher​ ​applying​ ​for​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​Certification​ ​must​ ​have:

  • Instructional​ ​I​ ​Certification
  • A​ ​minimum​ ​of​ ​three​ ​years​ ​and​ ​a​ ​maximum​ ​of​ ​six​ ​years​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​experience on​ ​an​ ​Instructional​ ​I​ ​Teaching​ ​Certificate
  • 24​ ​semester-hour​ ​(or​ ​36​ ​quarter-hour)​ ​credits​ ​beyond​ ​a​ ​bachelor’s​ ​degree Completion​ ​of​ ​an​ ​induction​ ​program​ ​(generally​ ​provided​ ​by​ ​a​ ​teacher’s​ ​school of​ ​employment)
  • Required​ ​Exams​ ​for​ ​a Certificate of Elementary​ ​Education​ ​(Grades​ ​PreK–4)

    The​ ​PA​ ​Educator​ ​Certification​ ​Tests​ ​(PECT)​ ​are​ ​required​ ​for​ ​Elementary Certification​ ​(Grades​ ​PreK–4).​ ​Students​ ​are​ ​required​ ​to​ ​take​ ​the​ ​appropriate​ ​exam for​ ​each​ ​area​ ​of​ ​certification​ ​sought.

    For​ ​more​ ​information​ ​about​ ​examinations​ ​and​ ​registration,​ ​visit​ ​the​ PA​ ​Educator Certification​ ​Tests​ ​(PECT)​.

    Required​ Exams​ ​for​ ​a Certificate of Secondary​ ​Education​ ​(Grades​ ​7-12)

    All​ ​Post​ ​Bachelor’s​ ​students​ ​seeking​ ​certification​ ​in​ ​Secondary​ ​Certification​ ​(Grades 7–12)​ ​are​ ​required​ ​to​ ​pass​ ​the​ ​Praxis​ ​II​ ​Series.​ ​Students​ ​must​ ​pass​ ​the​ ​appropriate Praxis​ ​II​ ​Content​ ​Knowledge​ ​test(s)​ ​for​ ​each​ ​area​ ​of​ ​certification​ ​they​ ​wish​ ​to​ ​obtain.

    For​ ​more​ ​information​ ​about​ ​examination​ ​and​ ​registration,​ ​please​ ​visit​ ​the​ Praxis Series​.

    How​ ​to​ ​Maintain​ ​a​ ​Valid​ ​Teacher​ ​Certification​ ​through​ ​Act​ ​48

    To​ ​maintain​ ​Instructional​ ​I​ ​and​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​Certifications​ ​in​ ​Pennsylvania​,​ ​the PDE​ ​requires​ ​a​ certified​ teacher​ ​to​ ​complete​ ​the​ ​minimal​ ​equivalent​ ​of​ ​six semester-hour​ ​(or​ ​nine​ ​quarter-hour)​ ​credits,​ ​180​ ​professional​ ​development​ ​hours, or​ ​a​ ​combination​ ​of​ ​credits​ ​and​ ​professional​ ​development​ ​hours​ ​every​ ​five​ ​years. College​ ​credits​ ​must​ ​be​ ​acquired​ ​from​ ​an​ ​accredited​ ​four-year,​ ​degree-granting college​ ​or​ ​university.

    Note:​ ​For​ ​those​ ​working​ ​to​ ​acquire​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​Certification,​ ​the​ ​24​ ​semester credits​ ​or​ ​36​ ​quarter​ ​credits​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​apply​ ​for​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​may​ ​also​ ​count toward​ ​Act​ ​48​ ​requirements.​ ​Undergraduate​ ​credits​ ​from​ ​a​ ​community​ ​college​ ​may not​ ​be​ ​counted​ ​toward​ ​Act​ ​48​ ​credits​ ​for​ ​Instructional​ ​II​ ​Certification.

    For​ ​more​ ​information​ ​and​ ​to​ ​apply​ ​credits​ ​to​ ​your​ ​state​ ​record,​ ​visit​ ​the​ PA Department​ ​of​ ​Education​ ​Act​ ​48​ ​Continuing​ ​Professional​ ​Education​.

    How ​to ​Apply ​to ​the ​Teacher ​Certification ​Program

    Drexel University's Post-Bachelor's Teacher Certification courses are offered 100% online. You can get started by filling out the appropriate Drexel Online Application for an online Post-Baccalaureate Teacher Certification:


    Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

    Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

    Drexel offers a number of education certification and degree programs that prepare students for formal teacher certification. Once a student has successfully completed their undegraduate course of study and all qualifying teacher certification exams required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE), Drexel recommends the student to the PDE for the appropriate teaching certificate.

    Teaching Certification GPA Requirements

    The School of Education requires that students maintain at least a "B" average (3.0 GPA) in content courses needed for teacher certification in addition to earning a grade of "B" or better in each core pedagogy course required for certification.

    Pennsylvania Teacher Certification Requirements

    All undergraduate students are required to obtain and submit updated and current copies of the required clearances to the School of Education annually in order to participate in classroom observations and student teaching in Pennsylvania. All full-time undergraduates will receive assistance in gaining these clearances during their first term. Non-PA students should contact their state's department of education or school district office for a list of clearances required in their state.

    Teacher Certification Process Instructional I Certification

    This initial certification qualifies a teacher to teach for a maximum of six years. The six years need not be continuous. To continue teaching after the six years are completed, the teacher must receive an Instructional II Certification.

    Instructional II Certification

    The Instructional II Certification is considered a permanent certification. A teacher applying for Instructional II Certification must have:

  • Instructional I Certification
  • A minimum of three years and a maximum of six years of teaching experience on an Instructional I Teaching Certificate
  • 24 semester-hour (or 36 quarter-hour) credits beyond a bachelor’ degree
  • Completion of an induction program (generally provided by the teacher’ school of employment)
  • Elementary Certification (Grades PreK–4) and Special Education Certification (Grades PreK–8 and Grades 7–12)

    The Pennsylvania Educator Certification Tests (PECT) are required for Grades PreK–4 and Special Education. All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students are required to pass the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills exam. In addition, students will be required to take the appropriate test exam for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

    For more information about examinations and registration:

    Middle Level Certification (Grades 4–8) and Secondary Certification (Grades 7–12)

    All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students seeking certification in middle (grades 4–8) or secondary (grades 7–12) levels are required to pass exams from the PA Education Certification Tests (PECT) and the Praxis II Series. Students must pass both the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills test exam and the appropriate Praxis II Content Knowledge test for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

    For more information about examinations and registration:

    Pennsylvania Act 48 Requirements

    To maintain Instructional I and Instructional II Certifications, the PDE requires a teacher to complete one of the following every five years:

  • Six semester-hour (or nine quarter-hour) credits. Credits must be acquired from an accredited, four-year, degree-granting college or university.
  • 180 hours of professional development
  • A combination of credits and professional development hours every five years.
  • Note: For those working to acquire Instructional II Certification, the 24 semester credits or 36 quarter credits needed to apply for Instructional II may also count toward Act 48 requirements.

    Download the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Frequently Asked Questions about Act 48 [PDF].


    400-Pound Student Sues After Dream of Being Gym Teacher Is Blocked

    A former Wayne State University student who tipped the scales at more than 400 pounds is suing the school for discrimination, saying it blocked him from getting certified to become a gym teacher by refusing to grant him physical accommodations. The Michigan university called the suit by David Lopez, 44, “frivolous” and said he cannot legally claim discrimination on the basis of weight. Lopez told The Detroit News that completed all course work but needed a special arrangement for student teaching that would not require him to stand or walk for long periods. “They didn’t want me to graduate with my certification because I didn’t fit what they perceived to be a gym teacher because of my size and because of my weight,” he said.

    Read it at The Detroit News
     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug