Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CVPM
Exam Name : Certificate of Veterinary Practice Management
Vendor Name : Medical
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CVPM exam Format | CVPM Course Contents | CVPM Course Outline | CVPM exam Syllabus | CVPM exam Objectives

To prepare students to seek a Veterinary Practice Manager position by providing them with the education to develop strategies, procedures, policies and management skills to run the daily operations of a veterinary business and to satisfy the college semester hours required for CVPM certification.

Basic Skills Assessment

Applicants are required to complete two Basic Skills Assessments, one in practicing and one in math, to determine the level of readiness for beginning their selected program. Additional studies may be required.

Business Orientation

In this course, youll be introduced to distance learning; study skills and techniques; and ways to review for examinations. Youll discover similarities between personal financial goals and business goals and examine how to determine personal financial goals; set up a budget; and recognize the elements of a business.

Principles of Management

This course will review the functions of management and its role in planning, leading, organizing, motivating, and controlling.
Basic Accounting

In this course, you'll discover the necessary accounting information to understand the basic accounting information, what it means, and how its used; The course will also cover financial statements, return on investment, bookkeeping process, cost accounting, and report systems.

Veterinary Practice Management

In this course youll learn the importance of understanding and implementing laws and requirements in a veterinary practice. Youll also learn the benefits of developing a professional, efficient, and knowledgeable team that provides exceptional customer service to their clients. Additionally, the course will provide you with instructions and information on how to help your practice to grow financially.

Human Resources Management

In this course, you'll investigate an overview of Human Resources Management (HRM), as its understood today. This course illustrates the dynamic interaction of the personnel functions with each other and with the objectives of an organization.

In this course, youll discover the principles of marketing. Youll learn how to develop a marketing plan; use social and mobile marketing effectively; integrate ethics into marketing strategies; influence the consumer decision process; perform market research; perform SWOT and STP analyses; make decisions concerning branding, packaging, and developing new products; price products and services fairly; set advertising objectives; and more.

Business Ethics

In this course, youll explore the types of ethical issues you may encounter in your professional life and discover processes to help in determining the best response to the issue. Youll discover how to determine a course of action with various philosophical approaches and business-related approaches to ethical issues in a professional setting; and a process for decision making in balancing different considerations. In addition, discover an overview of selected areas of business that may require particular attention.

Whether you're looking to start a new career as a Vet Practice Manager, or you want to start on a path toward certification, their Veterinary Practice Management undergraduate certificate program can help you achieve these goals. For up to $86 per credit, their Vet Practice Management program fulfills one of the requirements to sit for the Certified Veterinary Practice Manager (CVPM) exam.

Killexams Veterinary Practice Management Certificate online program fulfills the education requirement for certification. After students complete the Vet Practice Management online courses and graduate from the program, they will have met one of the four requirements to sit for the CVPM exam — Certified Veterinary Practice Manager, offered by the Veterinary Hospital Managers Association (VHMA). The CVPM designation is recognized by many veterinary practice leaders as the highest level of credential for professional veterinary managers and is often preferred or required when applying for a veterinary manager position.

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Medical Practice Dumps


Medical Colleges Set Up From 2024-25 Session Allowed To Have Max 150 Seats

The distance between college and hospital shall have a maximum 30 minutes travel time. (Representational)

New Delhi:

Medical colleges established from 2024-25 academic session onwards shall have a maximum of 150 undergraduate seats, provided the institute follows the ratio of 100 MBBS seats for 10 lakh population in that state.

Colleges seeking increased number of seats cannot exceed 150 MBBS students from 2024-25, the National Medical Commission (NMC) said in its newly-issued "Guidelines for Under Graduate Courses under Establishment of New Medical Institutions, Starting of New Medical Courses, Increase of Seats for Existing Courses and Assessment and Rating Regulations, 2023."

Any additional permitted seat quota for admissions shall be within the number of seats granted for admission to that college, the guidelines notified on August 16 stated.

With the exception that colleges who have applied for academic year 2023-24 for increased seats but failed to get the same, can ask for the same number (totalling 200 or 250) that was in their previous application for one time in the year 2024-25 only.

After 2023-24, letter of permission for starting of new medical colleges shall be issued only for annual intake capacity of 50/100/150 seats, the guidelines stated.

Every hospital seeking permission to start medical college after the publication of this amended regulation shall comprise of the medical college, the attached teaching hospital and the hostels for the students and interns, with or without the residential area for faculty and other staff of college or hospital.

The medical college, hostels for students and interns and the teaching hospital or institution shall be either in a unitary campus or maximum of two campuses, the guidelines said.

According to the guidelines, the distance between the plots of college and hospital shall have a travel time of maximum of 30 minutes. The hospital shall have at least 220 beds.

For every hospital seeking permission to start medical college, the medical college shall have rural health training centres/community health centres/urban health centres affiliated to it; according to the geographical location of the college, which shall be used for internship training.

The guidelines state that every medical institution shall have a skills laboratory where students can practice and Strengthen skills pre-specified in the curriculum. The skills laboratory attempts to recreate the clinical environment and tasks which future healthcare workers have to perform with various levels of complexity and fidelity. Skills lab is only to prepare the student for clinical exposure. It shall not replace or be used for compensating any hands-on clinical training or conducting examination. Six weeks of skills lab training including evaluation before the students are posted to the wards for clinical training shall be mandatory. The skills laboratory shall have a total area of at least 600 sq. m for intake up to 150 MBBS students annually and 800 sq.m for intakes of 200 and 250 MBBS students annually, the guidelines said.

The buildings of the medical college and hospital will have to conform to the prevailing building codes and local building byelaws/norms.

The hospitals should have fire-safety measures, including patient evacuation plans according to local byelaws and regulations. They must also comply with the requirements for providing access and facilities to those who are disabled.

It shall be mandatory to have at least 75 per cent attendance of the total working days (excluding vacations) for all faculty and resident doctors. During vacation period, other than sick leave or leaves availed due to emergency situations, the faculty on duty shall not be availing any leave.

The college or institution shall provide furnished accommodation for at least 75 per cent students, interns, and resident doctors.

It is desirable that hostel rooms are double accommodation facilities. Adequate recreational, dining and 24x7 security facilities shall be provided at the hostels. However, those who do not wish to avail of the hostel facilities shall be allowed to choose their own residential facilities without the college collecting 'hostel fees', the guidelines stated.

The guidelines specified other criteria in terms of campus, library, journals, lecture theatres, laboratories, biomedical waste management, research facility, college website, departments and close circuit camera among others.

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

Wassa East health care facilities have no proper medical waste management systems

Research conducted by Water Aid Ghana on “Strengthening Systems for WASH in Health Care Facilities” within the Wassa East District has revealed the absence of proper medical waste management systems in most facilities in the district.  

The district, which has 28 functional health facilities, has only a few mission and private ones with incinerators for proper medical waste disposal. 

Mr Richard Amaning, the lead Consultant for the research who presented at a validation workshop, said the situation was capable of derailing most quality health care indicators and hampering the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.  

The study, he explained, established that most of the facilities either burnt their medical waste behind their facilities or left them uncovered in dug pits posing health emergencies to lives of communities and children in particular who may pick the objects for play.  

According to the study, approximately four in ten facilities have a functional waste collection container available in proximity for non-infectious waste, infectious waste, and sharps waste with some also practicing waste segregation.    

The district also recorded many non-functional toilet facilities, a situation the consultant attributed to building types, frequent water shortage, collapsed toilet facilities or broken doors which did not allow for privacy.  

 Mr Amaning said records keeping on routine cleaning on toilets facilities was also lagging adding that in some facilities one pit latrine served the needs of both staff and patients, staff alone, other areas had collapsed toilets or abandoned due to irregular water supply.   

“In the meantime, basic water services should be increased, considering the huge investment but issues of operational maintenance with frequent breakdowns could derail some aspects of the progress made,” he noted.  

While more than 67 per cent of the 28 facilities and hygiene services were above the national estimate of 55 per cent, the research recorded that such hand washing facilities were either at the mercy of the weather or sinks falling without any care.  

He indicated that environmental cleaning services in Health care facilities were extremely low and many of the facilities had issues with maintaining proper sanitary conditions also majority of the facilities had no personnel or orderlies for cleaning.  

The consultant had therefore proposed the establishment of a District WASH standards for all facilities, development of Health Care Key Performance Indicators with the District Health Directorate, train focal personnel and the introduction of a Clean Clinic Model across the District.  

Ms Seyram Asimah, Acting Programme Manager Water Aid Ghana said the project was designed to strengthen WASH and health systems, accelerate the coverage of reliable access to safer water and affordable, inclusive, and sustainable WASH services.   

That, she noted, would help provide evidence-based information around the sector to inform policy, practice, and advocate prioritization of services in Health care.  

Source: GNA 

Medical Colleges Set Up From 2024-25 Session Onwards to Have Max 150 UG Seats; Check NMC's Guidelines Here

No result found, try new keyword!The National Medical Commission (NMC) has issued "Guidelines for Under Graduate Courses under Establishment of New Medical Institutions, Starting of New Medical Courses, Increase of Seats for Existing ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug