Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CTP
Exam Name : Certified Treasury Professional
Vendor Name : AFP
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CTP exam Format | CTP Course Contents | CTP Course Outline | CTP exam Syllabus | CTP exam Objectives

General Information

– The Certified Treasury Professional (CTP)


– The CTP exam

– Eligibility Requirements

Exam Format

– Test Development

– Job Analysis

– Test Specifications

– Body of Knowledge

– The exam

– 2020-2022 CTP Test Specifications:

Knowledge Domains and Task Statements

Exam Locations/Dates/Fees

– Test Center Locations

– 2020 CTP exam Testing Windows

and Deadlines

– 2020 New Applicant Fees

– Other Fees

– Cancellation Policy

– Deferrals / Special Circumstances

Taking the CTP exam

– Submitting Your Application

– Authorization–To–Test (ATT)

– Scheduling Your exam Appointment

– Testing Time

– Requesting Special Testing Accommodations

– Making Changes

– exam Results

CTP Study Resources

– Essentials of Treasury Management®, Sixth Edition

– CTP exam Prep Platform

– CTP exam Preparation Guide

– CTP exam Study Network

– Complimentary Webinars

– CTP exam Review Course

– Regional AFP/TMA Organizations

Maintaining Your CTP Credential

– CTP Recertification and Reporting Continuing

Education (CE) Credits

– Approved CE Activities

– Activities Not Approved for CE Credits

Each question on the CTP exam is referenced to the content of Essentials of Treasury Management®, Sixth Edition, the Body of
Knowledge (BOK) for the CTP exam. The computer-based exam includes 170 multiple-choice questions and is built according to
the CTP Test Specifications on page 5 of this handbook. Test development for the CTP exam is based on psychometrically
validated procedures. Pearson VUE and AFP ensure the CTP exam is valid, reliable and legally defensible.

Domain 1

Maintain corporate liquidity required to meet current and future obligations in a timely and cost effective manner

A. Manage optimal cash positioning through short-term investing and borrowing activities

B. Forecast/manage cash receipts and disbursements [cash flows]

C. Leverage cash concentration/pooling structures

D. Manage foreign exchange (FX) exposure

E. Manage trade financing (including letters of credit)

F. Manage intercompany financing (including loans, repatriation, in-house banking)

G. Review cash balances and reconcile transaction activity to ensure accuracy

H. Optimize treasury operations (including considerations for roles/responsibilities and outsourcing options)

I. Calculate, analyze, and evaluate financial ratios to optimize financial decision making

Domain 2

Manage capital structure, manage costs of long-term capital, and quantitatively evaluate long-term capital resource investments

A. Negotiate and manage syndicated agreements

B. Manage investment portfolio

C. Issue debt and equity

D. Manage revolving debt agreements

E. Assess impact of mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures

F. Evaluate current market conditions (including credit availability, spreads, interest rates, terms, risk) as they relate to long-term borrowing strategies

Domain 3

Manage internal and external relationships

A. Build, maintain, and review relationships with external financial service providers

B. Evaluate and implement treasury products and services (including banking products, treasury workstations)

C. Administer bank accounts (including bank fee analysis) and maintain documentation

D. Identify, negotiate, and select relationships and operational agreements with external service providers (including financial, technological, and investment/retirement advisors) to ensure best practices and competitive pricing

E. Serve as an internal trusted advisor and consultant (including Project Finance)

F. Manage merchant services programs (including fees, risk, controls, card security compliance, retention requirements)

G. Build and maintain relationships with internal stakeholders (including accounting, IT, legal, and tax departments) H. Market Effects on Working Capital

Domain 4

Monitor and control corporate exposure to financial, regulatory, and operational risk (including emerging and reputational risk)

A. Comply with treasury policies and procedures (such as investment, FX, risk management, hedging, credit approval)

B. Draft treasury policies and procedures for approval (such as investment, FX, risk management, hedging, credit approval)

C. Detect and mitigate fraud (such as payments, bank transactions, internal, external)

D. Benchmark performance against external sources to ensure best practices (including banking fees comparative analysis)

E. Evaluate and manage counterparty risk (including risk related to supply chain, banks, brokers, dealers)

F. Develop, maintain, and test business continuity plans (including bank balance reporting process, funds transfer capabilities)

G. Hedge FX, interest rate, and commodities exposure

H. Ensure regulatory compliance, and report internally and externally on compliance

Domain 5

Assess impact of technologies on the treasury function

A. Leverage technology systems (including enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and treasury management systems)

B. Identify security issues and concerns associated with new and existing technology

C. Identify cyber-related risks

D. Monitor information security risk and cyber-related risk (including e-mail scams, phishing scams)

33–37% of the questions test knowledge of basic facts and terms.

38–42% of the questions test an understanding of concepts and principles.

23–27% of the questions test the higher thinking ability to apply concepts and principles to a specific situation.

10–15% of the questions will require mathematical computations.

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AFP Treasury teaching


Yellen to visit China, raising need to 'responsibly manage' ties

No result found, try new keyword!told AFP, speaking on the Treasury secretary's intentions to visit China. A Yellen trip could "restart a steady pattern of engagement at lower levels," he said, adding that the US has shifted from ...

10-year Treasury yield slides as investors consider economic outlook

U.S. Treasury yields fell on Friday as investors considered the economic outlook, especially regarding inflation, and assessed what could be on the horizon for Federal Reserve monetary policy.

At 4:14 p.m. ET, the yield on the 10-year Treasury was down by more than 5 basis points at 4.253%. This comes after the 10-year yield reached levels last seen in October 2022 on Thursday. The 2-year Treasury yield was down by more than 2 basis points to 4.94%.

Yields and prices have an inverted relationship. One basis point equals 0.01%.

Investors considered the state of the economy and assessed the outlook for Fed interest rate hikes after Wednesday's release of the minutes from the central bank's most exact meeting.

The minutes pointed to the possibility of further rate hikes, with policymakers noting that inflation remains too high and further restrictive monetary policy may be needed to sufficiently ease pressures from higher prices. Any such policy moves would depend on the state of the economy, the minutes indicated.

The Fed has hiked rates 11 times across its last twelve meetings, keeping rates unchanged only at its June 2023 meeting. There are three policy meetings left this year.

Many investors were expecting the Fed's July meeting, at which the central bank raised rates by 25 basis points, to mark the end of the rate-hiking cycle.

Recent economic data has painted a somewhat mixed picture about the effect of the Fed's rate hikes so far, which aimed to cool the economy and ease inflation.

While data suggests that inflationary pressures are easing, other areas of the economy, including the labor market, have shown resilience. Fears about elevated rates dragging the U.S. economy into a recession have not come true so far.

No key economic data is due Friday.

Treasury bills are still paying above 5%. Here's what to know before buying

Morsa Images | E+ | Getty Images

As interest rates reach a more than two-decade high, Treasury bill yields remain well above 5%, as of July 27, providing a competitive option for cash.

With terms ranging from one month to one year, Treasury bills, known as T-bills, are still paying more than long-term Treasurys amid Fed policy uncertainty.

T-bill yields have soared after a series of interest rate hikes from the Federal Reserve, competing with choices like Series I bonds, high-yield savings, certificates of deposit and money market funds.

More from Personal Finance:How the Fed's quarter-point interest rate hike affects youYou may be overlooking an important target date fund truthsMiddle-income Americans haven't switched to high-yield savings

But there is not a direct rate comparison with other products because T-bills are typically sold at a discount, with the full value received at maturity, explained Jeremy Keil, a certified financial planner with Keil Financial Partners in Milwaukee.

For example, let's say you purchase $1,000 worth of 1-year T-bills at a 4% discount, with a $960 purchase price. To calculate your coupon rate (4.16%), you take your $1,000 maturity and subtract the $960 purchase price before dividing the difference by $960.   

Fortunately, you'll see the "true yield" or "bank equivalent yield" when buying T-bills through TreasuryDirect, a website managed by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, or your brokerage account, Keil said.

How to buy T-bills via TreasuryDirect

If you already have a TreasuryDirect account — say, because you've purchased Series I bonds — it's relatively easy to buy T-bills, according to Keil, who detailed the process on his website.

After logging into your account, you can pick T-bills based on term and auction date, which determines the discount rate for each issue.

"You don't really know truly what the rate is going to be until the auction hits," Keil said. The process involves institutions bidding against one another, with no action required from everyday investors. 

How to buy T-bills through TreasuryDirect

1. Log in to your TreasuryDirect account.

2. Click "BuyDirect" in top navigation bar.

3. Choose "Bills" under "Marketable Securities."

4. Pick your term, auction date, purchase amount and reinvestment (optional).

After the auction, "you get the exact same rate as the Goldman Sachs of the world," with TreasuryDirect issuing T-bills a few days later, he said.

There is one downside, however. If you want to sell T-bills before maturity, you must hold the asset in TreasuryDirect for at least 45 days before transferring it to your brokerage account. There are more details about that process here.

The benefit of brokerage accounts

One way to avoid liquidity issues is by purchasing T-bills through your brokerage account, rather than using TreasuryDirect.

Keil said the "biggest benefit" of using a brokerage account is instant access to T-bills and immediately knowing your yield to maturity. The trade-off is you'll probably supply up around 0.1% yield or lower, he said.

The Fed and your money: Moves to make midyear

watch now

George Gagliardi, a CFP and founder of Coromandel Wealth Management in Lexington, Massachusetts, also suggests buying T-bills outside of TreasuryDirect to avoid liquidity issues.

For example, there are low-fee exchange-traded funds — available through brokerage accounts — that allow investors to buy and sell T-bills before the term ends, he said.

"The fees pose a small drag on the interest," Gagliardi said, but the ease of purchase and ability to sell before maturity "may override the small penalty in interest rates" for many investors.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug