Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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The objective of the Chartered Wealth Manager® Program is to equip candidates with both basic and advanced skills required by a Wealth Manager in performing his tasks and duties as a Wealth Manager, Private Banker and Wealth Advisor.



a. Acquiring core understandings in and across the disciplines that contribute to the domain of Wealth Management including Wealth Creation, Wealth Enhancement, Wealth Preservation and Wealth Transfer.

b. Relating these conceptual frameworks to dimensions of practical areas on the ground.

c. Providing candidates with opportunities to encounter and critically engage with instances of both challenging problems and attempted interventions by a Wealth Manager.

d. Engage with the complex financial markets, human attitudes and investment lifecycles.

e. Explore the ethical and personal dimensions of Wealth Advisory and understand the fiduciary responsibilities of a Wealth Manager.



UNIT 10 : Equity Analysis

UNIT 11 : Use of Alternative Products in Wealth Management

UNIT 12 : Use of Behavioral Finance in Wealth Management

UNIT 13 : Real Estate Valuation and Analysis

UNIT 14 : Relationship Management by a Wealth Manager

UNIT 15 : International Taxation

UNIT 16 : Portfolio Management Strategies

UNIT 17 : Wealth Management Planning

UNIT 18 : Advanced Wealth Management





LEVEL II – Advanced Level

-------------------------

Unit 10- Equity Analysis

Equity as an asset class always features as the first choice in almost every portfolio. Considering the importance Equity possesses in investment management space this unit would focus at enabling the investment professional understand the various aspects of Equity including Equity Analysis by Technical & Fundamental Methods. The unit would help the investment professional in analysing the equity and its related products in a comprehensive & holistic manner. The unit would enhance the knowledge of the wealth manager regarding this premier asset class so that they can comprehensively advise clients on equity investments in conjunction with risk and return parameters.



Unit 11- Use of Alternative Products in Wealth Management

This course aims at explaining and discussing the importance of alternative assets in a clients portfolio. As the market for Alternatives is growing rapidly they would try to focus on how inclusion of alternate assets has affected the risk and return composition of global clients. The unit would also focus on studying the various alternate channels of investment and their applicability globally.



Unit 12- Use of Behavioral Finance in Wealth Management

This unit is focused on behavioral and psychological factors which influences the investment decision making of a client. This unit would further exemplify how the client behavior changes to different situations prevailing in the financial markets which would help a wealth manager in evaluating how to handle and manage the clients responses. The unit would also include case studies covering the behavioral biases shown by the clients and how a wealth can approach and mitigate the same.



Unit 13- Real Estate Valuation and Analysis

The purpose of the unit is to make an investment professional gain an understanding of the economic forces that drive Real Estate asset and how the niche characteristics of real estate can provide an excellent fitment in a clients portfolio. The unit would encompass the concepts, tools, and techniques for evaluating individual real estate assets. The Unit would also feature the different mechanisms through which a wealth manager can guide his client with respect to this asset class-Direct and Indirect.



Unit 14- Relationship Management by a Wealth Manager

Relationship management is the back-bone of wealth management business so the concept of Customer relationship management (CRM) is widely implemented by wealth management business outfits for managing relationship and interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. The unit discusses techniques to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the wealth manager already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service.



Unit 15- International Taxation

The unit would help the financial market and investment management professional in assessing the applicability of various taxation aspects for an individual investor before deciding on the portfolio allocation of the client in the international space. The unit would cover the tax structures in few of the prominent investment zones across the globe like US, UK, Singapore and Mauritius. The latter part of the unit would make an investment professional understand in requisite detail the implications of Tax treaties, cross border taxation and on creating tax efficient structures for tax planning in multiple jurisdictions.



Unit 16- Portfolio Management Strategies

The unit would serve as a foundation for understanding of Portfolio Management process of an individual. This unit would cover the fundamental concepts of risk and return and their application in the context of overall portfolio of a client which would help the wealth manager in making efficient asset allocation with respect to clients risk and return objectives. This endeavor of the unit would be to guide the investment professional in drafting the Investment Policy Statement which is one of the most important tool of investment advisory arena. The latter part of the book would feature the various portfolio managing strategies both for Equity as well as Debt.



Unit 17- Wealth Management Planning

This unit covers the different aspects of managing and planning wealth management business across the globe. It focuses on analyzing and studying the various key profitability drivers like Clients, Products, Distribution and Organization of any wealth management business and how each of the drivers can impact the efficiency of the business. The unit would also feature the wealth management landscape globally in different markets and with specific focus on different business models.



Unit 18- Advanced Wealth Management

This unit builds upon the foundations in Wealth Management concepts covered under CWM® Program. The unit would provide an excellent platform to the wealth manager for constructing a comprehensive Wealth Plan for his client with specific focus on each of the 6 steps of the wealth management process covered in Level 1. This unit would make the investment professional understand the application of the each of the earlier units through different enriching live case studies. The unit would also provide handful tools drafted by AAFM (Performa for Portfolio Review) which can be used by an investment professional right from the start till the end of the wealth management process.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug