Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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AAFM CTEP : Chartered Trust & Estate Planner (CTEP) Certification ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CTEP
Exam Name : Chartered Trust & Estate Planner (CTEP) Certification
Vendor Name : AAFM
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CTEP test Format | CTEP Course Contents | CTEP Course Outline | CTEP test Syllabus | CTEP test Objectives

The curriculum for the Chartered Trust and Estate Planner is based on trust and estate planning for resident and non-resident clients. This core group of graduate subjects focuses on the major functional issues of high net-worth consulting, ranging from tax, finance to law. A critical aspect of this course is addressing the interpersonal skills crucial to of advising the wealthy individual or family. The course will cover such planning obstacles as Common Law vs. Civil Law jurisdictions, non-resident alien spouse, and tangible and non-tangible assets in multiple jurisdictions.

Personal Financial Planning, Estates, and Risk Management
The candidate will be exposed to advanced financial subjects including wealth accumulation and distribution, asset transfer, tax planning, and retirement planning. This section will include a full discussion of insurance products including life, property, health, disability, casualty and catastrophic coverage insurance. Also, the student will learn techniques used to transfer assets during a clients lifetime using planned gifts, as well as, planning at death using wills and trusts.

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Certification Exams FAQs

Month-long testing windows offer candidates the ability to take the test on the day and time that is most convenient during a 30-day period.

1. Where are the test sites located?

Test Sites are located across the United States. At the time of scheduling the exam, candidates can select a site based on their zip code.

2. What are the typical hours of operation for a test site?

The normal hours of operation at Test Sites are 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., but times can vary. When registering, confirm the hours with the site you wish to select. 

3. What do candidates need to bring to the test site?

Candidates are required to bring one (1) form of valid (non-expired), government issued, photo ID to the test site. Additionally, candidates must bring a copy of their Confirmation Notice which is emailed to them at the time of registration.

4. What is the test site change or cancellation policy?

If you wish to reschedule or cancel a testing appointment within the same test window, you must contact Meazure Learning (formerly Scantron) at least 2 business days before the scheduled appointment. Canceling or rescheduling a testing appointment more than 2 business days in advance is subject to a $50 fee. Canceling or rescheduling less than 2 business days in advance of an appointment is not permitted. 

5. In addition to the $50 test site fee, what are the ABA fees that will apply if candidates wish to move to another test window?

Please review the procedures and fee schedule on the Certification test Change Policy page. All change and cancellation requests must be made by submitting the test Window Change/Cancellation Form.

ABA will consider waiving fees in case of a medical emergency. Requests will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.

6. Can I take the certification test on my computer at home or at work? Yes. ABA offers candidates the option of testing at home or another location via live remote proctoring (LRP). Candidates can select the LRP option at the time of scheduling their test date, usually 30 days before the start of the test window. Visit the Test Taker Resource Center for more detailed information. You can also review What to Expect for a demonstration of the test process. 7. How much time do I get to complete the exam?

Based on the certification, the test time is either 3 hours or 4 hours:

3-Hour test (150 questions) - CAFP, CFMP, CISP4-Hour test (200 questions) - CERP, CRCM, CTFA

8. During the exam, can I skip questions and return to them later?

Yes. Questions can be marked and returned to at a later point in the exam, if time permits. Be sure to answer all questions, as only answered questions are scored. To help you navigate the test, please click on one of the links below to preview the test system prior to your test date:

Sample Test

9. Can I review or change my answers?

Yes. Questions can be marked for review and answers changed, if time permits.

10. Are individuals with disabilities accommodated?

Yes. All testing centers are fully accessible and compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In addition, accommodations can be made for LRP test candidates. You must submit your request for reasonable accommodations, along with supporting documentation with your test application.

11. How are exams scored?

The test is scored on a "Pass/Fail" system using a predetermined cut off score based on advisory board analysis of the degree of difficulty for each question. Exams are scored based on your personal performance and are not graded on a curve.

All ABA Professional Certification exams use scaled scoring. Scaled scores are recommended by the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Many testing programs, including the ACT® and SAT®, use scaled scores.

Exam scores are based on the total number of items answered correctly. The total number of items correct is then converted to a scaled score for reporting purposes. Scaled scores are a mathematical conversion of the number of items that a candidate correctly answers so that there is a consistent scale used across all versions of a test.

All ABA Professional Certification exams are scored on a scale ranging from 200 to 800, with the passing score set at 500.

Each test contains a small number of randomly embedded questions that are included for statistical research purposes. These questions do not count against candidate scores. This form of piloting questions before they are scored is part of ABA's efforts in continuous quality improvement.

Score results are confidential. You must sign an test Score Release Form if you want to authorize a third party to receive your score results.

12. How long will it take to receive test results?

An instant pass/fail outcome is provided for most computer-based exams at the testing sites. Official score results are delivered via email within 6 weeks after the close of the test window.

On occasion, ABA holds scores to conduct statistical analysis. This means that for some exams, instant outcomes will NOT be provided at the test sites and all outcomes and score results will be emailed within 6 weeks after the close of the test window.

13. What is the test fee? 

All test fees are listed on each certification's webpage.

14. How and when do I select my test date, time, and location?
  • When purchasing the test and completing the online application process, you will select your 30 day testing window during which you wish to take the exam.
  • Once your test application is approved by ABA Professional Certifications, you will receive registration information via email from Meazure Learning (formerly Scantron) approximately 30 days prior to the start of the test window.
  • Please add [email protected] to your safe sender list to ensure you receive the email.
  • The email will contain your unique log-in ID and password that you will use to register at your preferred test site on the day and time of your choosing. You will also have the option to schedule the date and time for an LRP test at this time.
  • Please contact ABA if you do not receive an email from Meazure Learning (formerly Scantron)  at least 15 days before the start of your test window.
  • 15. What is your test retake policy?
  • You must wait a minimum of 90 days before you are allowed to retake an test on the next scheduled test date.
  • There is no limit to the number of times you can take the exam.
  • You must pass the test within a 3 year period from the date of your first test attempt or a new application and full fee is required.
  • For more information, please refer to the test Application page for the certification that you are seeking.

  • Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

    Undergraduate Teacher Certification Requirements

    Drexel offers a number of education certification and degree programs that prepare students for formal teacher certification. Once a student has successfully completed their undegraduate course of study and all qualifying teacher certification exams required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE), Drexel recommends the student to the PDE for the appropriate teaching certificate.

    Teaching Certification GPA Requirements

    The School of Education requires that students maintain at least a "B" average (3.0 GPA) in content courses needed for teacher certification in addition to earning a grade of "B" or better in each core pedagogy course required for certification.

    Pennsylvania Teacher Certification Requirements

    All undergraduate students are required to obtain and submit updated and current copies of the required clearances to the School of Education annually in order to participate in classroom observations and student teaching in Pennsylvania. All full-time undergraduates will receive assistance in gaining these clearances during their first term. Non-PA students should contact their state's department of education or school district office for a list of clearances required in their state.

    Teacher Certification Process Instructional I Certification

    This initial certification qualifies a teacher to teach for a maximum of six years. The six years need not be continuous. To continue teaching after the six years are completed, the teacher must receive an Instructional II Certification.

    Instructional II Certification

    The Instructional II Certification is considered a permanent certification. A teacher applying for Instructional II Certification must have:

  • Instructional I Certification
  • A minimum of three years and a maximum of six years of teaching experience on an Instructional I Teaching Certificate
  • 24 semester-hour (or 36 quarter-hour) credits beyond a bachelor’ degree
  • Completion of an induction program (generally provided by the teacher’ school of employment)
  • Elementary Certification (Grades PreK–4) and Special Education Certification (Grades PreK–8 and Grades 7–12)

    The Pennsylvania Educator Certification Tests (PECT) are required for Grades PreK–4 and Special Education. All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students are required to pass the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills exam. In addition, students will be required to take the appropriate test exam for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

    For more information about examinations and registration:

    Middle Level Certification (Grades 4–8) and Secondary Certification (Grades 7–12)

    All undergraduate and dual degree BS/MS students seeking certification in middle (grades 4–8) or secondary (grades 7–12) levels are required to pass exams from the PA Education Certification Tests (PECT) and the Praxis II Series. Students must pass both the Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA) basic skills test exam and the appropriate Praxis II Content Knowledge test for each area of certification they wish to obtain.

    For more information about examinations and registration:

    Pennsylvania Act 48 Requirements

    To maintain Instructional I and Instructional II Certifications, the PDE requires a teacher to complete one of the following every five years:

  • Six semester-hour (or nine quarter-hour) credits. Credits must be acquired from an accredited, four-year, degree-granting college or university.
  • 180 hours of professional development
  • A combination of credits and professional development hours every five years.
  • Note: For those working to acquire Instructional II Certification, the 24 semester credits or 36 quarter credits needed to apply for Instructional II may also count toward Act 48 requirements.

    Download the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Frequently Asked Questions about Act 48 [PDF].

    Online Pharmacy Technician Certification Course

    Requirements for pharmacy technicians vary by state, but most require certification, registration or licensure. Earning your certification from the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) provides a valuable, industry-recognized credential that meets most states’ requirements.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug