Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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DSCI DCPP-01 : DSCI certified Privacy Professional exam Dumps

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Exam Number : DCPP-01
Exam Name : DSCI certified Privacy Professional
Vendor Name : DSCI
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DCPP-01 exam Format | DCPP-01 Course Contents | DCPP-01 Course Outline | DCPP-01 exam Syllabus | DCPP-01 exam Objectives

Exam Detail:
The DCPP-01 (DSCI Certified Privacy Professional) exam is designed to assess an individual's knowledge and skills in privacy and data protection practices. Here are the exam details for the DCPP-01 exam:

- Number of Questions: The exam typically consists of multiple-choice questions, scenario-based questions, and practical case studies. The exact number of questions may vary, but it is typically around 100 to 150 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allotted to complete the exam is usually around 3 to 4 hours, but the exact duration may vary depending on the exam provider.

Course Outline:
The DCPP-01 certification program covers a comprehensive range of Topics related to privacy and data protection. The course outline typically includes the following domains:

1. Privacy Fundamentals:
- Introduction to privacy and data protection.
- Key concepts and principles of privacy.
- Overview of relevant privacy regulations and laws.

2. Privacy Governance:
- Privacy governance frameworks and best practices.
- Privacy program management.
- Roles and responsibilities of privacy professionals.

3. Privacy Risk Management:
- Identifying privacy risks and assessing their impact.
- Privacy impact exams (PIAs).
- Privacy by design and default.

4. Privacy Policies and Procedures:
- Developing and implementing privacy policies and procedures.
- Privacy notices and consent mechanisms.
- Handling data subject requests and complaints.

5. Data Collection and Processing:
- Lawful basis for data processing.
- Data minimization and purpose limitation.
- Consent management and data subjects' rights.

6. Data Security and Incident Response:
- Data security measures and controls.
- Incident response and breach notification.
- Security incident management.

7. International Data Transfers:
- Transfer mechanisms and adequacy decisions.
- Standard contractual clauses and binding corporate rules.
- Privacy Shield and other data transfer frameworks.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the DCPP-01 exam are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of privacy principles, regulations, and best practices.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of privacy governance frameworks and privacy program management.
- Testing candidates' ability to identify and manage privacy risks.
- Assessing candidates' proficiency in developing and implementing privacy policies and procedures.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of data collection, processing, and security practices.
- Testing candidates' understanding of international data transfer mechanisms and requirements.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific exam syllabus for the DCPP-01 exam covers the following topics:

1. Privacy Fundamentals:
- Privacy concepts and principles.
- Privacy regulations and laws.

2. Privacy Governance:
- Privacy governance frameworks.
- Privacy program management.

3. Privacy Risk Management:
- Privacy risk identification and exam.
- Privacy impact exams.

4. Privacy Policies and Procedures:
- Privacy policy development and implementation.
- Privacy notices and consent mechanisms.

5. Data Collection and Processing:
- Lawful basis for data processing.
- Data minimization and purpose limitation.

6. Data Security and Incident Response:
- Data security measures and controls.
- Incident response and breach notification.

7. International Data Transfers:
- Data transfer mechanisms and adequacy decisions.
- Standard contractual clauses and other transfer mechanisms.

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DSCI Privacy exam syllabus


CBSE Class 9 Syllabus 2023-24

CBSE Class 9th syllabus for the academic session 2023-24 was released at the beginning of the year. In the revised syllabus, the changes included deletion and readdition of some Topics in certain Chapters from the NCERT textbook. The entire curriculum is broken down into Topics and sub-topics and a comprehensive study of the Class 9 syllabus will help students acquire in-depth knowledge of all the listed chapters.

CBSE has increased the number of competency-based questions in the exam pattern thus making it more important for students to get acquainted with the syllabus for all subjects. Below they have provided subject-wise links for the CBSE 9th Class Syllabus to help students better prepare for the academic session.

Class 9 CBSE is a crucial phase in a student’s academic life transitions from upper primary to secondary class. Both class 9 and 10 helps in developing a strong foundation for the higher classes thus making it important for any student to go through the Class 9 Syllabus.

There are lots of misleading and outdated syllabus files available online. They have included the syllabus that was officially provided by CBSE in April 2023 for Class 9. The released CBSE Class 9 syllabus 2023-24 not only contains theoretical aspects of the curriculum but also practical subjects like Science/Lab Manual Science and a list of activities and experiments to perform to ensure holistic development. Going through the comprehensive syllabus is necessary for many reasons.

  • The syllabus will help students become aware of the list of concepts and Topics they will learn in that particular session.
  • Exam patterns and marking schemes for every chapter can be evaluated with the help of the syllabus.
  • The understanding syllabus will help students identify the right study material for their session like reference books, notes, and online study material.
  • Understanding the syllabus will help in shortlisting the Topics based on whether they are covered or not.
  • How to Prepare for the Final 2024 Exams on Time?

    Just downloading the syllabus won’t help, students have to understand the important steps on how to complete the CBSE Class 9 syllabus for the 2024 Exams to prepare for the exams timely.

  • Understand the syllabus and the listed topics. Shortlist Topics from every subject and make an organized study plan allowing time for every subject.
  • Make sure to include breaks of 15 minutes if you are studying for an hour. Follow techniques like POMODORO for effective time management.
  • Making notes during the learning time is essential and will help in the revision process.
  • Use practice books like Educart sample Papers to test your preparation by assessing 10-15 papers on the latest syllabus.
  • The class 9 syllabus 2023-24 is available for free at the official site of the CBSE- cbseacademic.nic.in. The subject-wise downloadable PDF links are provided above for students to download for free and help them prepare better for the exam.

    UPSC CSE Prelims exam Pattern, Syllabus, Selection Process & More

    UPSC CSE Prelims 2024: The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) Civil Services exam (CSE) is a highly competitive examination conducted annually by the UPSC in India to recruit officers for the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Police Service (IPS), and other Union Civil Services. The UPSC CSE Prelims exam is the first stage of this examination.In 2024, the UPSC CSE Prelims exam is set to be conducted on May 26 (Sunday). The IAS Prelims serves as the initial phase of the Civil Services Exam. In the year 2023, over 11 lakh candidates submitted applications for the UPSC Prelims, whereas around 10 lakh candidates did so in 2022.Understanding the syllabus for the UPSC CSE Prelims is important, as this stage acts as the screening test determining candidates' eligibility for the subsequent stage, namely the Mains. Aspiring candidates for the UPSC exam should prioritise familiarising themselves with the exam pattern and the UPSC CSE Prelims syllabus.ALSO READ: UPSC CSE 2024 Preparation: 10 Strategies to Clear Prelims exam in First AttemptFor those gearing up for UPSC CSE 2024, a dedicated routine for preparation is essential for achieving a commendable score in the UPSC Prelims 2024 exam. A long timeline is important for ensuring a well-organised and effective preparation phase, allowing aspirants to solidify their understanding of concepts and address any uncertainties related to the topics.UPSC CSE Prelims exam Pattern UPSC CSE exam Pattern Two Compulsory Papers General Studies Paper-I General Studies Paper-II (CSAT) Number of Questions asked in GS Paper-I 100 Number of Questions asked in CSAT 80 Total Number of Marks 400

    GS Paper-I – 200 Marks

    CSAT – 200 Marks

    Negative Marking ⅓ of the total marks allotted to the question will be deducted for every wrong answer Time Allotted S Paper-I – 2 Hours (9:30 AM -11:30 AM)

    CSAT – 2 Hours (2:30 PM – 4:30 PM)

    UPSC Civil Services Prelims Syllabus UPSC Prelims Syllabus for GS Paper (Paper I)
  • Current affairs with national and international significance.
  • History of India and the Indian National Movement.
  • Geography of India and the World - covering physical, social, and economic aspects.
  • Indian Polity and Governance - including the Constitution, political system, Panchayati Raj, public policy, and rights issues.
  • Economic and Social Development - addressing sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, and social sector initiatives.
  • General issues related to Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, and Climate Change - not necessitating specialised subject knowledge.
  • General Science.
  • UPSC CSE Prelims Syllabus for CSAT Paper (Paper-II)
  • Reading Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills, encompassing effective communication.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical proficiency.
  • Decision-making and problem-solving capabilities.
  • General mental ability exam.
  • Fundamental numeracy, involving numbers and their relationships at the Class 10 level.
  • Data interpretation skills, including the analysis of charts, graphs, tables, and data sufficiency at the 10th Class level.
  • UPSC Civil Services Selection ProcessThe candidates who qualify the UPSC CSE Prelims exam are eligible to appear for the UPSC CSE Mains exam. The Mains examination is a descriptive exam, consisting of nine papers. The candidates who qualify the Mains exam are called for the interview. The final selection of candidates is made based on their performance in the Mains examination and the interview.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug