Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

Wo erhalte ich vollständige Informationen über EADA105?

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Esri EADA105 : ArcGIS Desktop Associate 10.5 ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : EADA105
Exam Name : ArcGIS Desktop Associate 10.5
Vendor Name : Esri
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EADA105 test Format | EADA105 Course Contents | EADA105 Course Outline | EADA105 test Syllabus | EADA105 test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The EADA105 ArcGIS Desktop Associate 10.5 test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of candidates in using ArcGIS Desktop software for spatial data analysis and mapping tasks. This test is part of the Esri Technical Certification program. Here are the test details for the EADA105 certification:

- Number of Questions: The exact number of questions may vary, but the test typically consists of multiple-choice questions, hands-on exercises, and scenario-based questions.

- Time Limit: The time allotted to complete the test is 2 hours.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the EADA105 ArcGIS Desktop Associate 10.5 certification covers various courses related to ArcGIS Desktop software and its usage for spatial data analysis and mapping. The courses typically included in the course outline are as follows:

1. ArcGIS Desktop Fundamentals:
- Understanding the basic concepts of GIS (Geographic Information System).
- Introduction to ArcGIS Desktop software and its components.
- Exploring the ArcMap and ArcCatalog interfaces.

2. Working with Spatial Data:
- Data formats and sources used in ArcGIS Desktop.
- Importing, exporting, and managing spatial data layers.
- Georeferencing and projections.

3. Data Analysis and Visualization:
- Performing spatial analysis tasks, such as buffering, overlay, and spatial joins.
- Symbolizing and labeling features for effective visualization.
- Creating thematic maps and charts.

4. Geoprocessing and ModelBuilder:
- Understanding geoprocessing tools and their applications.
- Automating workflows using ModelBuilder.
- Performing spatial analysis using geoprocessing tools.

5. Data Editing and Data Management:
- Editing spatial and attribute data in ArcMap.
- Data quality test and cleaning.
- Geodatabase management and versioning.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the EADA105 ArcGIS Desktop Associate 10.5 test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of basic GIS concepts and ArcGIS Desktop software.
- Evaluating candidates' proficiency in working with spatial data, including importing, exporting, and managing data layers.
- Testing candidates' ability to perform spatial analysis tasks using ArcGIS tools and techniques.
- Assessing candidates' knowledge of data visualization and cartographic principles.
- Evaluating candidates' skills in geoprocessing, model building, and data editing.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the EADA105 ArcGIS Desktop Associate 10.5 certification may cover the following topics:

1. ArcGIS Desktop Fundamentals:
- Overview of GIS and ArcGIS Desktop software.
- Introduction to ArcMap and ArcCatalog interfaces.

2. Working with Spatial Data:
- Data formats and sources used in ArcGIS.
- Importing and exporting spatial data.
- Georeferencing and projections.

3. Data Analysis and Visualization:
- Spatial analysis tasks (buffering, overlay, spatial joins).
- Symbolization and labeling for visualization.
- Thematic mapping and charting.

4. Geoprocessing and ModelBuilder:
- Geoprocessing tools and their applications.
- Building models using ModelBuilder.
- Spatial analysis using geoprocessing tools.

5. Data Editing and Data Management:
- Editing spatial and attribute data.
- Data quality test and cleaning.
- Geodatabase management and versioning.

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The Best Desktop Computers for 2024

The Best Desktop Computer Deals This Week*

*Deals are selected by their commerce team

Snazzy, innovative laptop designs are constantly evolving. Smartphones are ubiquitous and astonishingly capable. So where does that leave that '80s relic, the desktop PC? You can still find plenty for sale, and innovation never stops in the desktop market, especially among small-form-factor and all-in-one models. But many shoppers seem to consider desktops an anachronism, heading straight to the laptop aisle for their next computer purchase.

That's not always the right move. Desktops aren't facing extinction, and they're doing anything but standing still. For consumers and businesses alike, these are the most cost-effective and customizable desktop computers for 2023, as shown by their favorite examples from accurate reviews. Check them out, then read on to learn everything you need to know about finding the best desktop for you.

Deeper Dive: Their Top Tested Picks

Acer Aspire TC-1760-UA92 Best Budget Tower for Most Buyers Why They Picked It

With a 12th Generation Intel Core i5 processor inside paired with 12GB of memory and a 512GB SSD, Acer’s Aspire TC-1760-UA92 stands above every budget tower we’ve recently tested. For a decent starting price, you’re getting quite a lot of power, as well as more space and capacity for upgrades than their previous Editors’ Choice pick.

Who It’s For

If you’re buying for your family or household and are looking to save as much as possible while still getting a reliably performant product, stop your search here. With a decent array of components that's better than what we've seen from most budget PCs we’ve come across, this Acer should serve you well for years to come.


  • Peppy everyday performance
  • Wi-Fi 6 and Bluetooth 5.2
  • Supports two HDMI monitors
  • 512GB storage
  • Built-in DVD burner

    Name Value Desktop Class Mainstream Processor Intel Core i5-12400 Processor Speed 2.5 GHz RAM (as Tested) 12 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 512 GB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive DVD+/-RW All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Intel UHD Graphics 730 Operating System Windows 11 Home Dell XPS Desktop (8960) Best Mainstream or High-End Desktop for Most Buyers Why They Picked It

    Dell continues to hold its position as a top dog of desktops, thanks to the stellar XPS Desktop 8960 for 2023. Configured for review in a high-end setup with more affordable configurations coming soon, this XPS Desktop tore through just about every task they threw at it, all while holding PC gaming-ready power inside its stealthy black chassis.

    Who It’s For

    If you're in need of a high-end desktop for more than just gaming, then stop your search at the latest Dell XPS Desktop. Not only is it ready for just about any task you can imagine, but its case also leaves room for a decent amount of upgrades as well as ample port selection.


  • Gaming desktop power with office-ready looks
  • Ample port selection and Wi-Fi 6E
  • Decent upgrade potential
  • CONS

  • Proprietary power supply
  • No removable dust filters
  • High starting price (for now)

    Name Value Desktop Class Gaming Processor Intel Core i7-13700K Processor Speed 3.4 GHz RAM (as Tested) 32 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Nvidia GeForce RTX 4080 Operating System Windows 11 Home NZXT Player: One Best Budget Gaming Desktop Why They Picked It

    It's true: You can get a slick-looking gaming PC for narrowly more than $1,000, and the NZXT Player: One is proof. This Editors' Choice award-winning desktop brings stellar performance at 1080p resolutions and a neat glass window for showing off any additional lighting you might want to add. Additionally, it's covered by a two-year warranty, which is helpful peace of mind for cash-strapped buyers.

    Who It's For

    If you're hoping to get into PC gaming at the 1080p level or need an upgrade to keep current at that resolution, then NZXT's Player: One is a smart bet. For just more than a grand, you'll receive a sweet-looking rig with room for upgrades and expansions that's covered for two full years against hardware failure and other issues.


  • Excellent 1080p gaming performance
  • Custom-built quality
  • Standard two-year warranty
  • Includes Wi-Fi 6E
  • CONS

  • More expensive than mainstream towers
  • Needs more front ports
  • Limited storage

    Name Value Desktop Class Gaming Processor Intel Core i5-12400F Processor Speed 2.5 GHz RAM (as Tested) 16 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 500 GB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Nvidia GeForce RTX 3050 Operating System Windows 11 Home Alienware Aurora R16 Best Midrange Gaming Desktop Why They Picked It

    The Aurora R16 gaming desktop is a new phase for Alienware, leaving its more outlandish case designs behind for more sensible form factors. This new case, inside and out, allows for quieter operation, more speed, and wider appeal. It's also decently priced for what it offers, coming in with liquid cooling for less than $2,000.

    Who It’s For

    If you've been a fan of Alienware's plug-and-play experience or excellent RGB lighting systems and interfaces, but not so much its case designs, then this is the time to get in. While it's still less upgradable than most gaming PCs of its shape, size, and power, it's definitely the best pre-built rig right now for its performance, price, and presentation.


  • Effective performance for the price
  • Refreshing design
  • Whisper quiet
  • Broad connectivity selection
  • CONS

  • No budget models
  • Proprietary mainboard and power supply

    Name Value Desktop Class Gaming Processor Intel Core i7-13700F Processor Speed 2.1 GHz RAM (as Tested) 32 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type SSD Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Nvidia GeForce RTX 4070 Operating System Windows 11 Home Lenovo Legion Tower 7i Gen 8 Best High-End Gaming Desktop Why They Picked It

    Lenovo has crafted yet another no-nonsense gaming desktop in the Legion Tower 7i Gen 8, a gaming PC with the ease of use, appealing looks, and excellent power they look for in a high-end rig. Not only does this PC pack considerable graphics and processing potential, but it comes in a sleek, unassuming shell that doesn't immediately provide away your gamer status (if that's at all a concern for you).

    Who It's For

    If you're a well-to-do (but not quite money-is-no-object) PC gamer with an appetite for blistering frame rates or super-sharp resolutions, the Lenovo Legion Tower 7i Gen 8 will serve you well. For the price, this PC successfully delivers on performance in either aforementioned area while presenting in a quality case that's well-lit and runs quietly while gaming.


  • 4K-ready gaming
  • Readily upgradable
  • Quiet fans
  • Low-profile design with vibrant RGB lighting
  • CONS

  • No front USB-C ports
  • Not factory customizable

    Name Value Desktop Class Gaming Processor Intel Core i9-13900KF Processor Speed 3 GHz RAM (as Tested) 32 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Nvidia GeForce RTX 4080 Operating System Windows 11 Home Dell OptiPlex 5090 Tower Best Business Desktop Why They Picked It

    With the OptiPlex 5090, Dell crafted an affordable office (or remote working) desktop with a professional-grade Intel Core i5 processor including vPro security technology built in as well as plenty of room for future component upgrades or replacements. While the base configuration is a little bare, higher loadouts are where it's at, which make better use of the multiple USB and DisplayPort connections.

    Who It's For

    This OptiPlex 5090 business desktop is best suited for offices or remote working operations that are seeking longevity for their machines—down to replacing specific parts so as to avoid replacing them outright for as long as possible. On a related note, the standard three-year warranty should be deeply appealing to fleet managers.


  • Good value for an Intel Core i5 desktop, with loads of configurability
  • Intel vPro support
  • Multiple USB and DisplayPort connections
  • 260-watt power supply
  • Three-year base warranty
  • CONS

  • Base model has only 8GB RAM and 256GB SSD
  • No Wi-Fi or Bluetooth in base config

    Name Value Desktop Class Tower Processor Intel Core i5-11500 Processor Speed 2.7 GHz RAM (as Tested) 8 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 256 GB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Intel UHD Graphics 750 Operating System Windows 11 Pro Lenovo IdeaCentre AIO 3i Best Budget All-in-One Desktop Why They Picked It

    Lenovo’s sub-$500 IdeaCentre AIO makes a lot of right calls, producing suitable performance for its audience as well as some helpful features, like a webcam, disc drive, and four more USB ports. Of course, its price weighs heavily in their evaluation and recommendation, and with their test model's ample amount of RAM and storage, you certainly have value here.

    Who It's For

    While you can find better AIOs, price is—again—a chief consideration when looking at this desktop. If you need an affordable computer, peripherals included, for web browsing, working from home, and movie watching (maybe even from a DVD!), put the IdeaCentre AIO 3i on your shortlist. For extremely tight budgets, you cannot do much better.


  • Solid screen for the money
  • Bundled mouse and keyboard
  • Decent speakers
  • Plenty of ports
  • CONS

  • No USB-C ports
  • Lackluster CPU performance

    Name Value Desktop Class All-in-one Processor Intel Pentium Gold 7505 Processor Speed 2 GHz RAM (as Tested) 16 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive DVD+/-RW All-in-One Screen Size 22 inches All-in-One Screen Native Resolution 1920 by 1080 All-in-One Screen Type Non-Touch Screen Graphics Card Intel UHD Graphics Operating System Windows 11 Lenovo IdeaCentre AIO 5i Best All-in-One Desktop for Most Buyers Why They Picked It

    Of every all-in-one desktop we’ve tested in accurate memory, the Lenovo IdeaCentre AIO 5i is the best AIO today for most of you. It’s not outstanding at any particular task, but it reliably meets the needs of the average household. With a large 27-inch 1440p screen, it does well to replace most monitors more than a few years old, and you’ll find an excellent 1080p webcam above it. This isn’t a barn-burner on benchmarks, but it has lots of pep for its price.

    Who It's For

    If all you need is a relatively quick and easy home computer, this IdeaCentre should serve you well. It’s fully capable of regular home computing tasks, it’s equipped with a gorgeous display, and it includes a sharp camera for video calls. If you’re looking for a high-power AIO, this ain’t it (look more toward the HP Envy 34 All-in-One), but the Lenovo IdeaCentre AIO 5i is a no-brainer home PC for most people, at a midrange price.


  • High-resolution 27-inch display
  • Impressive performer for the price
  • 1080p webcam
  • CONS

  • 8GB of RAM is light for the price
  • Can be noisy under heavy loads
  • Not the most exciting design

    Name Value Desktop Class All-in-one Processor Intel Core i5-12500H Processor Speed RAM (as Tested) 8 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 512 GB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size 27 inches All-in-One Screen Native Resolution 2560 by 1440 All-in-One Screen Type IPS Graphics Card Intel UHD Graphics Operating System Windows 11 Home Apple iMac 24-Inch (2023, M3) Best High-End All-in-One Desktop Why They Picked It

    Breaking its hibernation at last, Apple updated its 24-inch iMac with the new M3 processor, bringing what it claims is the best-selling all-in-one overall into a new echelon of power. Not only is this new iMac more performant in general tasks, but it can run honest-to-goodness modern games, albeit not at its native display resolution, with impressive detail and smooth frame rates. The new 24-inch iMac is simply capable of a wider variety of jobs than its competition, especially with how far Apple's integrated graphics have come since its M1 processor, making it the best high-end AIO right now.

    Who It's For

    For self-employed creative professionals or high-level digital hobbyists, the iMac will serve you well—especially with the optional 10-core GPU and additional unified memory. The iMac is also ideal for Apple-fan families, allowing for the adults to get work done and connect with friends or extended family as well as letting the kids finish school assignments and play games—all using distinct profiles that are easy to switch between.


  • Impressive performance gains over M1 model
  • Honest-to-goodness modern gaming chops
  • Excellent webcam
  • High-end look with fun retro references
  • CONS

  • Short on ports
  • No keyboard backlighting
  • Steep prices for higher configurations

    Name Value Desktop Class All-in-one Processor Apple M3 Processor Speed RAM (as Tested) 24 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 2 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size 23.5 inches All-in-One Screen Native Resolution 4480 by 2520 All-in-One Screen Type Non-Touch Screen Graphics Card Apple M3 (10-core) Operating System Apple macOS Sonoma Apple Mac mini (2023, M2 Pro) Best Mainstream Mac Desktop Why They Picked It

    Apple’s 2023 Mac mini builds upon an already excellent platform, incorporating the M2 line of processors. At the high end, the M2 Pro proves competitive with the company's best from its M1 series. To get that level of performance from a system this size is impressive, once again earning the Mac mini their Editors’ Choice award for Mac desktops. Note: They tested the well-upgraded M2 Pro version, but we're primarily picking this as their Best Mainstream Mac Desktop of the moment with an eye on the base M2 (non-Pro) model, which is now cheaper ($599!) than the M1 model was when it launched in 2020.

    Who It’s For

    Apple's latest Mac mini actually serves quite a wide audience, from the budget-conscious Mac fan to, in its upgraded versions, those of you who use Macs professionally. It all depends upon how you configure your Mac mini before checkout. If you need a low-cost update to keep relevant with Apple's macOS platform, this is where to start.


  • Classic Mac mini design
  • Snappy performance in either configuration
  • Extra Thunderbolt ports with M2 Pro model
  • M2 Pro adds peak 8K-resolution, 240Hz-refresh-rate display options
  • CONS

  • Memory and storage are not upgradable (and upticks at time of purchase are pricey)
  • True value pricing only on lowest-end model
  • No accessories or peripherals included

    Name Value Desktop Class Small Form Factor (SFF) Processor Apple M2 Pro (12-core) Processor Speed RAM (as Tested) 16 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Apple M2 Pro (19-core) Operating System Apple macOS Ventura Apple Mac Studio (M2 Ultra, 2023) Best High-End Mac Desktop Why They Picked It

    As should be expected, the Mac Studio with Apple's latest M2 Ultra processor is the company's most powerful small-form-factor Mac desktop to date. In fact, it uses much of the same silicon and supporting hardware that the brand-new Mac Pro has, albeit in a far smaller case, which limits thermals as well as expansion comparatively. Regardless, their review unit tore through all of their benchmarks, proving to be well worth its steep but relatively competitive price, earning an Editors' Choice award.

    Who It's For

    If you use Macs for high-end multimedia or 3D asset manipulation and rendering, this is the Mac desktop you've probably been holding out for. While they weren't able to directly test many uses cases for the Mac Studio, such as machine learning performance, they did note promising accuracy between most their test results and many of Apple's M2 Ultra performance gains. If you don't necessarily need the huge expansion available in the Mac Pro, then save yourself tens of thousands with the Mac Studio.


  • Noticeable performance improvements across the board versus M1 Ultra version
  • Competitively priced among workstations
  • Updated to Wi-Fi 6E and Bluetooth 5.3
  • CONS

  • Accessories still sold separately
  • Internals are not user-upgradable after purchase

    Name Value Desktop Class Workstation Processor Apple M2 Ultra Processor Speed RAM (as Tested) 192 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 8 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Apple M2 Ultra (76-core) Operating System Apple macOS Ventura MSI Pro DP21 Best Mini Desktop Why They Picked It

    MSI’s Pro DP21 is the latest mini PC that we’ve reviewed to earn their Editors’ Choice award, in large part thanks to its fast performance, ample wired connectivity, and Wi-Fi 6 for a decent price. (That goes for individuals and fleet buyers alike.) Plus, this VESA-mountable desktop is surprisingly easy to upgrade, extending its shelf life considerably.

    Who It’s For

    While this isn’t the smallest mini PC, the MSI Pro DP21 makes up for that with its competitive power profile, easy access for upgrades, and compelling price. If your desk has precious little space to work with, but you need decent power and lots of ports, then this is an excellent place to end your search.


  • Compact, VESA-mountable design
  • Well-priced
  • Peppy Core i3 processor
  • Ample connectivity including Wi-Fi 6 and Bluetooth
  • Easily upgradable

    Name Value Desktop Class Business Processor Intel Core i3-12100 Processor Speed 3.3 GHz RAM (as Tested) 8 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 256 GB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Intel UHD Graphics 730 Operating System Windows 11 Home HP Z6 G5 Best High-End Workstation Desktop Why They Picked It

    While you'll naturally pay dearly for it, HP's Z6 G5 workstation is among the best we've tested this year. Its Intel Xeon processor and not one, not two, but three pro-grade Nvidia RTX graphics cards in their test model ensured an easy ride through the crunchiest data processing and high-end media tasks. Of course, this rig has the versatility to be set up with oodles of storage as well as additional networking equipment, not to mention several ISV certifications and hardware-level security.

    Who It's For

    If you're buying for a small business or large organization that works in complex computing fields such as high-end media creation, machine learning, or 3D rendering, definitely start your search with the HP Z6 G5. Because of its immense power, this workstation is capable of just about every job an office could throw at it, making it ideal for a vast array of workplaces.


  • Nearly unlimited performance and expandability
  • Available hot-swap drives
  • Lots of security features
  • Built-in carrying handles
  • CONS

  • Expensive at loaded configurations
  • Overkill for even most workstation tasks

    Name Value Desktop Class Workstation Processor Intel Xeon w9-3475X Processor Speed 2.2 GHz RAM (as Tested) 128 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type Hard Drive Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card 3x Nvidia RTX A6000 Operating System Windows 11 Pro for Workstations HP Z2 Mini G9 Best Compact Workstation Desktop Why They Picked It

    Miniaturized performance computers often lose something when going so small, but the Z2 Mini G9's caveats are few enough to overlook. HP's redone frame has the best access for upgrades and service we've seen from a workstation this small, most notably featuring a professional-grade graphics card. For that, it's easy to recommend the HP Z2 Mini G9 as the top compact workstation.

    Who It’s For

    With support for desktop-class (125-watt) Intel silicon, DDR5 memory (with error-correcting RAM if needed), and PCI Express Gen 4 storage, this Z2 Mini brings a lot of workstation-grade features to your space-strapped desk. For its size, we're also impressed by its broad connectivity. Naturally, expansion is a weak point, but if you know that going in, you're still getting lots of power out of a little bit of space, making this workstation ideal for especially small offices.


  • Compact VESA-compatible design
  • Impressive performance
  • Easily serviceable, even the graphics card
  • Ample connectivity
  • Modular I/O ports
  • CONS

  • Can get louder than expected
  • External power brick

    Name Value Desktop Class Workstation Processor Intel Core i9-12900K Processor Speed 3.2 GHz RAM (as Tested) 64 GB Boot Drive Type SSD Boot Drive Capacity (as Tested) 1 TB Secondary Drive Type Secondary Drive Capacity (as Tested) Optical Drive All-in-One Screen Size All-in-One Screen Native Resolution All-in-One Screen Type Graphics Card Nvidia RTX A2000 Operating System Windows 11 Pro

    Buying Guide: The Best Desktop Computers for 2024

    We've reviewed an impressive variety and capability of desktops above, right? They don't deny that a laptop or tablet is a better pick for people who depend on business travel, or whose computing consists mostly of basic surfing and typing from the living-room couch. But for small offices, families, creative pros, gamers, and tech tinkerers, desktops are often the best choice and the best value.

    Alienware Aurora R16

    (Credit: Joseph Maldonado)

    While desktops don't come in as many distinct form factors as laptops, you'll find lots of variation in computing power and room for upgrades and expansion. Let's dive into these, and a bunch of other important factors, as you prepare to buy your next desktop.

    How Much Should I Spend on a Desktop?

    One of the desktop's most alluring promises is the value it delivers. Your money simply goes further with desktop PCs and their components. Instead of buying a $700 laptop with a competent Intel Core i5 processor, you can get a $700 desktop with a more powerful Core i7 CPU in it, and maybe even squeeze in a dedicated graphics card.

    You can find complete mini PCs for super light work and display-signage tasks for under $300, and perfectly serviceable small towers for $300 to $600. Gaming desktops with dedicated graphics cards start at around $700. You can also find all-in-one desktops, with the display and all of the computing components built into a single device, starting at around $400.

    The thing with desktops is, opting for a cheap one does not carry some of the same risks you'd face with a like-priced laptop. A $250 Black Friday special or a steeply discounted refurbished desktop could perform just fine for basic computing, and you wouldn't need to worry about the wear and tear on cheap materials that you might with a laptop of a similar price. That inexpensive laptop would be subject to the vagaries of daily commuting and the occasional drop from a coffee table. The desktop, in contrast, would need to stay put and just work.

    The Acer Aspire TC-1760-UA92

    (Credit: Kyle Cobian)

    At the top end of the market are business workstations, tricked-out gaming rigs, and magnificently engineered all-in-one PCs that cost several thousand dollars. Not only will a $3,000 gaming tower provide immense computing power today, but it should come with so much room for expansion and potential for upgradability that its useful life will be far longer than any laptop's. And that's before you even delve into the wild world of custom PCs: automotive-grade paint jobs, liquid cooling, and fanciful lighting and wiring. 

    IT-manageable, security-conscious business desktops—most of them nowadays made by Dell, HP, and Lenovo—have their own pricing dynamic and tend to cost more, all else being equal. That's because of their premium warranty or support plans, as well as the possible addition of enterprise-specific silicon focused on manageability or security. Sometimes, part of the cost premium of business desktops reflects the PC maker’s certain that it will stock replacement components and upgrades for that line of machines for a fixed future period. That allows IT pros to count on the ability to continue servicing a fleet of a given business machine over that stretch of time. 

    Windows vs. Mac: Settle on an Operating System

    The Mac vs. PC debate is one of the oldest in modern technology, and we're not going to pick a side or try to settle that particular religious war here. But if you're not wedded to one or the other by years of habit (or the peripherals and software you own) and are open to switching, here's a quick rundown of your choices.

    Windows 11 is the latest iteration of Microsoft's operating system. Desktops that use it and previous versions of the OS are what most people typically rely on, so you'll be assured of the best compatibility and the widest selection of third-party software. Desktops running Windows are also readily available below $500, making them attractive to casual users, families looking for a second PC, and bargain hunters. 

    Mac versus Windows

    (Credit: Jose Ruiz)

    Macs are an excellent choice if you're already in an Apple-centric household, since macOS has seamless compatibility with iPads and iPhones, including the ability to send and receive messages on any device connected to your iCloud account. The cost of entry will be higher than with the least expensive PCs, however.

    Google's ChromeOS is a viable alternative to Windows and macOS, but desktops running it (called Chromeboxes) are rare and best suited to niche uses like powering a restaurant menu display. A fourth option is to buy a desktop with no operating system at all and install an open-source one of your choosing, such as Ubuntu Linux. They don't recommend going this route unless you're technically savvy, willing to experiment, and okay fixing software compatibility issues and other quirks.

    What Desktop Form Factor Do I Need?

    Macs and Windows PCs are available in all three of the major desktop form factors: mini PCs that can fit on a bookshelf, sleek all-in-ones with built-in (and usually high-resolution) displays, and traditional desktop towers that are bulky but have room for more or less easy expansion. These three forms each have strengths and weaknesses, and none of them is an obvious best choice for everyone. You'll have to choose based on what you plan to do with your desktop and where you plan to put it. 

    For truly cramped quarters or light workloads, as well as for people who love the efficient use of space, a mini PC could be the best choice. They come in sizes ranging from tiny sticks not much larger than a USB thumb drive to small-form-factor (SFF) towers that may be nearly a foot tall but have compact footprints. The smallest sizes have the benefit of disappearing behind an HDMI-equipped monitor or TV, and they contain a processor, memory, storage, and ports to hook up keyboards and mice. They're economical and power-efficient, and can serve as adequate web browsing or multimedia viewing platforms. But know that the models at the truly tiny end of the scale have no room for adding extra internal components, and their preinstalled parts are usually difficult or impossible to upgrade. 

    The MSI Pro DP21

    (Credit: Kyle Cobian)

    Regardless, you can find a fair mix of what qualify as mini PCs that can be customized or upgraded with better components. They're bigger than the "stick"-style PCs but much more flexible and expandable.

    Traditional tower desktops are capable of even more flexibility, but also bring a lot more bulk. Nowadays, the differences between midsize and full-size towers are less well-defined, and some of the new PC case designs—from cubes to glass boxes—defy easy categorization. Still, nearly all desktop towers have generous amounts of interior space and full-size (a.k.a. ATX) motherboards, so you can install one or more (sometimes, many more) secondary storage drives, more RAM in empty slots on the motherboard, a video card if one isn't installed, and in some remote cases, even a second graphics card for extreme gaming or graphics-accelerated tasks. (Note that not all desktop mini towers and towers can take a graphics upgrade. That is where reviews come in.)

    An all-in-one (AIO) desktop is quite a different animal from both of these form factors. An AIO can save you some space, since the display is built in. An AIO's value proposition comes down to space saving and whether you happen to be shopping for a desktop display at the same time. Though you can find budget AIOs with basic feature sets, lower resolutions, and non-touch screens, many new models include touch-enabled screens, and some AIO panels have exceptionally high native resolutions of 4K (3,840 by 2,160 pixels) or even 5K (5,120 by 2,880 pixels). Touch displays make them excellent choices for watching movies or serving as a multimedia hub in the kitchen or other public area of your home, though the absolute highest resolutions target content creators rather than consumers.

    Apple iMac 24-Inch (2023, M3)

    (Credit: Joseph Maldonado)

    With a few exceptions for business-oriented models, you will provide up a lot of room for expansion in an AIO versus traditional desktop tower. Cracking open an AIO for an upgrade or fix, while not impossible, is a bigger deal than opening the side of a desktop tower. Apple's late-model iMacs are particularly difficult to open.

    How Much Processing Power Is Enough?

    One of the main benefits of a desktop tower is that it will use a desktop-grade CPU. That may sound obvious, but it's a key distinction. 

    AMD and Intel, the two biggest makers of processors for PCs, provide desktop-class chips and laptop-class chips to system manufacturers, but often the CPU model names are similar and tricky to tell apart. For example, you will see Intel's Core i7 in both laptops and desktops, but having a "true" desktop CPU versus one made for a mobile device makes a big performance difference. 

    A desktop CPU gives you more power for complex content-creation work, PC gaming, or math and scientific projects. Faster processors with four, six, eight, or even as many as 18 cores will benefit software written to take advantage of the extra cores. The desktop version of a given CPU will consume more power and generate more heat than versions designed for laptops, which must be incorporated into environments that have less thermal and power-delivery leeway. A desktop CPU also has greater wiggle room to incorporate a key feature, multithreading, that allows each of the CPU's cores to address two processing threads at a time instead of just one. Multithreading (which Intel calls "Hyper-Threading") can deliver a major performance boost when engaged with suitably equipped software.

    Intel Core Processor

    (Credit: Michael Justin Allen Sexton)

    The absolute highest-end desktop chips may require liquid cooling systems, which limits their use to high-end towers with lots of interior space. Processors in these families are specialized and expensive, and you’ll only want them if you have specific software needs that you know, explicitly, can leverage their higher base and peak clock rates, as well as all of their addressable cores and threads. These are not casual purchases.

    Many AIOs and mini PCs, conversely, use the same efficient, cooler-running types of CPUs that you'll find in laptops. Intel typically labels these mobile-first chip designs with a CPU name containing "U" or "H," whereas most desktop chips instead have a "T" or a "K," or just a zero at the end. A mobile CPU might have the same number of processor cores as its desktop counterpart (four- and six-core chips are common in both), but its maximum power consumption will often be far lower. Also, the typical base and boost clock speeds may be lower, and the chip may not support multithreading. Regardless, many desktop PC buyers will be fine with these lower-powered CPUs for everyday work, and a little more. 

    AMD Ryzen Processor

    (Credit: Michael Justin Allen Sexton)

    For a typical tower using a true desktop-grade CPU, mainstream users should look for an Intel Core i5 or AMD Ryzen 5; the Core i7 and Ryzen 7 are also excellent, powerful choices, but overkill for most folks who aren’t serious PC gamers, intensive multitaskers, or prosumer or pro video or image manipulators. If CPU power is critically important, though, these should suffice. The Core i9, Ryzen 9, Ryzen Threadripper, and Core X-Series are worthwhile only if you know your workflow is being held back by too few cores or threads, or you have extreme needs in terms of internal storage (for which the Threadripper and Core X can help with internal resources). Again, see their deep-dive on desktop CPUs to understand the nuances of these higher-end choices.

    Do I Need a Powerful Graphics Card?

    All computers have a CPU, but most laptops and many cheaper desktops don't have a dedicated graphics processor, or GPU. Instead, their display output comes from a portion of the CPU, a slice of silicon known as an integrated graphics processor (IGP). An IGP is fine for basic tasks, such as checking your email, browsing the web, or even streaming videos. Doing productivity work on an IGP is completely within bounds. Indeed, most business desktops rely on IGPs.

    The Nvidia GeForce RTX 4090

    (Credit: Michael Justin Allen Sexton)

    In any case, an IGP is not the answer for anyone who wants to run intensive 3D games, render architectural simulations, or perhaps train an artificial intelligence algorithm. These situations—especially games, but often pro-grade apps, too—can benefit from more muscular graphics. Times like these call for a graphics card, which will bring its own GPU to the game, and the most powerful of these are found in desktop PCs. 

    The AMD Radeon RX 7900 XTX

    (Credit: Michael Justin Allen Sexton)

    Choosing a graphics card is a complex affair. Gamers should consider the capabilities of their monitor first. A 4K monitor or one with a high refresh rate (144Hz or greater) will require a profoundly powerful GPU (or occasionally even two GPUs) to display games at the monitor's maximum potential. If you're just looking to do some middle-of-the-road gaming on a 1080p monitor (and not looking to win any professional esports crowns), a mainstream card will do just fine.

    Meanwhile, creative professionals and other power users should consider the graphics-acceleration recommendations of the apps they plan to run, using the software maker's system requirements as a guide. Graphics-accelerated video rendering or AI programs can benefit from the same types of GPUs as intensive 3D games. Professionals eyeing workstations will want to consider Nvidia's RTX A series lineup or AMD's Radeon Pro models. Check out their deep-dive guide to graphics cards for much, much more on the nuances of today's video cards.

    How Much Storage and Memory Should My Desktop Have?

    While powerful CPUs and GPUs are mostly relegated to desktop towers, nearly every desktop form factor can handle copious amounts of storage and memory. This is thanks to the advent of higher-capacity memory modules and especially solid-state drives (SSDs). The latter take up vastly less space than the spinning hard drives of old. 

    It's still possible to find desktops with only spinning hard drives, but they recommend avoiding these and choosing an SSD as the main boot drive whenever possible. Some desktops feature a single-drive combination of an SSD and a hard drive. A "true" SSD is really the only way to go as a boot drive today, though, considering how far prices have dropped in the last couple of years. 

    A single 500GB or 512GB SSD is fine for most users. A 250GB or 256GB SSD is also a common size for a boot drive these days, but it's a little tight if you store much locally. Anyone with large media and game collections will want to consider several terabytes of storage across multiple drives. Consider choosing a fast SSD as the boot drive, and one or more large-capacity but slower hard drives for bulk storage of capacity-sapping video or games.  A typical configuration in this case is one 512GB SSD and one or more hard drives with at least 1TB of space on each. Such a setup can be more affordable than you might think—an SSD plus one hard drive is sometimes seen on under-$1,000 desktop towers. 

    Samsung 2.5-inch SSD

    (Credit: Chris Stobing)

    If you think you'll add storage later, consider how many expansion bays your desktop has. A combination of two or more 2.5-inch or 3.5-inch bays should be enough, as these can accommodate any type of traditional SSD or hard drive. You'll also want to ensure your desktop has at least one M.2 slot to accept a PCI Express SSD as the main boot drive, since that will enable the fastest throughput speeds. In most new systems, the boot drive will come as an M.2 drive. These drives are quite small, the size and thickness of a stick of gum.

    Samsung M.2 SSD

    (Credit: Chris Stobing)

    While a desktop's SSD stores your data, its system memory (or RAM) works with the CPU to run apps and helps define its capacity to multitask. Memory capacities of 8GB or 16GB are fine for most users, and these are the most common configurations on entry-level or midrange desktops of all forms and sizes. 

    Few people will see much benefit from memory amounts above 16GB, but you'll find exceptions. Gaming PCs above the budget level should have at least 16GB of RAM, and 32GB is a prudent upgrade for esports hounds who want to play and simultaneously edit and stream in-game footage.

    Finally, assuming your professional software can address higher memory amounts, professional workstations should have at least 32GB of memory with error-correcting code (ECC) capabilities to keep everything running smoothly. You'll want to follow the guidance of the software maker, in that case.

    What Wired and Wireless Connectivity Does My PC Need?

    You might be able to excuse a relative lack of input and output ports on a sleek AIO. The screen and speakers are built in, and you'll likely use a wireless keyboard and mouse, anyway. But mini PCs and desktop towers need the right selection of ports. At a minimum, they'll have to connect to a display, speakers or headphones, and a power source.

    On all but the absolute tiniest mini PCs, you should look for at least three USB 3.0 (or higher) ports, at least one of which should be the newer, oval-shaped Type-C variety if you have any compatible peripherals that plug directly into that kind of port. Future-proofers will want to seek out USB4 or Thunderbolt 4 options, which both use the Type-C standard with increased speeds and bandwidth.

    You'll also typically find an HDMI output (and perhaps another video output or two, such as DisplayPort or VGA), a 3.5mm audio jack, a connector for an external Wi-Fi antenna, and a receptacle for a physical lock. Note that some mini PCs use scaled-down "mini" versions of HDMI or DisplayPort, which require a different kind of input cable or a dongle. Make sure the machine's video outputs are compatible with your display and its cabling.

    MSI Pro DP21

    (Credit: Kyle Cobian)

    Larger tower PCs will have many more ports, providing support for pretty much any peripheral you need to connect. Expect six or more USB ports, for starters. On larger towers, one or two of these should support Thunderbolt over USB-C. Also a given: an Ethernet jack for wired networking, and multiple DisplayPort and HDMI jacks on the dedicated GPU for connecting one or more external monitors. Note that a tower with a graphics card may also have video outputs that stem from the motherboard, but you should only use the video outputs on the GPU. 

    Lenovo Legion Tower 7i Gen 8

    (Credit: Molly Flores)

    Many towers will also have multiple audio ports, including possibly an optical output and ports for individual speaker channels in a surround-sound setup. Make sure that these match up with any gear you may have; the number of surround-sound jacks can vary depending on the PC and its motherboard. Note that Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity, while reliably present on even the cheapest laptops and many smaller desktops, is not a given on larger towers.

    High-end workstations and gaming desktops sometimes have a second Ethernet port for doubling network bandwidth or for always-connected redundancy, while business desktops sometimes include legacy connectors such as VGA video outputs, PS/2 peripheral ports, or serial ports. The throwback-style ports are included for people who still need to use them with older, specialized hardware such as point-of-sale scanners or industrial equipment. Of course, you can buy dongles and adapters for these special port needs, but the possibility of having them built in is a key benefit of choosing a desktop over a laptop.

    When evaluating a desktop, beyond looking at what ports are present, also evaluate where they are. Are they easily accessible? Towers tend to have a few commonly used ports on the top or front (usually a headphone jack and few USB ports). Some AIOs, in contrast, have some of their key ports hidden behind the stand, in hard-to-reach places. 

    Screen Size, Expansion Bays, and More

    Some buying concerns, no less crucial than the ones above, apply only to certain types of desktops. Deciding on a screen size and type is critical for AIO shoppers, for instance. A touch-enabled display with support for in-plane switching (IPS) to widen viewing angles is welcome for an AIO that serves as the family's calendar or photo album, but know that touch support is not currently available on Apple's iMacs. 

    Give some deep thought to the screen resolution, whatever the panel size. A 4K or even 5K resolution makes for a breathtaking screen, especially one that's 27 inches or larger, but such resolutions often add significantly to the price. As a result, you may want to settle for a screen with a full HD or 1080p (1,920-by-1,080-pixel) native resolution and spend money to upgrade other components instead.

    Also look for multiple cameras, one facing the rear, that could make an AIO a smart choice, say, for an ID-card printing station. Fan noise is also a consideration with AIOs, since their computing components will be on your desk instead of hidden underneath it.

    Desktop towers have many of their own idiosyncrasies. Enthusiasts who like to tinker with components but aren't interested in building their own PCs from scratch will need to pay special attention to the number and type of expansion bays and how easy it is to access power and data cables.

    Lenovo ThinkStation P620 internal drive bays

    (Credit: Molly Flores)

    They should also check the maximum wattage rating of the power supply unit (PSU) and whether the case has the clearance for bigger coolers (or the mounting points for liquid cooling gear), if they might plan to add a more powerful CPU later on. A low-wattage PSU, such as a 300-watt model used in a desktop with integrated graphics, might preclude adding a graphics card later on without upgrading the PSU, too. Note also, that some ultra-budget desktop PCs use low-wattage, custom-design PSUs that can't support a graphics card and also aren't easy to upgrade, due to their use of nonstandard connectors on the motherboard side. Again, this is where a careful reading of reviews comes in.

    PC Power Supply

    (Credit: Michael Justin Allen Sexton)

    Desktop towers and mini PCs also require separate speakers or headphones to deliver audio. If you don’t already have them, you'll have to spend extra money to buy some, and in the case of dedicated speakers, they'll take up room on your desk. For people who don't care as much about audio quality and just want loud enough audio to hear family members on the other end of a Skype call, the built-in speakers of an AIO should work just fine.

    When Is the Best Time to Buy a Desktop?

    For most people in the market for an inexpensive desktop tower, you won't find a single best time to buy. While traditional sale holidays such as Black Friday can net you the odd bargain, when you find a system whose features, price, and performance match what you're looking for, take it home. 

    However, people who need copious amounts of CPU or GPU muscle (and who have a clear idea of what hardware moves the performance needle with the apps they use) should pay attention to PC-component release cycles. Traditionally, Intel has announced new desktop CPU generations once a year, with the new chips showing up in PCs in the fall or early in the holiday shopping period. (This has shown more variance in accurate years.) 

    New graphics-card releases are less frequent and depend on the vagaries of technical advances—Nvidia's highly successful GeForce GTX 1000 series, for example, was the cutting edge for several years before the first GeForce RTX cards were announced.

    Dell XPS Desktop (8960)

    (Credit: Molly Flores)

    Keeping track of PC-component release cycles helps you become aware of what's new before you buy, and also what is going off-market. For shoppers seeking maximum value or on a tight budget, getting a desktop based on a discounted last-generation (but still powerful) CPU or GPU can be the way to go.

    Shoppers looking for an all-in-one PC, meanwhile, should pay attention to announcements from Apple. Many other manufacturers end up copying—and, sometimes, improving upon—the field-leading designs of the Apple iMac.

    Where Should I Buy a Desktop?

    Since you won’t be lugging a desktop around nearly as much as you would a laptop, it’s less important to handle the chassis and test-drive its build quality in the store before you bring it home. Still, if the desktop comes with peripherals included, it can be helpful to type a few lines and move the mouse around in the store. And setting eyes on an all-in-one desktop is more crucial than with a typical tower desktop or mini PC. The screen is an integral part of what you are buying, and eyes-on time matters, especially if you’re not well-versed, say, in the differences between a 24-inch and 27-inch panel, or a 1080p screen versus a 4K one. 

    If you limit yourself only to the selection at your local electronics outlet, though, you’ll miss out on many excellent desktops. In fact, some configurations can be exclusive to a single reseller, such as Best Buy, Costco, or Walmart. Other merchants, such as Micro Center, frequently have in-store-only deals that aren't available anywhere online.

    Giant Gaming Desktop

    (Credit: Joseph Maldonado)

    This is where return policies come in handy. If you find a desktop with your ideal specifications online but can't audition it locally, a seller with a liberal return policy is your best friend. Just make sure you've got adequate time to return it, if it ends up not working out.

    How Long a Warranty Does My Desktop Need?

    Most desktop makers provide one-year warranties on parts and labor, with extensions available for as many as five years at an additional charge. Before you pay to extend the warranty, though, check your credit-card account benefits guide—your issuer might cover mishaps for a short period of time after you buy a new product, and possibly extend the manufacturer's warranty, too. (Many MasterCard accounts include a doubling of the standard warranty period, up to one year, for example.)

    If your card issuer doesn’t cover you, and you plan on keeping your desktop for several years, look into the cost of added coverage. Some manufacturers and resellers have wide ranges of extended warranties; expect to spend $100 to $300 for one of these options. Their rule of thumb is that if a warranty costs more than 15% of the desktop’s purchase price, you're better off spending the money on backup drives or services that minimize downtime and protect precious data that you can't replace.

    Should I Buy a Refurbished Desktop?

    Many people considering desktops in the $200-to-$500 range should also consider a refurbished machine. They can be excellent values in certain circumstances. 

    Large corporations lease fleets of desktops for a few years at a time, after which third parties refurbish them and provide them for resale on eBay, as well as via retailers such as Best Buy, Newegg, and TigerDirect. To find them, search or filter the product category pages for "off-lease" or refurbished systems. 

    These refurbished PCs are often surprisingly cheap ($150 to $250 is common), and many are desktop towers, so they're easy to upgrade or service if a component goes south. They do come with drawbacks. Their components are usually several years behind the cutting edge, they may be in imperfect cosmetic condition (some refurbishers grade condition on an A-B-C scale), and different refurbishers can have varying levels of attention to detail.

    Still, if you're looking for a cheap desktop to stow in a cabinet or under a desk, used just to check your email and calendar, refurbs can be a fine option. Just be sure to buy from a seller with a reasonable return policy in case you get a dud.

    So, Which Desktop Is the Best One to Buy?

    Armed with all of the knowledge and decision points above, you're almost ready to shop. The final consideration is how well a desktop PC performs. They review hundreds of PCs every year, evaluating their features and testing their performance against peers in their respective categories. That way, you'll know which are best suited for gaming, which is their favorite general-purpose all-in-one, and which is the best if all you need is a small, powerful system you can get up and running quickly.

    Our current favorite desktops are below. Not finding anything that looks decent? Check out the full feed of all of their latest desktop reviews, as well as their narrower-focused guides to their favorite all-in-one PCs, business desktops, and gaming desktops.

    Ozempic could help curb alcohol abuse, study reveals

    The latest weight loss craze could also help people control their drinking.

    Semaglutide treatments such as Ozempic and Wegovy have been shown to reduce the symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to a study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry on Nov. 27.

    The collaborative study from The University of Oklahoma (OU) and Oklahoma State University (OSU) found a “significant and noteworthy decrease” in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of six patients who were receiving semaglutide treatment for weight loss.

    Lead study author Dr. Jesse Richards, director of obesity medicine and assistant professor of medicine at the OU-TU School of Community Medicine, said the study was inspired by his conversation with Dr. Kyle Simmons, professor of pharmacology and physiology at the OSU Center for Health Sciences.

    “I had been hearing from a significant number of patients that their alcohol intake was spontaneously decreasing while [they were] on the medication,” Richards told Fox News Digital.

    As a bariatric surgery clinic employee, Richards noted that it’s standard to screen patients for alcohol use.

    Studies found that there was a decrease in Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores for six patients receiving weight-loss treatments. AP

    At the clinic, a number of patients tested positive for alcohol consumption, sometimes in concerning amounts.

    Later, while on semaglutide medication, they reported reduced alcohol intake.

    One of Richards’ patients — who previously drank large amounts of alcohol — shared a new inability to drink more than two cans of beer now because it “just doesn’t sound good.”

    After semaglutide medication, a patient who formerly drank beer regularly began to think that alcohol just didn’t “sound good.” Getty Images

    This response piqued Richards’ interest in learning more about patients’ aversion to alcohol, which directly correlated to his research.

    Research has shown that this effect is “mediated through adjustments in the reward pathway in the brain,” he said.

    “The GLP-1s are actually modifying dopamine, decreasing the craving and decreasing the motivation to acquire things in that compulsive intake category.”

    The most surprising takeaway from the study, Richards said, was that the same significant treatment response was seen even at very low doses.

    “We found that even patients on the lowest dose of semaglutide — a quarter milligram — had a quite significant and relatively … quick onset reduction in alcohol intake,” he said.

    Of the six patients studied, all but one were on low doses — from a quarter to a half milligram.

    “And that’s very encouraging because they know that the lower doses of these medications are tolerated much better,” said Richards.

    While the results seem promising, the doctor said he does not recommend that patients use semaglutide treatments for alcohol use disorder at this time, due to supply and safety issues.

    “If patients have [obesity and diabetes] indications for the medication and they also struggle with alcohol intake … having them on this treatment may potentially be beneficial,” Richards said.

    Due to medication shortages and a lack of long-term data, it may not be advisable to take Ozempic to target alcoholism specifically. NurPhoto via Getty Images

    “But because there has been a global medication shortage, and because they don’t have prospective trials and don’t know what the specific safety is versus the well-established safety data in obesity and diabetes, [I] would not recommend it just for patients who have AUD.”

    There are three FDA-approved drugs available for alcoholic use disorder that are currently underused, the doctor noted.

    Given that five million people in the U.S. are currently taking semaglutide medications, if it is proven that those drugs have a significant effect on alcohol use disorder, “by default, they are going to become the most widely used drug to Excellerate these symptoms — just by virtue of the fact that so many people are on them for diabetes or obesity,” Richards noted.

    Trials are underway to gather more information on the weight-loss medication and its effect on alcohol intake. UCG/Universal Images Group via G

    He confirmed that additional research is underway with two ongoing trials.

    “Since they were able to show clinically meaningful reductions in alcohol intake and AUD symptomatology in a real-world setting, that bodes very well for these types of medications,” he said.

    Looking ahead, Richard said there is a need for higher-quality evidence of the medication’s impact on AUD compared to placebo drugs or environmental factors.

    People struggling with alcohol use should speak with their healthcare provider. Getty Images

    Even though it’s unclear whether GLP-1 producers will market the medication to AUD patients in the future, Richards said this could become an “established medical practice once the safety and efficacy has been determined.”

    For patients who struggle with AUD, Richards recommended they talk to their health care providers about available treatment.

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    He also alerted patients that if they experience a reduced appetite and usually consume “a bunch of calories” in alcohol, it may be necessary to look into a more balanced diet.

    Avantika Waring, 9amHealth’s chief medical officer and a trained physician and endocrinologist in San Francisco, applauded the OU and OSU study findings for further supporting what clinicians “are already seeing in practice,” she told Fox News Digital.

    “GLP-1 medications have a lot of effects that they are still learning about, and the ability to decrease cravings and the reward signals related to alcohol use are just some of the benefits,” she said.

    “It’s an important starting point for further clinical trials,” she added.

    Waring also warned that GLP-1 medications should not be used to treat AUD specifically, as they can cause side effects such as nausea and changes in appetite.

    “People struggling with alcohol use disorder should consult with their physicians before starting GLP-1 medications to make sure that they can stay hydrated and safe on therapy,” she said.

    Waring noted that if ongoing clinical trials find semaglutide treatments to be effective for AUD, the medical community will “have another tool to help people living with alcohol addiction and we’ll see expanded use of these already popular drugs.”

    Fox News Digital reached out to Novo Nordisk for comment on the potential link between semaglutide medications and alcohol use disorder.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug