Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Fortinet FCNSP : Fortinet Certified Network Security Professional exam Dumps

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Exam Number : FCNSP
Exam Name : Fortinet Certified Network Security Professional
Vendor Name : Fortinet
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FCNSP exam Format | FCNSP Course Contents | FCNSP Course Outline | FCNSP exam Syllabus | FCNSP exam Objectives

Exam Detail:
The FCNSP (Fortinet Certified Network Security Professional) exam is a certification exam that assesses the knowledge and skills of individuals in advanced network security administration using Fortinet products and solutions. Here is a detailed overview of the exam, including the number of questions and time, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The exact number of questions in the FCNSP exam may vary, but it typically consists of around 40 to 60 questions. The duration of the exam is usually 90 to 120 minutes, depending on the exam format and language.

Course Outline:
The FCNSP certification course covers various advanced Topics related to network security administration using Fortinet products. The course outline may include the following components:

1. Advanced Firewall Configuration:
- Advanced firewall policies and rules
- User authentication and access control
- Advanced NAT (Network Address Translation) and VPN (Virtual Private Network) configurations

2. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS):
- Advanced IPS features and configurations
- Customizing IPS signatures and policies
- IPS event analysis and response

3. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs):
- Site-to-site VPN configurations
- Remote access VPN configurations
- VPN troubleshooting and monitoring

4. Advanced Security Services:
- Web filtering and application control
- Antivirus and antispam protection
- Data leak prevention (DLP) and SSL inspection

5. High Availability and Redundancy:
- Fortinet high availability (HA) features
- Load balancing and link aggregation
- Virtual clustering and virtual domains

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the FCNSP exam are to evaluate the candidate's advanced knowledge and understanding in the following areas:

- Advanced firewall configurations and policies
- Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) features and configurations
- Virtual Private Network (VPN) configurations and troubleshooting
- Advanced security services and features
- High availability and redundancy in Fortinet environments

Exam Syllabus:
The FCNSP exam syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Advanced Firewall Configuration
2. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
3. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
4. Advanced Security Services
5. High Availability and Redundancy

Candidates are expected to have a strong understanding of these Topics and their practical application in advanced network security administration using Fortinet products. The exam assesses their ability to configure and manage complex firewall policies, implement advanced IPS and VPN configurations, utilize advanced security services, and implement high availability and redundancy measures.

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Exam Procedures

Your exam invitation, or Notice to Schedule (NTS), email from Meazure Learning will have links for you to check your computer system. If you take your exam online, it is important to verify that your computer meets the minimum requirements and that you have reliable access to the Internet. An internet connection disruption will suspend the exam session. 

IMPORTANT: If taking the exam online, you must use a computer on which you have full admin access.

  • You must be alone in the room throughout the test
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    Note: Meazure Learning, Scantron, and ProctorU are all one-and-the-same organization.

  • Your valid, government issued photo ID (e.g., driver's license, passport, state-issued ID card) 
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  • Please note that storage space will be limited
  • For all CCST level exams, Units Conversion Tables will be provided to candidates in either paper format (paper/pencil exams) or accessible within the electronic test interface for reference during the exam. Click here to review the Units Conversion Tables.

    It is important to be certain when selecting the method and time you want to take the exam. You may incur fees if you change the time and method of testing. Exams must be scheduled in advance as follows: 

  • Candidates in the United States and Canada: you must submit your scheduling request at least two calendar days prior to your desired exam date
  • Candidates in other countries: you must submit your scheduling request at least five calendar days prior to your desired exam date
  • If you are within your exam window or eligibility period, you may reschedule your exam appointment before the online and Test Center reschedule cut-off times via the online exam scheduling system. If you are outside your exam window and want to request an extension, please contact certifications@isa.org.

    Changing from online exam to another online exam

    There is no rescheduling fee. However, it must be changed no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time.

    Changing from online exam to Test Center exam

    There is no rescheduling fee. However, it must be changed at least 24 hours in advance of the scheduled appointment. Additionally, you must reschedule the new appointment no less than two calendar days in advance of the new appointment at a Meazure Learning test center.

    Changing from Test Center exam to another Test Center exam

    You will incur a rescheduling fee of 50 USD. Rescheduling fees are payable to Meazure Learning via a secure e-commerce site (credit card). The reschedule cut-off time is no later than two calendar days prior to the exam appointment. Additionally, if you are scheduling a new online exam appointment, it must be done no less than 24 hours prior to the new appointment date and time.

    Reschedule Fees: CAP Associate and CST Associate:
  • ISA members: 76 USD
  • Non-members: 95 USD
  • All other Certificate Programs:
  • ISA members: 120 USD
  • Non-members: 150 USD
  • CAP Certification Program:
  • ISA members: 108 USD 
  • Non-members: 135 USD
  • CCST Certificate Programs:
  • ISA members: 116 USD
  • Non-members: 145 USD
  • You can cancel an exam through Meazure Learning's online exam scheduling system.

  • Online exam appointments must be cancelled no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time. There is no cancellation fee
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  • You may retest as many times as needed, if you do not pass or if you miss your scheduled exam, within your exam window or eligibility period. However, there is a fee each time that is payable to ISA. If you need to retest or have missed your exam, you must submit a request to certification@isa.org.

    If a candidate fails their exam, they may retest as many times as needed within their 12-month certification exam window or six-month certificate eligibility period. There is a fee each time retesting is needed. If a candidate does not pass the exam within the program exam deadline, the applicant must reapply for that certification or register again for the certificate course to sit for the exam.

    If you fail to appear for a scheduled exam or arrive more than 15 minutes after the scheduled start time, you will be considered a no-show and forfeit your exam. However, you may retake a missed exam by paying a rescheduling fee to ISA if you are within your exam window or eligibility period. To request a rescheduled exam, email certifications@isa.org with your request. See exam procedures section #4, Rescheduling an Exam, for reschedule fee costs.

    You may qualify for an exception if you meet certain conditions and submit documentation to Meazure Learning no later than five calendar days after the scheduled exam appointment. If the exception is approved, there will be a no-show exemption fee of 50 USD payable via secure e-commerce (credit card) and collected by Meazure Learning. Please contact Meazure Learning by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com for more details. 

    All ISA certification exams are closed-book and have multiple choice questions.  They apply a modified Angoff Method to determine the pass point for each exam (learn more about the modified Angoff Method below). Their certification exams last between 3 and 4 hours and their certificate exams last two hours.

    ISA does not provide a passing score; you are only notified whether you passed or failed. If you fail an exam, you will receive a score report that lists the domains and indicates the percentage of questions answered correctly within each domain. Note that the percentages are not used to calculate a candidate’s passing score.

    You will see your exam results on the screen at the completion of the exam. You will also receive your exam results immediately via email from (candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com). If you do not receive an email containing your results within 24 hours, please contact Meazure Learning by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com for assistance. 

    If you pass your exam, you will receive an email containing a digital badge from isa_badges@isa.org within one business day of completing the exam. To access, manage, and/or share your secure digital badge, use your email address and password to enter your BadgeCert portfolio. If it is the first time accessing your portfolio or if you have forgotten your password, click “Request new password?” on their login page to create your password. More information about using your digital badge can be found here.

    Be advised that they update their databases and systems with the previous month’s exam data in the first part of the following month.  ISA will update your credential status on the “My Credentials” tab from your ISA account and in ISA's Credential Directory within the first ten (10) business days of the following month you took your exam.

    Modified Angoff Method

    The modified Angoff Method uses expert judgements to determine the difficulty level of the exam. The easier the exam, the higher the pass point. Likewise, the more difficult the exam, the lower the pass point. The following is a basic outline of the modified Angoff Method (some details have been omitted):

  • A group of subject matter experts (SMEs) independently rate each exam question within a given form of the exam. The ratings are defined as the probability, or likelihood, that an acceptably (minimally) competent person with the requisite education and experience will answer the question correctly. An acceptably (minimally) competent person is defined as someone who adequately performs all job functions safely and requires no further training to do so.
  • The SMEs review each exam question as a group. A statistical consensus is reached for the difficulty rating of each exam question.
  • After the data is refined, the final step is to calculate the mean, or average, of all the exam question ratings. This becomes the overall pass point estimation.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug