Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CWAP-403
Exam Name : Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)
Vendor Name : CWNP
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CWAP-403 test Format | CWAP-403 Course Contents | CWAP-403 Course Outline | CWAP-403 test Syllabus | CWAP-403 test Objectives


Exam Name : Wireless Analysis Professional
Exam Number : CWAP-403 CWAP
Exam Duration : 120 minutes
Questions in test : 60
Passing Score : 70%
Recommended Training : Official Wi-Fi Analysis Self Study Kit
Training Class
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : CWNP CWAP-403 Real Questions
VCE practice test : CWNP Certified Wireless Analysis Professional Practice Test

Protocol Analysis 15%
1. Capture 802.11 frames using the appropriate methods and locations
- Install monitor mode drivers
- Select appropriate capture device
- Select appropriate capture location
- Capture for an appropriate amount of time based on the problem scenario
- Scanning channels vs. capturing on a single channel
- Capturing in roaming scenarios
- Capture with portable protocol analyzers (laptops)
- Capture with APs, controllers, and other management solutions
- Capture with specialty devices such as handheld analyzers

2. Analyze 802.11 frame captures to discover problems and find solutions
- Use appropriate display filters to view relevant frames and packets
- Use colorization to highlight important frames and packets
- Configure and display columns for analysis purposes
- View frame and packet decodes and understand the information shown and apply it to the analysis process
- Use multiple adapters and channel aggregation to view captures from multiple channels
- Implement protocol analyzer decryption procedures
- View and use captures statistical information for analysis
- Use expert mode for analysis
- View and understand peer maps as they relate to communications analysis

3. Understand and apply the common capture configuration parameters available in protocol analysis tools
- Save to disk
- Packet slicing
- Event triggers
- Buffer options
- Channels and channel widths
- Capture filters
- Channel scanning and dwell time

4. Utilize additional tools that capture 802.11 frames for the purposes of analysis and troubleshooting
- WLAN scanners and discovery tools
- Protocol capture visualization and analysis tools
- Centralized monitoring, alerting and forensic tools

5. Ensure appropriate troubleshooting methods are used with all analysis types
- Define the problem
- Determine the scale of the problem
- Identify probably causes
- Capture and analyze the data
- Observe the problem
- Choose appropriate remediation steps
- Document the problem and resolution

Spectrum Analysis 15%
1. Capture RF spectrum data and understand the common views available in spectrum analyzers
- Install, configure and use spectrum analysis software and hardware
Configure Wi-Fi integration
Save and export capture data
- Capture RF spectrum data using handheld, laptop-based and infrastructure spectrum capture solutions
- Understand and use spectrum analyzer views
Real-time FFT
Waterfall, swept spectrogram, density and historic views
Utilization and duty cycle
Detected devices
WLAN integration views

2. Analyze spectrum captures to identify relevant RF information and issues
- Determine the RF noise floor in an environment
- Determine Signal-to-Noise Ration (SNR) for a given signal
- Locate and identify sources of RF interference
- Identify RF channel utilization
- Analyze a non-Wi-Fi transmitter and its impact on WLAN communications
- Overlapping and non-overlapping adjacent channel interference
- Poor performing or faulty radios

3. Analyze spectrum captures to identify various device signatures
- Identify frequency hopping devices
- Identify various 802.11 PHYs
802.11b
802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
802.11ac
Channel widths
Primary channel
- Identify non-802.11 devices based on RF behaviors and signatures
Microwave oven
Video devices
Jammers
Cordless phones

4. Centralized spectrum analysis solutions
- AP-based spectrum analysis
- Sensor-based spectrum analysis

PHY Layers and Technologies 10%
1. Understand and describe the functions and the PLCP and PMD sublayers 2. Apply the understanding of PHY technologies (including PHY headers, preambles, training fields, frame aggregation and data rates) to captured data
- DSSS
- HR/DSSS
- OFDM
- ERP
- HT
- VHT

3. Identify and use PHY information provided in pseudo-headers within protocol analyzers
- Pseudo-header formats
Radiotap
Per Packet Information (PPI)
- Signal strength
- Data rate and MCS index
- Length information
- Channel center frequency or received channel
- Channel properties
- Noise

4. Recognize the limits of protocol analyzers in capturing PHY information including NULL data packets and PHY headers 5. Use appropriate capture devices based on an understanding of PHY types
- Supported PHYs
- Supported spatial streams
- Short Guard Interval (SGI)

MAC Sublayer and Functions 25%
1. Understand frame encapsulation and frame aggregation
2. Identify and use MAC information in captured data for analysis
- Management, control, and data frames
- MAC Frame Format
Frame Control Field
To DS and From DS
Address Fields
Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
- 802.11 Management Frame Formats
Information Elements
Authentication
Association and Reassociation
Beacon
Probe Request and Probe Response
- Data and QoS Data Frame Formats
- 802.11 Control Frame Formats
Acknowledgement
RTS/CTS
Block Acknowledgement and related frames

3. Validate BSS configuration through protocol analysis
- Country code
- Minimum basic rate
- Supported rates
- Beacon intervals
- WMM settings
- RSN settings
- HT and VHT operations
- Channel width
- Primary channel
- Hidden or non-broadcast SSIDs

4. Identify and analyze CRC error frames and retransmitted frames

WLAN Medium Access 10%
1. Understand 802.11 contention algorithms in-depth and know how they impact WLANs
- Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
Carrier Sense and Energy Detect
Network Allocation Vector (NAV)
Contention Window (CW) and random backoff
Interframe Spacing
- Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)
EDCA Function (EDCAF)
Access Categories and Queues
AIFSN
- Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)
WMM parameters
WMM Power Save
WMM Admission Control

2. Analyze QoS configuration and operations
- Verify QoS parameters in capture files
- Ensure QoS is implemented end-to-end

802.11 Frame Exchanges 25%
1. Capture, understand, and analyze BSS discovery and joining frame exchanges
- BSS discovery
- 802.11 Authentication and Association
- 802.1X/EAP exchanges
- Pre-shared key authentication
- Four-way handshake
- Group key exchange
- Pre-FT (802.11r) fast secure roaming mechanisms
- Fast BSS Transition (FT) roaming exchanges and fast secure roaming
- Hotspot 2.0 protocols and operations from a client access perspective (ANQP and initial access)
- Neighbor discovery

2. Analyze roaming behavior and resolve problems related to roaming
- Sticky clients
- Excessive roaming
- Channel aggregation for roaming analysis

3. Analyze data frame exchanges
- Data frames and acknowledgement frames
- RTS/CTS data frame exchanges
- QoS data frame exchanges
- Block Acknowledgement exchanges

4. Analyze HT/VHT-specific transmission methods
- MIMO
- Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)
- MU-MIMO
- Frame aggregation (A-MSDU and A-MPDU)

5. Analyze behavior and resolve problems related to MAC layer operations
- Power Save operations
- Protection mechanisms
- Load balancing
- Band Steering



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug