Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : DVA-C02
Exam Name : AWS Certified Developer - Associate
Vendor Name : Amazon
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Amazon - Latest Topics

 

Amazon threatens delists unless suppliers meet ‘profitability’ lump sum demands

Amazon fulfilment centre - Milton Keynes, UK

Amazon has been accused of “driving a coach and horses through GSCOP” after writing to suppliers warning they face being delisted unless they pay large lump sums to help prop up profitability of sales.

The Grocer has seen evidence of demands for one-off payments as well as large cost price reductions to UK companies from an office based in India called a ‘retail success team’.

Suppliers said they had been given just 48 hours to pay sums running into tens of thousands of pounds, with a threat that otherwise their products would face possible delisting.

A leading GSCOP expert said he had been contacted by at least half a dozen companies angry at being given a similar threat, suggesting the policy was widespread.

The Grocer spoke to one UK-based independent company who said they were “shocked and angry” at the actions of Amazon, which represented the company’s only UK-wide listing.

“Amazon contacted us with an ask of more than €50,000 to plug a profit gap, which they were given two days to respond to,” said the supplier.

“A subsequent video call with the account manager from the team in India resulted in very confrontational and hostile behaviour which they had to diffuse.

“We raised with her that it was a big ask, at which point she suggested they ‘make her an offer.’”

The Grocer has seen letters and similar demands sent to other suppliers, which Amazon claims were a “mistake” despite repeated approaches from different members of its company using identical tactics.

“We are writing in regards to recent profitability challenges with your account,” says the letter, adding: “The selection flagged below are uneconomical for Amazon to continue to sell in their current state. Without a change in ASIN (Amazon’s unique product code) economics, Amazon may not be able to continue to list this selection.

“If you are willing to evaluate an investment to provide Amazon with ad hoc support of xxx [more than €50,000, The Grocer has withheld the exact figure for confidentiality], reduce the cost price(s), the positive impact would support product sales and attractive product conditions for customers.

“We would appreciate if you could please review the above proposal and respond within the next two business days.”

The provider said within days of receiving the demand Amazon sent a round robin email stressing the importance of GSCOP, and how it was determined to “build a better experience” with its suppliers.

An Amazon spokesperson told The Grocer: “Amazon takes the groceries code very seriously and they strive to ensure they meet their obligations at all times.

“We are aware some grocery suppliers received a notification in error, and they are working to reassure them of their commitments under the GSCOP principles.

“We encourage any grocery suppliers who received this notification to contact Amazon’s code compliance officer.”

amazon delivery vans

Yet the incidents are just the latest controversy surrounding Amazon’s treatment of suppliers.

Amazon was added to the list of grocery retailers policed by the Groceries Code Adjudicator in March last year. It had a history of using short notice delists and its notorious CRAP (‘cannot realise a profit’) algorithm, which often delisted suppliers at short notice.

In January Amazon told The Grocer it had introduced major changes to its procedures, including a new commitment to provide “reasonable written notice” when products are red-flagged by its system.

However, in June Amazon came bottom of the GCA table on its annual poll of suppliers’ views on code compliance, with what was described by experts as a “shocking“ record.

Nearly 12% of suppliers who responded said Amazon “never” complied with the code, while a further 30% said it rarely did.

Its overall score of less than 60% compliance compared with an average of 77% among supermarkets when the survey began in 2014, since when there have been major improvements by supermarkets across the board.

At the time, Adjudicator Mark White said there was “no excuse” for Amazon’s poor showing and said he was willing to use “everything in his power” to ensure it improved its dealings with suppliers.

The new accusations have echoes of the GCA probe into Morrisons in 2015, when the Adjudicator trawled through 66,000 emails after suppliers reported a flood of demands from the supermarket for lump sum payments to boost its profits. Whilst Morrisons escaped a major fine, it was forced to issue an apology to suppliers and committed to new training, with the Adjudicator releasing new guidance warning against further instances.

“This behaviour from Amazon is exactly the same sort of activity as Morrisons carried out back then,” said Ged Futter, GSCOP expert and founder of The Retail Mind.

“I have been contacted by half a dozen suppliers who have all received this letter, from across a wide range of different sectors of the food and drink market. The only thing that differs is the name of the person writing it and the amount of money they are after.

“This is a blatant attempt by Amazon to exact retrospective lump sum payments from suppliers to increase their profitability, and it drives a coach and horse through GSCOP, which quite clearly does not allow retailers to demand such retrospective payments.

“The money is for nothing other than to fill a hole in Amazon’s P&L. I would assume they are doing this on a global scale – doing it outside of the UK is not an issue legally but the UK is clearly governed by GSCOP.”


Amazon rainforest in Brazil – statistics & facts

A vanishing rainforest The Legal Amazon area is a political region created in 1953 to protect the Amazon's natural resources as well as promote economic development, and comprises the territory of nine Brazilian states. Nevertheless, since the beginning of the century, the Brazilian Amazon’s deforested area has added up to an accumulated 280 thousand square kilometers, an area roughly the size of Ecuador. In 2022 alone, more than 11 thousand square kilometers were affected, the second-highest figure recorded since 2009. Approximately 16 percent of the Legal Amazon’s soil coverage corresponded to deforested areas.

Agriculture and farming are among the main hazards for the survival of the rainforest. In fact, the area cultivated with crops in the Legal Amazon has nearly tripled between 2000 and 2020. Wildfires − which partially derive from natural causes and partially for the expansion of cultivation areas − have also become a main cause of damage suffered by the Amazon ecosystem in recent years. In 2022, over 145 thousand wildfires outbreaks were detected in the Legal Amazon alone. The Amazon biome accounted for the majority of outbreaks in Brazil, representing more than 57 percent of the wildfires identified throughout the national territory. Illegal logging, a reduced government budget for regulatory agencies, and relaxed enforcement of environment protection legislation are also factors commonly highlighted as aggravators of the Amazon forest's degradation.

How does the Amazon’s degradation impact climate change? The Amazon rainforest has long been regarded a vital resource in the mitigation of global climate change, with its extensive tree cover historically acting as a net carbon sink. However, at the current rate of degradation, this balance may be closer than ever to a tipping point. Annual greenhouse gas emissions from the Legal Amazon have continually increased in the past decade, averaging above one billion metric tons of CO₂ equivalent since 2019. Changes in land cover −for example due to deforestation and wildfires − were by far the main source of emissions in the area. With the Amazon’s carbon emissions approaching its removal capacity, the rainforest’s days as the world’s lungs may be numbered.

This text provides general information. Statista assumes no liability for the information given being complete or correct. Due to varying update cycles, statistics can display more up-to-date data than referenced in the text.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug