Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ISEB FCBA : BCS Foundation Certificate in Business Analysis ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : FCBA
Exam Name : BCS Foundation Certificate in Business Analysis
Vendor Name : ISEB
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FCBA test Format | FCBA Course Contents | FCBA Course Outline | FCBA test Syllabus | FCBA test Objectives


Exam ID : FCBA

Exam Title : BCS Foundation Certificate in Business(R) Analysis (ISEB)

Questions : 40

Passing Marks : 26 (65%)

Duration : 60 min.

Exam Type : Multiple Choice



The format for the examination is a one hour multiple-choice examination consisting of 40 questions. The examination is closed book (no materials can be taken into the examination room). The pass mark is 26/40 (65%).



Take your first step on your business analysis career path by attaining a certification that employers around the world respect and value

Understand how to identify and evaluate options for improving your business

Develop skills and knowledge to support successful business change programmes within your organisation

Attain one of the four modules you need to gain the International Diploma in Business Analysis



- What is Business Analysis (2.5%)

- The Competencies of a Business Analyst (2.5%)

- Strategy Analysis (7.5%)

- The Business Analysis Process Model (5%)

- Investigation techniques (15%)

- Stakeholder Analysis and Management (10%)

- Modelling Business Processes (10%)

- Defining the solution (5%)

- Making a Business and Financial Case (10%)

- Establishing the Requirements (7.5%)

- Documenting and Managing Requirements (7.5%)

- Modelling Requirements (7.5%)

- Delivering the Requirements (5%)

- Delivering the Business Solution (5%)



Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of business analysis principles and techniques. Key areas are:

 the role and competencies of a business analyst

 strategy analysis

 business system and business process modelling

 stakeholder analysis

 investigation and modelling techniques

 requirements engineering

 business case development

This certification provides a foundation for the range of specialist BCS modular certificates in the areas of Business Analysis, IS Consultancy and Business Change. The certification can also be used as the knowledge-based specialist module for the Diploma in Business Analysis. In addition, the certification provides foundation-level Business Analysis knowledge for certified in other disciplines, particularly Project Managers and System Developers.

The syllabus is based on the BCS publication Business Analysis, 3rd edition, and it is recommended that this text is studied by those preparing to take this examination. The headings listed in the syllabus relate to the relevant chapter headings, section headings and text included in this publication.



Syllabus

1. What is Business Analysis (2.5%)

1.1 The origins of business analysis

1.2 The development of business analysis

 The impact of outsourcing

 Competitive advantage of using IT

 Successful business change

 The importance of the business analyst

 Business analysts as internal consultants

1.3 The scope of business analysis work

 The range of analysis activities

 Strategic analysis and definition

 IT systems analysis

 Business analysis

1.4 Taking a holistic approach

1.5 The role and responsibilities of a business analyst

 Definition of the business analyst role

 Further aspects of the business analyst role 2. The Competencies of a Business Analyst (2.5%)

2.1 Personal qualities

2.2 Business knowledge

2.3 Professional techniques

2.4 The development of competencies

3. Strategy Analysis (7.5%)

3.1 The context for strategy

3.2 The definition of strategy (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington 2008)

3.3 Strategy development

3.4 External environment analysis

 PESTLE analysis

 Porters five forces model

3.5 Internal environment analysis

 MOST analysis

 Resource Audit

 Boston Box

3.6 SWOT analysis

3.7 Executing strategy

 The McKinsey 7-S model

 The Balanced Business Scorecard

 Critical Success Factors and Key Performance Indicators

4. The Business Analysis Process Model (5%)

4.1 An approach to problem-solving

4.2 Stages of the business analysis process model

 Investigate the situation

 Consider the perspectives

 Analyse the needs

 Evaluate the options

 Define the requirements

4.3 Objectives of the process model stages

4.4 Procedure for each process model stage

4.5 Techniques used within each process model stage

5. Investigation techniques (15%)

5.1 Interviews

 Advantages and disadvantages of interviewing

 Preparing for interviewing

 Conducting the interview

 Following up the interview

5.2 Observation

 Advantages and disadvantages of observation

 Formal observation

 Protocol analysis

 Shadowing

 Ethnographic studies

5.3 Workshops

 Advantages and disadvantages of workshops

 Preparing for the workshop

 Facilitating the workshop

 Techniques

 Following the workshop

5.4 Scenarios

 Advantages and disadvantages of scenarios

 Process for developing scenarios

 Documenting scenarios

5.5 Prototyping

 Advantages and disadvantages of prototyping

5.6 Quantitative approaches

 Surveys or Questionnaires

 Special Purpose Records

 Activity Sampling

 Document Analysis

5.7 Documenting the current situation

 Rich Pictures

 Mind Maps

6. Stakeholder Analysis and Management (10%)

6.1 Stakeholder categories and identification

 Customers

 Partners

 Suppliers

 Competitors

 Regulators

 Owners

 Employees

 Managers

6.2 Analysing stakeholders

 The Power/Interest Grid

6.3 Stakeholder management strategies

 No or low interest and no or low power (or influence)

 Some or high interest but no or low power (or influence)

 No or low to high interest but some power (or influence)

 No or low interest but high power (or influence)

 Some interest and high power (or influence)

 High interest and high power (or influence)

6.4 Managing stakeholders

 Stakeholder plan/assessment

6.5 Understanding stakeholder perspectives

 Soft Systems Methodology

 Analysing the perspectives

 CATWOE

6.6 Business activity models

 Creating a business activity model

 Types of activities – Plan, Enable, Do, Monitor, Control

 Developing a consensus model

7. Modelling Business Processes (10%)

7.1 Organisational context

 Functional view of an organisation

7.2 An alternative view of an organisation

7.3 The organisational view of business processes

7.4 Value propositions

7.5 Process models

 Business events

 Developing the business process model

7.6 Analysing the as-is process model

7.7 Improving business processes (to-be business process)

 Business rules

 Simplify the process

 Remove bottlenecks

 Change the sequence of tasks

 Redefine process boundary

 Automate the processing

 Redesign the process

8. Defining the solution (5%)

8.1 Gap analysis

 Identifying areas of concern

 Framework for gap analysis (elements of POPIT model)

 Formulating options

8.2 Introduction to Business Architecture

8.3 Definition of Business Architecture

8.4 Business Architecture techniques

 Definition of a capability model

 Definition of a value stream

9. Making a Business and Financial Case (10%)

9.1 The business case in the project lifecycle

9.2 Identifying options

9.3 Assessing project feasibility

 Business feasibility

 Technical feasibility

 Financial feasibility

9.4 Structure of a business case

 Contents of a business case

 Categories of costs and benefits

 Impact test

 Risk test

9.5 Investment appraisal

 Payback

 Discounted cash flow and Internal rate of return

10. Establishing the Requirements (7.5%)

10.1 A framework for requirements engineering

10.2 Actors in requirements engineering

 The business representatives

 The project team

10.3 Requirements elicitation

 Tacit and explicit knowledge

 Requirements elicitation techniques

10.4 Requirements analysis

 Requirements filters

 SMART requirements

10.5 Requirements validation

11. Documenting and Managing Requirements (7.5%)

11.1 The requirements document

 Structure

 Content of the requirements document

11.2 The requirements catalogue

 Types of requirements; general, technical, functional and non-functional

 Hierarchy of requirements

 Documenting a requirement

11.3 Managing requirements

 Elements of requirements management 12. Modelling Requirements (7.5%)

12.1 Modelling system functions

 Use case diagrams

12.2 Modelling system data

 Entity Relationship Diagrams

o Entities, attributes and relationships

o Types of relationships

 Class Models

o Objects and classes

o Attributes

o Associations

13. Delivering the Requirements (5%)

13.1 Delivering the solution

13.2 Context

13.3 Lifecycles

 The waterfall lifecycle

 The ‘V model lifecycle

 Incremental lifecycle

 Iterative systems development lifecycle

14. Delivering the Business Solution (5%)

14.1 BA role in the business change lifecycle

14.2 Design stage

 Information and Technology

o Design

o Development

o Testing

14.3 Implementation stage

 SARAH model

14.4 Realisation stage

 Contents of the benefits plan



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug