Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : DSST-HRM
Exam Name : Human Resource Management
Vendor Name : HR
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DSST-HRM exam Format | DSST-HRM Course Contents | DSST-HRM Course Outline | DSST-HRM exam Syllabus | DSST-HRM exam Objectives

Test Details:
- exam Name: HR DSST-HRM Human Resource Management
- exam Format: Multiple-choice questions
- exam Duration: 2 hours
- Passing Score: Varies (set by DSST)
- Prerequisites: None
- Credit Recommendation: Varies (set by individual colleges and universities)

Course Outline: HR DSST-HRM Human Resource Management

I. Introduction to Human Resource Management
A. Role and importance of HRM
B. HRM functions and responsibilities
C. HRM legal and ethical considerations

II. Staffing and Recruitment
A. Job analysis and job descriptions
B. Recruitment methods and strategies
C. Selection processes and techniques

III. Employee Training and Development
A. Training needs exam
B. Training methods and techniques
C. Career development and succession planning

IV. Performance Management and Compensation
A. Performance appraisal systems
B. Performance feedback and coaching
C. Compensation and benefits management

V. Employee Relations and Labor Laws
A. Employee engagement and motivation
B. Employee discipline and conflict resolution
C. Employment laws and regulations

VI. HRM in a Global Context
A. Global HRM challenges and strategies
B. Cross-cultural management
C. Expatriate management

Exam Objectives:
- Understand the role and importance of human resource management
- Demonstrate knowledge of HRM functions, responsibilities, and legal considerations
- Apply effective staffing and recruitment strategies
- Implement employee training and development programs
- Manage performance and compensation systems
- Understand employee relations and labor laws
- Analyze HRM challenges and strategies in a global context

The syllabus for the HR DSST-HRM Human Resource Management course covers the following courses in detail:

Module 1: Introduction to Human Resource Management
- Role and importance of HRM
- HRM functions and responsibilities
- HRM legal and ethical considerations

Module 2: Staffing and Recruitment
- Job analysis and job descriptions
- Recruitment methods and strategies
- Selection processes and techniques

Module 3: Employee Training and Development
- Training needs exam
- Training methods and techniques
- Career development and succession planning

Module 4: Performance Management and Compensation
- Performance appraisal systems
- Performance feedback and coaching
- Compensation and benefits management

Module 5: Employee Relations and Labor Laws
- Employee engagement and motivation
- Employee discipline and conflict resolution
- Employment laws and regulations

Module 6: HRM in a Global Context
- Global HRM challenges and strategies
- Cross-cultural management
- Expatriate management

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Exam Expectations

Students should double check the location of their exam prior to arriving at the Accommodated Testing Center. PTS uses other locations across campus as needed and will change the location in the PTS Student Portal. The PTS Accommodated Testing location is STEW G59.

Check-in Process

To check in for an exam, students will need the following items:

  • PUID (required for all testing appointments)
  • Pens/pencils, erasers, rulers, calculators, etc.*
  • Any materials students are allowed to use on their exam as specified by their instructor and/or accommodations
  • * PTS will not provide writing utensils or calculators. Students must bring their own supplies.

    Students will be asked to place all of their electronics (i.e. cell phone, smart watch, etc.) into an envelope and turn them in to the Proctor prior to receiving their exam. If students have any questions during their exam or they feel as though their accommodation is not being met, they are asked to inform the PTS Staff immediately.

    Student Expectations

    Breaks: Students are expected to treat breaks as they would in most classrooms. Bathroom breaks will not be allowed unless specified otherwise. If students have concerns about breaks during examinations, they may contact their access consultant.

    Food and Drink: Only a CLEAR water bottle will be allowed in the testing rooms.

    Keeping Time During an Exam: Clocks will available on the walls in the exam rooms to keep track of the exam time. There will not be clocks at each individual seat. If a student feels the need to keep time at their seat, they may wear a non-smart watch that does not make noise. Their watch must be approved by the proctor in order to take it into the exam room. Official time of the exam will be kept by PTS staff.

    Personal Belongings: All items (hats, purses, scarves, hoodies, etc.) will need to be stored in a bag provided to the student upon their arrival to the Testing Center. These bags are sized to fit under their testing station during their exam time.

    We do ask students not to bring additional items other than what is required for their exam to the Testing Center.

    We understand that students may be taking exams in-between classes and may have backpacks. In this case, they will need to store them in one of the bags provided by the PTS staff.

    If a student is seen reaching into the provided bag during an exam, they are at risk of having their exam terminated as a possible breach of academic integrity. Students will continue to turn in their cell phones and smart watches to the proctor at the time of check-in as has been the procedure in the past.

    Exam Start Time: Students must start their exam within 15 minutes of their scheduled start time. Failure to start on time may result in not being able to take the exam. Please be sure to take this into consideration when planning travel to the Testing Center.

    PUID: Students are required to present their PUID to check-in for each exam. No other form of ID will be accepted and students will be at risk of not being able to take their exam without their PUID.

    Scantrons: All scantrons must be completed within the allotted exam time. If students have an accommodation that requires PTS staff to fill out their scantron, the student must inform the proctors at time of turning in their exam. Failure to do so may result in a scantron not being filled out and answers not graded.

    Instructor Resources for Accommodated Testing

    At Purdue University, it’s their shared responsibility to ensure students have access to usable, equitable, inclusive and sustainable learning environments.

    To ensure this accessibility, it is the responsibility of students to request accommodations, the responsibility of instructors to fulfill accommodations and Purdue Testing Service’s responsibility to be a resource for both parties.

    Testing accommodations are granted by the Disability Resource Center to students whose condition may impact their equal access to learning exams. Instructors can find approved accommodations listed on a student’s Course Accessibility Letter (CAL).

    If you have any questions about their new scheduling system, RegisterBlast, they ask that you please schedule an appointment to speak with one of their staff as they are currently unable to manage walk-in consultations. Please visit their Appointment Bookings link to schedule your 30 minute consultation. This can be done in-person, virutally, or over the phone. 

    Disability Accommodations & Final exam Town Hall

    The following is a video recording from a Town Hall event held by the Disability Resource Center on November 9, 2023.

    How to arrange for the exam to be administered through Purdue Testing Services.

    Students may take accommodated exams and quizzes through Purdue Testing Services. However, if an exam falls under one of the following categories, instructors will need to consult with PTS ahead of time:

  • Contains audio or video components
  • Contains digital images or interactive presentations
  • Computer-based or online exam
  • Administered on a student’s computer
  • Requires specific software
  • Student requires specific formats to access information (e.g., Braille, digital text, etc.)
  • When any of the above characteristics apply, instructors are encouraged to inform Purdue Testing Services as early as possible. Without adequate lead time, PTS reserves the right to alter the date the exam is given.

    Additionally, there are times when PTS’s space reaches capacity. When that occurs, instructors are responsible for providing the appropriate testing conditions outlined in a student’s CAL.

    Utilizing Purdue Testing Services

    If instructors are unable to provide testing accommodations to students in their department, they can facilitate accommodations with Purdue Testing Services using the following steps:

    Step 2: Students have to submit their exam request four (4) days prior to the exam date. This is not business days and will include weekends.  We cannot accept late requests. If the student does not meet the deadline, the instructor will need to administer the exam and provide accommodations.

    Step 3: Instructors must provide a copy of the exam or the password for the online exam to PTS no later than 12 p.m. one (1) business day before the exam is to be administered.

    Step 4: Purdue Testing Services administers the exam at the date and time requested by the student.

    Step 5: Purdue Testing Services returns completed exams within 24 business hours after testing according to the return method outlined in the TIF.

    Delivering Exams to Accommodated Testing

    Instructors must provide a copy of the exam or password for online exams to Purdue Testing Services no later than 12 p.m. one (1) business day before an exam is to be administered.

  • Copies can be submitted via RegisterBlast or hand delivered to STEW G39.
  • We cannot accept late submissions. Not submitting an exam or password by the deadline means PTS will be unable to administer the exam. As a result, the student’s appointment will be canceled, and it becomes the instructor’s responsibility to administer the exam and provide accommodations.
  • Exam Returns

    Completed exams may be returned by two methods. Instructors identify their preferred return format when approving exam requests.

  • Pickup: The hard copy of the exam will be collected directly from Purdue Testing Services at Stewart Center, Room G39. They ask those picking up exams to present an ID for security purposes.
  • Scanned copy uploaded to Instructor Portal: A scanned digital copy of the exam will be uploaded to the Instructor Accommodation Portal. The instructor will receive an email with instructions on how to obtain the exam when the exam has been uploaded. Please allow 24 business hours for this return method.
  • Deliver to IDP for grading: The instructor will need to make sure they inform IDP that they will have some exams coming over from PTS.
  • Additional Guidelines
  • Purdue Testing Services is unable to make modifications to an exam after it has been submitted due to the time it takes to process and prepare materials.
  • PTS is not able to administer webcam-monitored exams. If this format is required, it will be the instructor’s responsibility to administer the exam and provide accommodations.
  • PTS is not able to support cohort testing — also known as simultaneous test administration — which requires all students with accommodations from a single class to be tested at the same time. If cohort testing is required, it will be the instructor’s responsibility to administer the exam and provide accommodations.
  • Students cannot schedule with PTS until a TIF is submitted by their instructor. If a TIF is not submitted in time for the student to schedule their exam, it becomes the instructor's responsibility to administer the exam and provide accommodations.
  • Exams must be properly categorized as in-person or online in TIFs. Due to PTS’s high volume of online exams, computer seats cannot be guaranteed without this categorization. Adjustments can be made to the TIF up to two (2) weeks prior to the exam date if formats change.
  • Purdue Testing Services schedules exams on a first-come, first-served basis. There may be times they are unable to administer exams, even if a request is received prior to the scheduling deadline. If PTS is unable to administer an exam, the instructor and student will be notified immediately. It will then become the instructor’s responsibility to provide accommodations or offer an alternate date and time for the student to take the exam with PTS.
  • In addition to these guidelines, Purdue Testing Services asks that instructors provide as broad of testing windows as possible. They ask that testing windows be more than five (5) hours. This increases the probability that PTS is able to assist with accommodations.

  • Example: If a class exam is scheduled for 6:30 p.m. on Monday, the instructor can indicate in the TIF that students with accommodations are allowed to take the exam any time on Monday or Tuesday.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug