Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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AICPA FAR : CPA Financial Accounting and Reporting exam Dumps

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Exam Number : FAR
Exam Name : CPA Financial Accounting and Reporting
Vendor Name : AICPA
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FAR exam Format | FAR Course Contents | FAR Course Outline | FAR exam Syllabus | FAR exam Objectives


Within the Blueprints, you will find the following information for each exam section:
Content organized by Area, Group and syllabu along with score weighting
Sample task statements that represent what you may be asked to do when testing
Skill levels at which tasks are tested
Reference materials that support the demo task statements
Number of item types you must complete (multiple-choice questions, task-based simulations and written communication tasks)
Score weighting of each item type

Content area allocation Weight
I. Conceptual Framework, Standard-Setting and Financial Reporting 25–35%
II. Select Financial Statement Accounts 30–40%
III. Select Transactions 20–30%
IV. State and Local Governments 5–15%

Each exam section is delivered in five smaller sections called testlets. Each testlet features different item types (see below) used to test your knowledge and skills. To learn more about how each section is organized, including when you can take a break, review the CPA exam structure.

Exam Item Types
You will be tested during the CPA exam using three types of test items that appear within specific testlets in each section.

Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ)
The multiple-choice portions are presented in the first two testlets of each exam section.

Task-Based Simulations (TBS)
Task-based simulations are condensed case studies that test accounting knowledge and skills using real life, work-related situations. All task-based simulations are intended to assess knowledge and skills that are appropriate for an entry-level accountant. There are three TBS testlets in the AUD, FAR and REG sections, and two TBS testlets in the BEC section.

Written Communication Tasks
Written communication tasks appear only in the BEC section of the CPA Exam. For each of three written communication tasks, you must read a scenario and then write an appropriate document relating to the scenario. The instructions state what form the document should take (such as a memo or letter) and its focus. Your response should provide the correct information in writing that is clear, complete and professional.

Each of the four exam sections is broken down into five smaller sections called testlets. These testlets feature multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and task-based simulations (TBSs). In the case of BEC, you also have to complete three written communication tasks. The number of MCQs and TBSs tested varies depending upon the specific section taken. You will receive at least one research question (research-oriented TBS) in the AUD, FAR and REG sections. To complete them, you will have to search the related authoritative literature and find an appropriate reference.

cpa-exam-sections
Breaks
During each exam section, you will be offered a 15-minute break after the first TBS testlet. This is about midway through the section (two hours). You may accept this break and pause the exam timer or you may continue testing. To accept the break, click the “Take a Break” button. During this break, you must leave the testing room and follow all Prometric security rules. The exam timer will restart when the 15-minute break ends.

In addition to the 15-minute break, you may also take optional breaks after all other testlets but you cannot pause the exam timer. The timer will continue to run.

The Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR) section of the Uniform CPA Exam (the Exam) assesses the knowledge and skills that a newly licensed CPA must demonstrate in the financial accounting and reporting frameworks used by business entities (public and nonpublic), not-for-profit entities and state and local government entities.
The financial accounting and reporting frameworks that are eligible for assessment within the FAR section of the exam include the standards and regulations issued by the:
• Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
• U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (U.S. SEC)
• American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
• Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB)
• International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
A listing of standards and regulations promulgated by these bodies, and other reference materials that are eligible for exam in the FAR section of the Exam are included under References at the conclusion of this introduction.
Content organization and tasks
The FAR section blueprint is organized by content AREA, content GROUP and content TOPIC. Each group or syllabu includes one or more representative TASKS that a newly licensed CPA may be expected to complete in practice.
Tasks in the FAR section blueprint are representative. The tasks are not intended to be (nor should they be viewed as) an all-inclusive list of tasks that may be tested in the FAR section of the Exam. Additionally, it should be noted that the number of tasks associated with a particular content group or topic is not indicative of the extent such content group, syllabu or related skill level will be assessed on the Exam. For example, the syllabu titled “Notes to financial statements” in Area I includes two tasks that are intended to encompass the required disclosures for any syllabu in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, while the group titled “Leases” in Area III includes eight tasks that are limited to the accounting requirements in the Leases syllabu of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The number of tasks included in the blueprint for this

group and this syllabu is not intended to suggest that “Leases” are more significant to newly licensed CPAs or will be tested more than the “Notes to financial statements.” Similarly, examples provided within the task statements should not be viewed as all-inclusive.
Content allocation
The following table summarizes the content areas and the allocation of content tested in the FAR section of the Exam:
Overview of content areas
Area I of the FAR section blueprint covers FASBs Conceptual Framework, FASBs standard-setting process and several different financial reporting topics. The financial reporting courses include the following:
• General-purpose financial statements applicable to for-profit entities, not-for-profit entities and employee benefit plans under the FASB Accounting Standards Codification
• Disclosures specific to public companies including earnings per share and segment reporting under the FASB Accounting Standards Codification and the interim, annual and periodic filing requirements for U.S. registrants in accordance with the rules of the U.S. SEC
• Financial statements prepared under special purpose frameworks as described in AU-C Section 800 of the Codification of Statements on Auditing Standards Area II of the FAR section blueprint covers the financial accounting and reporting requirements in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification that are applicable to select financial statement accounts.
• To the extent applicable, each group and syllabu in the area is eligible for testing within the context of both for-profit and not-for-profit entities. – If significant accounting or reporting differences exist between for-profit and not-for-profit entities for a given group or topic, such differences are in representative not-for-profit tasks in the blueprint.
Area III of the FAR section blueprint covers the financial accounting and reporting requirements for select transactions that are applicable to entities under the FASB Accounting Standards Codification and the IASB standards. • The testing of content under the IASB standards is limited to a separate group titled, “Differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP.”
• To the extent applicable, the remaining groups in the area are eligible for testing within the context of both for-profit and not-for-profit entities. – If significant accounting or reporting differences exist between for-profit and not-for-profit entities, such differences are in representative not-for-profit tasks in the blueprint.
Area IV of the FAR section blueprint covers GASBs conceptual framework as well as the financial accounting and reporting requirements for state and local governments under the GASB standards and interpretations.
Section assumptions
The FAR section of the exam includes multiple-choice questions, task-based simulations and research prompts. When completing questions in the FAR section of the Exam, candidates should assume that all of the information provided in each question is material. In addition, candidates should assume that each question applies to a for-profit business entity reporting under U.S. GAAP unless otherwise stated in the fact pattern for a question. For example, questions that apply to not-for-profit entities specify the nature of these entities
as “not-for-profit” or “non-governmental, not-for-profit.” Questions that apply to IFRS include phrases such as “under IFRS” or “according to IFRS.” Questions that apply to the state and local governments include phrases such as “local government,” “state,” “municipality” or “city.”
Skill allocation
The exam focuses on testing higher order skills. Based on the nature of the task, each representative task in the FAR section blueprint is assigned a skill level. FAR section considerations related to the skill levels are discussed below.
Skill levels
Evaluation The examination or exam of problems, and use of judgment to draw conclusions.
Analysis
The examination and study of the interrelationships of separate areas in order to identify causes and find evidence to support inferences.
Application The use or demonstration of knowledge, concepts or techniques.
Remembering and Understanding The perception and comprehension of the significance of an area utilizing knowledge gained Remembering and Understanding tasks are in all four areas of the FAR blueprint. These tasks, such as identifying transactions and financial reporting requirements, frequently require newly licensed CPAs to demonstrate their comprehension of accounting concepts and standards. Area IV has the highest concentration of remembering and understanding tasks.
• Application tasks are in all four areas of the FAR blueprint. These tasks, such as preparing journal entries and financial statements, frequently require newly licensed CPAs to use accounting concepts and standards to measure and recognize financial statement amounts.
• Analysis tasks are in Area I, Area II and Area III of the FAR blueprint. These tasks, such as reconciling account balances, interpreting agreements and detecting financial reporting discrepancies, frequently require newly licensed CPAs to demonstrate a higher level of interpretation. Area I and Area II have the highest concentration of analysis tasks.
The representative tasks combine both the applicable content knowledge and the skills required in the context of the work that a newly licensed CPA would reasonably be expected to perform. The FAR section does not test any content at the Evaluation skill level as newly licensed CPAs are not expected to demonstrate that level of skill in regards to the FAR content.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug