Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Certified-Development-Lifecycle-and-Deployment-Designer
Exam Name : Certified Development Lifecycle and Deployment Designer
Vendor Name : Salesforce
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Certified-Development-Lifecycle-and-Deployment-Designer test Format | Certified-Development-Lifecycle-and-Deployment-Designer Course Contents | Certified-Development-Lifecycle-and-Deployment-Designer Course Outline | Certified-Development-Lifecycle-and-Deployment-Designer test Syllabus | Certified-Development-Lifecycle-and-Deployment-Designer test Objectives


Exam Details for Certified Development Lifecycle and Deployment Designer:

Number of Questions: The test consists of approximately 60 multiple-choice and multiple-select questions.

Time Limit: The total time allocated for the test is 105 minutes (1 hour and 45 minutes).

Passing Score: To pass the exam, you must achieve a minimum score of 68%.

Exam Format: The test is conducted online and is proctored. You will be required to answer the questions within the allocated time frame.

Course Outline:

1. Development Lifecycle Management:
- Understand the software development lifecycle (SDLC) and its phases
- Define and implement development methodologies (e.g., Agile, Waterfall)
- Establish version control and release management processes

2. Development Lifecycle Planning:
- Analyze business requirements and define development objectives
- Create development plans and project timelines
- Identify and allocate development resources

3. Environment and Data Management:
- Set up and manage development, testing, and production environments
- Establish data management strategies and practices
- Implement data migration and data archiving processes

4. Change Set and Metadata Deployment:
- Configure and deploy change sets between environments
- Understand metadata deployment strategies and best practices
- Manage dependencies and handle deployment errors

5. Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD):
- Implement CI/CD processes for Salesforce development
- Utilize source-driven development with Salesforce DX
- Automate deployment tasks using tools like Salesforce CLI, Jenkins, or Azure DevOps

6. Test Automation and Quality Assurance:
- Create and execute test plans and test cases
- Implement automated testing using frameworks like Apex Test Classes or Selenium
- Monitor code coverage and ensure application quality

7. Performance and Security Testing:
- Perform performance testing and optimization
- Conduct security exams and vulnerability scans
- Implement security best practices in the development process

8. Monitoring and Troubleshooting:
- Set up monitoring and logging mechanisms for application performance
- Analyze logs and diagnose issues in the development lifecycle
- Implement troubleshooting and debugging techniques

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the software development lifecycle and development methodologies.
2. Plan and manage the development lifecycle, including resource allocation and timelines.
3. Establish environments and data management strategies for development and testing.
4. Deploy changes and metadata between environments using change sets and best practices.
5. Implement continuous integration and continuous deployment processes for Salesforce development.
6. Create and execute test plans, including automated testing and code coverage monitoring.
7. Perform performance testing and ensure application security in the development process.
8. Monitor application performance, troubleshoot issues, and analyze logs.

Exam Syllabus:

The test syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Development Lifecycle Management
- Software development lifecycle (SDLC)
- Development methodologies (e.g., Agile, Waterfall)
- Version control and release management

2. Development Lifecycle Planning
- Business requirements analysis
- Development plans and project timelines
- Development resource allocation

3. Environment and Data Management
- Development, testing, and production environments
- Data management strategies
- Data migration and archiving

4. Change Set and Metadata Deployment
- Change set configuration and deployment
- Metadata deployment strategies and best practices
- Dependency management and error handling

5. Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD)
- CI/CD processes for Salesforce development
- Source-driven development with Salesforce DX
- Deployment automation using Salesforce CLI, Jenkins, or Azure DevOps

6. Test Automation and Quality Assurance
- Test plan and test case creation
- Automated testing frameworks (e.g., Apex Test Classes, Selenium)
- Code coverage monitoring and application quality

7. Performance and Security Testing
- Performance testing and optimization
- Security exams and vulnerability scans
- Security best practices in development

8. Monitoring and Troubleshooting
- Monitoring and logging mechanisms
- Log analysis and issue diagnosis
- Troubleshooting and debugging techniques



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug