Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : DEV-450
Exam Name : Salesforce Certified Platform Developer I
Vendor Name : Salesforce
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DEV-450 test Format | DEV-450 Course Contents | DEV-450 Course Outline | DEV-450 test Syllabus | DEV-450 test Objectives


ABOUT THE EXAM

The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer I test has the following characteristics:

 Content: 60 multiple-choice/multiple-select questions

 Time allotted to complete the exam: 110 minutes

 Passing Score: 65%



The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer I test is intended for an individual who has
experience developing and deploying basic business logic and user interfaces using the
programmatic capabilities of the Lightning Platform, including practical application of the
skills and concepts noted in the test objectives below.

The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer I generally has one to two years of experience as
a developer and at least six months of experience on the Lightning Platform.
The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer I candidate has the experience, skills, and
knowledge outlined below:

 Can use the fundamental programmatic capabilities of the Lightning Platform to
develop custom interfaces to extend Salesforce capabilities and develop custom
business logic.

 Can extend the Lightning Platform using Apex and Visualforce, and understands
Lightning Components.

 Is familiar with, and able to leverage relevant declarative capabilities of the platform,
where appropriate.

 Knows when to use declarative vs. programmatic methods.

 Is familiar with the development lifecycle from development to testing, and has
knowledge of the available environments.

 Is familiar with the Salesforce Mobile app capabilities and the basics of the Lightning
framework.

 Knows when to use the Lightning Process Builder vs. an Apex trigger.

 Has experience with object-oriented languages such as Java, JavaScript, C#, Ruby,
and .NET.

 Has experience with data-driven applications and relational databases.

 Has experience with Model View Controller (MVC) architecture and componentbased architecture.

 Has invested time in studying the resources listed in this test guide and the
additional required study materials provided by Salesforce.



EXAM OUTLINE

The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer I test measures a candidates knowledge and
skills related to the following objectives. A candidate should have hands-on experience
developing custom applications on the Lightning Platform and have demonstrated the
application of each of the features/functions below.



SALESFORCE FUNDAMENTALS

 Describe the considerations when developing in a multi-tenant environment.

 Describe how the Salesforce platform features map to the MVC pattern.

 Describe the capabilities of the core CRM objects in the Salesforce schema.

 Identify the common scenarios for extending an application's capabilities using
the AppExchange.

 Identify common use cases for declarative customization of the Lightning
Platform, and customization and features of the Heroku platform.



DATA MODELING AND MANAGEMENT

 Given a set of requirements, determine the appropriate data model.

 Describe the capabilities of the various relationship types and the implications
of each on record access, user interface (UI), and object-oriented
programming.

 Describe the impact of schema design and modifications on Apex
Development.

 Describe how to visualize and create entity relationships.

 Describe the options for and considerations when importing and exporting
data into development environments.



LOGIC AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

 Describe how to programmatically access and utilize the object schema.

 Describe the capabilities and use cases for formula fields.

 Describe the capabilities and use cases for roll-up summary fields.

 Describe the capabilities of the declarative process automation features.

 Describe when to use declarative automation features vs. Apex classes and
triggers.

 Describe how to declare variables and constants in Apex and how to assign
values using expressions.

 Describe the primitive and complex Apex data types and when to use them.

 Describe how to use and apply Apex control flow statements.

 Describe how to write and when to use Apex classes and interfaces.

 Describe how to use basic SOSL, SOQL, and DML statements when working
with objects in Apex.

 Describe the basic patterns used in triggers and classes to process data
efficiently.

 Describe when to use and how to write triggers.

 Describe the implications of governor limits on Apex transactions.

 Describe the relationship between Apex transactions, the save order of
execution, and the potential for recursion and/or cascading.

 Describe how to implement exception handling in Apex.

 Describe how to write Visualforce controllers.

 Describe when and how to use standard Visualforce controllers vs. Apex
custom controllers and controller extensions.

 Describe the programmatic techniques to prevent security vulnerabilities in
Apex and Visualforce.

 Describe how Apex impacts the ability to make declarative changes.



USER INTERFACE

 Describe how to display Salesforce data using a Visualforce page.

 Describe the types of web content that can be incorporated into Visualforce
pages.

 Describe how to incorporate Visualforce pages into Lightning Platform
applications.

 Describe the benefits of the Lightning Component framework.

 Describe the resources that can be contained in a Lightning Component.



TESTING

 Describe the testing framework and requirements for deployment.

 Describe how to write unit tests for triggers, controllers, and classes.

 Describe when and how to use various sources of test data.

 Describe how to execute one or multiple test classes.

 Describe the differences between invoking Apex in execute anonymous vs. unit
tests.



DEBUG AND DEPLOYMENT TOOLS

 Describe how to monitor and access various types of debug logs.

 Describe the capabilities and security implications of the Developer Console,
Workbench, and Force.com IDE.

 Describe the different processes for deploying metadata and business data.

 Describe how the different environments are used in the development and
deployment process.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug