Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CTFA
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CTFA test Format | CTFA Course Contents | CTFA Course Outline | CTFA test Syllabus | CTFA test Objectives


The knowledge areas below are the basis for the Certified Trust and Financial Advisor (CTFA) examination. These
knowledge areas were derived from a job analysis study and were validated by the CTFA Advisory Board. Postcertification programs that address these knowledge areas are eligible for CTFA continuing education credits through the American Bankers Association.



I. Fiduciary & Trust Activities (25%)

A. Nature and Characteristics of Account Relationship

1. Trusts

2. Estates

3. Guardianships/ Conservatorships

4. Custodians

5. Financial and Health Care Powers of Attorney

6. Agencies

B. Formal Requisites of Establishing Account

1. Written Agreements or Documents

2. Trust Situs

3. Acceptance of Fiduciary Appointment

4. Disclaiming of Interest

C. Fiduciary Responsibilities

1. Powers

2. Duties

3. Uniform Acts/Codes

4. Safekeeping of Assets

5. Environmental Issues

D. Investment Responsibilities

1. Investment Powers

2. Investment Types & Restrictions

3. Sale/Retention by Bank of Its Own Holding Company Securities

4. Prudent Investor

E. Receipts, Payments and Distributions

1. Duty in Making Payments or Distributions

2. Uniform Principal & Income Act

F. Accounting and Compensation

1. Duty to Keep Records

2. Duty to Furnish Information

to Beneficiaries

3. Duty to Render Court Accountings

4. Fiduciary Compensation

G. Alteration or Termination of the Trust

1. Power to Change Terms

2. Power to Revoke or Terminate

H. Regulatory/Compliance

1. Due Diligence

2. Know Your Customer

3. Privacy Issues

4. Bank Secrecy Act

5. OCC Regulation 9

6. Securities Laws

II. Financial Planning (25%)

A. Personal Finance

1. Time Value of Money Principles

2. Statement of Assets and Liabilities

3. Cash Flow Management

4. Debt Management

5. Investment Planning

6. Education Planning

7. Health Care & Disability Planning

B. Retirement

1. Capital Sufficiency

2. Investment Strategies

3. Wealth Accumulation & Distribution

4. Social Security & Other Programs

5. IRAs

6. Qualified and non-Qualified Plans

7. Income Needs & Sources

C. Insurance

1. Life Insurance

2. Long Term Care Insurance

3. Disability

4. Annuities

5. Health Insurance

6. Property/Casualty Insurance

7. Insurance Company, Product, and Intermediary Selection Criteria

D. Transfer Assistance

1. Wealth Transfer During Lifetime

2. The Flow of Property at Death

3. Business Succession Planning

4. Planning Documents

5. Planning Considerations

6. Charitable Giving Strategies

7. Special Needs Planning

E. Financial Modeling

1. Risk Assessment

2. Asset Allocation

III. Tax Law & Planning (25%)

A. Income Tax

1. Individuals

2. Fiduciaries

3. Charitable Trusts, Private Foundations, and Split Interest Trusts

4. Business

B. Transfer Tax

1. Gift Tax

2. Estate Tax

3. Generation-Skipping Transfers (GST)

IV. Investment Management (20%)

A. Economics and Markets

1. Gross Domestic Product

2. Interest Rates

3. Inflation & Employment

4. Government Fiscal Policy

5. Monetary Policy

6. International Influences

7. Market Operations

8. Currency

B. Portfolio Management Theories and Concepts

1. Modern Portfolio Theory

2. Equity Investment Management Approaches

3. Fixed Income Investment Management Approaches

4. Hedging Strategies

5. Risk Management

6. Total Return

C. Types of Investments/Selection & Analysis

1. Equities

2. Fixed Income

3. Convertible Securities

4. Mutual Funds

5. Common Trust Funds

6. Closely-Held Businesses

7. Real Estate & Farms

8. International

9. Nontraditional

10. Master Limited Partnerships

11. Stock Options

12. ETFs

13. Oil, Gas & Minerals

14. Commodities & Precious Metals

D. Client Objectives & Constraints

1. Investment Objectives

2. Risk Tolerance

3. Time Horizons

4. Tax Considerations

5. Current vs Future Objectives 6. Investment Restrictions & Preferences

7. Asset Allocation

E. Performance Measurement

1. Time-Weighted vs. Dollar-Weighted

2. Risk Adjusted

3. Benchmarks & Indicies

V. Ethics (5%)

A. Advisory

1. Unauthorized Practice of Law

2. Conflict of Interest

3. Confidentiality

4. Undue Influence

5. Related Parties

6. Client Competence/Capacity

B. Fiduciary

1. Duty of Loyalty

2. Breach of Trust

3. Trust Officer as Beneficiary

4. Personal Liability

5. Self Dealing

6. Gifts to/from Clients & Vendors

C. Business Development

1. Business Solicitation

2. Compensation Arrangements

D. Investment

1. Insider Information

2. Equal Treatment of Accounts

3. Directed Brokerage

4. Disclosures

5. Prudent Investor Standard

E. Other

1. Relationship with Other Professionals

2. Fraud Prevention



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug