Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CWNA-108
Exam Name : Certified Wireless Network Administrator
Vendor Name : CWNP
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CWNA-108 exam Format | CWNA-108 Course Contents | CWNA-108 Course Outline | CWNA-108 exam Syllabus | CWNA-108 exam Objectives


EXAM NUMBER : CWNA-108

EXAM NAME : Certified Wireless Network Administrator

QUESTIONS TYPE : Multiple-Choice

PASSING SCORES : 70%



The CWNA certification is a foundational level wireless LAN certification for the CWNP Program. To earn a CWNA certification, you must take the CWNA exam at a Pearson Vue Testing Center and pass with a 70% or higher. Instructors must pass with a 80% or higher. However you choose to prepare for the CWNA exam, you should start with the exam objectives, which cover the full list of skills tested on the exam. The CWNA certification is valid for three (3) years. To recertify, pass one of the professional level certifications exams (CWSP,CWDP, CWAP) BEFORE your CWNA expires. By doing so, the CWNA will be renewed for another three (3) years. Or retake the current version of the CWNA exam.



While the Certified Wireless Specialist (CWS) and Certified Wireless Technician (CWT) certifications are not a required prerequisite to the CWNA certification, it is highly recommended. It will provide a solid learning foundation before continuing to pursue the CWNA.



Main Areas Covered by CWNA:

- Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies

- Antenna Concepts

- Wireless LAN Hardware and Software

- Network Design, Installation, and Management

- Wireless Standards and Organizations

- 802.11 Network Architecture

- Wireless LAN Security

- Troubleshooting



The Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA) understands standards and operations
of 802.11 wireless networks. Responsibilities include deploying, managing, monitoring, and
basic troubleshooting of these networks. The CWNA has the ability to describe devices and
operations of current WLAN technologies.

The CWNA exam has no prerequisites; however, the following are recommended before
attempting the CWNA exam:

● Basic knowledge of networking (routers, switches, cabling, etc.)

● Basic knowledge of TCP/IP

● At least 1 year of work experience with wireless LAN technologies



The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from a Job Task Analysis
(JTA) involving wireless networking experts (CWNEs) and professionals. The results of this JTA
were used in weighing the subject areas and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the
relative importance of the content.
When you pass the CWNA exam, you earn credit towards the CWSP, CWDP, CWAP, and
CWNE certifications and you earn the CWNA certification.
The following chart provides the breakdown of the exam as to the distribution of questions
within each knowledge domain



- Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies 15%

- WLAN Regulations and Standards 20%

- WLAN Protocols and Devices 20%

- WLAN Network Architecture and Design Concepts 15%

- WLAN Network Security 10%

- RF Validation 10%

- WLAN Troubleshooting 10%



1.0 Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies – 15%

1.1 Define and explain the basic characteristics of RF and RF behavior

• Wavelength, frequency, amplitude, phase, sine waves

• RF propagation and coverage

• Reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering

• Multipath and RF interference

• Gain and loss

• Amplification

• Attenuation

• Absorption

• Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)

• Return Loss

• Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)

1.2 Apply the basic concepts of RF mathematics and measurement

• Watt and milliwatt

• Decibel (dB)

• dBm and dBi

• Noise floor

• SNR

• RSSI

• dBm to mW conversion rules of 10 and 3

• Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP)

1.3 Identify RF signal characteristics as they relate to antennas.

• RF and physical line of sight and Fresnel zone clearance

• Beamwidths

• Passive gain

• Polarization

• Antenna diversity types

• Radio chains

• Spatial multiplexing (SM)

• Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)

• Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)

• MIMO

1.4 Explain and apply the functionality of RF antennas, antenna systems, and accessories available

• Omni-directional antennas

• Semi-directional antennas

• Highly directional antennas

• memorizing Azimuth and Elevation charts for different antenna types

• Antenna orientation

• RF cables and connectors

• Lightning arrestors and grounding rods/wires

2.0 WLAN Regulations and Standards – 20%

2.1 Explain the roles of WLAN and networking industry organizations

• IEEE

• Wi-Fi Alliance

• IETF

• Regulatory domains and agencies

2.2 Explain and apply the various Physical Layer (PHY) solutions of the IEEE 802.11-2016
standard as amended including supported channel widths, spatial streams, data rates.

• DSSS – 802.11

• HR-DSSS – 802.11b

• OFDM – 802.11a

• ERP – 802.11g

• Wi-Fi 4 - HT – 802.11n

• Wi-Fi 5 - VHT – 802.11ac

• Wi-Fi 6 - HE - 802.11ax

2.3 Understand spread spectrum technologies, Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)

• DSSS

• OFDM

• OFDMA and Resource Units

• BPSK

• QPSK

• QAM (16, 64, 256,1024)

2.4 Identify and apply 802.11 WLAN functional concepts

• Primary channels

• Adjacent overlapping and non-overlapping channels

• Throughput vs. data rate

• Bandwidth

• Guard Interval

2.5 Describe the OSI model layers affected by the 802.11-2016 standard and amendments

2.6 Identify and comply with regulatory domain requirements and constraints (specifically
in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz)

• Frequency bands used by the 802.11 PHYs

• Available channels

• Regulatory power constraints

• Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)

• Transmit Power Control (TPC)

2.7 Explain basic use case scenarios for 802.11 wireless networks

• Wireless LAN (WLAN) – BSS and ESS

• Wireless bridging

• Wireless Ad-Hoc (IBSS)

• Wireless Mesh

3.0 WLAN Protocols and Devices – 20%

3.1 Describe the components and functions that make up an 802.11 wireless service set

• Stations (STAs)

• Basic Service Set (BSS) (Infrastructure mode)

• SSID

• BSSID

• Extended Service Set (ESS)

• IBSS (Ad-Hoc)

• Distribution System (DS)

• Distribution System Media (DSM)

3.2 Define terminology related to the 802.11 MAC and PHY

• MSDU, MPDU, PSDU, and PPDU

• A-MSDU and A-MPDU

• PHY preamble and header

3.3 Identify and explain the MAC frame format

• MAC frame format

• MAC addressing

3.4 Identify and explain the purpose of the three main 802.11 frame types

• Management

• Control

• Data

3.5 Explain the process used to locate and connect to a WLAN

• Scanning (active and passive)

• Authentication

• Association

• Open System Authentication and Shared Key authentication

• Connecting to 802.1X/EAP and Pre-Shared Key authentication networks

• BSS selection

• Connecting to hidden SSIDs

3.6 Explain 802.11 channel access methods

• DCF

• EDCA

• RTS/CTS

• CTS-to-Self

• NAV

• Interframe spaces (SIFS, DIFS, EIFS, AIFS)

• Physical carrier sense and virtual carrier sense

• Hidden node

3.7 Explain 802.11 MAC operations

• Roaming

• Power save modes and frame buffering

• Protection mechanisms

3.8 Describe features of, select, and install WLAN devices, control, and management
systems

• Access Points (APs)

• WLAN controllers

• Wireless network management systems

• Wireless bridge and mesh APs

• Client devices

4.0 WLAN Network Architecture and Design Concepts– 15%

4.1 Describe and implement Power over Ethernet (PoE) 802.3af, 802.3at, 802.3bt

• Power Source Equipment

• Powered Device

• Midspan and endpoint PSEs

• Power classes to include power differences between PSE and PD

• Power budgets and powered port density

4.2 Define and describe differences, advantages and constraints of the different wireless
LAN architectures

• Centralized data forwarding

• Distributed data forwarding

• Control, Management and Data planes

• Scalability and availability solutions

• Tunneling, QoS and VLANs

4.3 Describe design considerations for common deployment scenarios in wireless such as
coverage requirements, roaming considerations, throughput, capacity and security

• Design considerations for data

• Design considerations for voice

• Design considerations for video

• Design considerations for location services including Real-Time Location
Services (RTLS)

• Design considerations for highly mobile devices (e.g. tablets and smartphones)

• Capacity planning for high and very high-density environments

• Design considerations for guest access/BYOD

• Design considerations for supporting legacy 802.11 devices

4.4 Demonstrate awareness of common proprietary features in wireless networks.

• AirTime Fairness

• Band steering

• Dynamic power and channel management features

4.5 Determine and configure required network services supporting the wireless network

• DHCP for client addressing, AP addressing and/or controller discovery

• DNS for address resolution for clients and APs

• Time synchronization protocols (e.g. NTP, SNTP)

• VLANs for segmentation

• Authentication services (e.g. RADIUS, LDAP)

• Access Control Lists for segmentation

• Wired network capacity requirements

5.0 WLAN Network Security – 10%

5.1 Identify weak security options that should not be used in enterprise WLANs

• WEP

• Shared Key authentication

• SSID hiding as a security mechanism

• MAC filtering

• Use of deprecated security methods (e.g. WPA and/or WPA2 with TKIP)

• Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)

5.2 Identify and configure effective security mechanisms for enterprise WLANs

• Application of AES with CCMP for encryption and integrity

• WPA2-Personal including limitations and best practices for pre-shared (PSK) use

• WPA2-Enterprise -configuring wireless networks to use 802.1X including
connecting to RADIUS servers and appropriate EAP methods

5.3 Understand basic concepts of WPA3 and Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE) and
enhancements compared to WPA2

• Understand basic security enhancements in WPA3 vs. WPA2

• Understand basic security enhancements of encryption and integrity in WPA3
(e.g. CCMP, GCMP, AES)

• Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) in WPA3 as an enhancement for
legacy pre-shared key technology

• Understand the purpose of Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE) for public
and guest networks

5.4 Describe common security options and tools used in wireless networks

• Access control solutions (e.g. captive portals, NAC, BYOD)

• Protected management frames

• Fast Secure Roaming methods

• Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS) and/or rogue AP detection

• Protocol and spectrum analyzers

• Best practices in secure management protocols (e.g. encrypted management
HTTPS, SNMPv3, SSH2, VPN and password management)

6.0 RF Validation – 10%

6.1 Verify and document that design requirements are met including coverage, throughput,
roaming, and connectivity with a post-implementation validation survey

6.2 Locate and identify sources of RF interference

• Identify RF disruption from 802.11 wireless devices including contention vs.
interference and causes/sources of both including co-channel contention (CCC),
overlapping channels, and 802.11 wireless device proximity

• Identify sources of RF interference from non-802.11 wireless devices based on the
investigation of airtime and frequency utilization

• Understand interference mitigation options including removal of interference
source or change of wireless channel usage

6.3 Perform application testing to validate WLAN performance

• Network and service availability

• VoIP testing

• Real-time application testing

• Throughput testing

6.4 Understand and use the basic features of validation tools

• Use of throughput testers for validation tasks

• Use of wireless validation software (specifically survey software and wireless
scanners)

• Use of protocol analyzers for validation tasks

• Use of spectrum analyzers for validation tasks

7.0 WLAN Troubleshooting – 10%

7.1 Describe and apply common troubleshooting tools used in WLANs

• Use of protocol analyzers for troubleshooting tasks

• Use of spectrum analyzers for identifying sources of interference

• Use of management, monitoring and logging systems for troubleshooting tasks

• Use of wireless LAN scanners for troubleshooting tasks

7.2 Identify and troubleshoot common wireless issues

• Identify causes of insufficient throughput in the wireless distribution systems
including LAN port speed/duplex misconfigurations, insufficient PoE budget,
and insufficient Internet or WAN bandwidth

• Identify and solve RF interference using spectrum analyzers

• Identify wireless performance issues using SNR, retransmissions, and airtime
utilization statistics

• Identify causes of wireless issues related to network services including DHCP,
DNS, and time protocols including using native interface and IP configuration
tools (e.g. pings, DNS lookups, interface configuration)

• Identify wireless issues related to security configuration mismatches



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug